By Tanner And Whitney The CPU of a computer does most of the work. It changes information it takes out of the RAM Uses input and output devices or software. It manages the hardware and the software resources of the system. The CPU is in charge of distributing information. Single user-single task Single user-Multi Tasks. The first computers were considered calculating engines. They did not run on Operating systems. They ran slowly at took up entire rooms. They needed a team to operate. The calculating engines used vacuum tubes; that were easy to burning out or break. Plug boards were programs inserted in the computer. This took place most of the 1940’s-50’s Transistors were made in the mid 50’s. Punched cards were used as programs now. They were inserted into the computer; but There were two parts, an input, and an output. Two separate computers Mostly used for scientific calculations and physics. Introduced the batch system. The creation of the system/360. An operating system was able to run both numerical and commercial computing. However, this operating system had to be useful on all models of computers Integrated circuits made it possible to run faster and reliably. The system/360 took thousands of programmers and had many bugs that constantly needed fixing. Even if it introduced new bugs in the system. The system/360 was equipped with the power to run the CPU almost 100% of the time when previous machines spent 8090% of their CPU idle. It was capable of multi-programming There were so many glitches. And every new version came with different bugs. CP/M stood for Control Program for Micro Computers. designed as a file manager. 8 Bit TRS – DOS was made by Radio Shack in 1978. Version one was a for testing purposes only. Version 2 of TRS DOS was released to the public. Had terrible bugs. The worst bug was when it was written to a full disk, it destroyed the disk in the process. The Apple dos was a Disk operating system. Wozniak Created the Brilliant Floppy Disk The Pascal Operating System was used in the apple 2. The Apple CP/M operating system was possible because Microsoft Z-80 When apple 3 was introduced in the 1980’s, the Apple SOS operating system was released. It stored the operating system in the memory as well. It used SOS interpreter and SOS drivers. Released in 1983 Had a sophisticated hierarchy file system. Had support for 20 different file types. Could have up to 8 files up at a time. Multiple logical volumes on one physical volume The volume directory was limited to 51 files. Microcomputers were born. Windows 1.0 released in November of 1985. It had a user interface that ran on MS-DOS. Capable of running the first version of paint, notepad and a calculator. More memory helped the windows 2.1 system in 1988. Capable of a multitasking interface. MS-DOS helped connect software and Hardware. DOS was released 1981. Windows 1.0 was capable of using a mouse. On May 22 1990, windows 3.0 came out. With 3.1 released in 1992 Together they sold 10 million copies in their first two years. It came with advanced graphics with 16 colors. Games like solitaire, minesweeper and hearts become standard with windows 3. In 1993, windows NT was released after its 12 years of development. It had a 32 bit processor capable of helping business and scientific needs. With the release of windows 95, it sold 7 million in the first 5 weeks. Also around that time about 80% of the worlds computers run on windows operating systems or DOS. In the summer of 1995, Internet Explorer is released. On June 25, 1998, a new consumer specific operating system is released. It supported reading DVD discs and USB connections. It was the Windows OP to be based off of MS -DOS Windows 2000 was created First High programming language in 1960’s Useful in multiple programming languages. Was not successful at first. To expensive and rushed. In 1968-69, Kenneth Thompson, Dennis Ritchie/AT&T Bell Labs made an alternative form of MULTICS called UNIX. Written in C, (which was uncommon) Berkeley developed a different version of it. BSD. Used for single purpose-servers, research and hardware. In 1984, Richmond Stallman founded the Fee Software Foundation. He created his own version of UNIX that could be freely distributed, and modified. Finland named Linus Torvalds created Linux Combination of UNIX operating systems. Released, August 25, 1991 23 years Linux has come a long way.