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Crises of the
th
14
Century
Moving pieces, shifting
powers
Europe, early 14th century
Setting the Stage
• Feudal society
• Little Ice Age: 13001450
• Social and
economic effects
• Physical effects
Quotes on the Black Death
• Boccacio: The victims “ate lunch with their friend
and dinner with their ancestors in paradise”
• Samuel Pepys: “Realizing what a deadly disaster
had come to them the people quickly drove the
Italians from their city… Fathers abandoned their
sick sons. Lawyers refused to come and make
out wills for the dying. Friars and nuns were left
to care for the sick…Bodies were left in empty
houses, and there was no one to give them a
Christian burial.”
The Bubonic
Plague
A plague victim reveals
the telltale buboe (a boil)
On his leg. From a 14th
Century illumination.
The Black Death
• Epidemic Disease
Illustration
From the
Toggenburg
Bible, 1411
The Path of the Plague
Consequences for Population
•
•
•
•
Urban areas
Rural regions
monasteries
Overall population loss: 1/3 of Europe’s
population in the first wave
Economic Consequences
• The great
equalizer
• Lack of
sufficient law
enforcement
personnel
• Promoted
lawlessness
• People tried
their luck
Economic Consequences
•
•
•
•
•
•
Peasants and artisans
Artisan skills
Price drop
Standard of living
Landlords and serfs
Response of the oppressed poor
Music and Art
• Danse Macabre = the
dance of death: skeletons
mingling with the living
(here: Hans Holbein the
Younger)
• Shocking juxtapositions
• Written language almost
lost
• Coffins had pictures of
corpses on the lid
• New creativity in motives
The Flagellants
• Christians - and
an angry Deity.
• Bands
wandering
through towns
and countryside
• Public penance.
Inflicted all kinds
of punishment
upon themselves
• Sacrifice for the
sins of the world
– like Jesus
Religious Consequences
• Church loses prestige: why>?
• Revolt against the church
• Severe shortage of clergy – functioned as nurses and
consequently died.
• Pogroms: The church targeted the Jews for persecution
– had killed Jesus and brought sin to the world
A FAMILY SQUABBLE that led
to a 100 year war?
Philip IV = elder brother of Charles of Valois
Charles IV=sister of Isabella
Isabella=married to King Edward II
If only males can rule (salic law (agnatic succession),
then who gets the crown after Charles IV dies?
116 years, 68 years relative peace, 44 fighting
5 English monarchs, 5 French monarchs
. A Struggle for National Identity
• France was
NOT a
united
country
before the
war began.
• The French
king only
controlled
about half of
the country.
Belligerents
• House of Valois
• France
Scotland
Wales
Castile
Genoa
Majorca
Bohemia
Crown of Aragon
• House of
Plantagenet
• England
Burgundy
Aquitaine
Brittany
Portugal
Navarre
Flanders
Hainaut
Luxembourg
Holy Roman Empire
Why do you think some
areas in, close to, and
around France
supported England?
Height of English
Dominance
The French “Reconquest”
– Even though in 1428 the
military and political power
seemed firmly in British hands,
the French reversed the
situation.
•
In 1429, with the aid of the mysterious
Joan of Arc, the French king,
Charles VII, was able to raise the
English siege of Orleans.
– This began the reconquest of
the north of France.
Joan of Arc (1412-1432)
•
•
•
She brought inspiration and a sense of national
identity and self-confidence.
With her aid, the king was crowned at Reims
[ending the “disinheritance”].
She was captured during an attack on Paris and
fell into English hands.
–
Because of her “unnatural dress” and claim to
divine guidance, she was condemned and burned
as a heretic in 1432.
–
She instantly became a symbol of French
resistance.
EFFECTS OF THE WAR
• GROWTH OF NATIONALISM: PEOPLESTARTED
SEEING THEMSELVES AS ENGLISHMEN OR
FRENCHMEN
• THE GOVERNMENTS TOOK ADVANTAGE AND
RAISED TAXES…ENCOURAGES CENTRALIZED
STATES—EASIER FOR ENGLAND THAN
FRANCE
• REPRESENTATIVE CONSENT-ENGLAND
PARLIAMENT VS. FRANCE (MULIPLE
ASSEMBLIES) (England’s nobles become
somewhat of an exception)
• NOBILITY INFLUENCE DECLINES
The Great Schism, 1378–1417
New Criticism of the Papacy
The Great Schism
The Conciliar Movement
Unam Sanctum
•
Boniface VIII issued a new bull: Unam Sanctum (1302)
– Two powers on earth: temporal (earthly) &
spiritual (heavenly)
– Spiritual Power is ALWAYS higher than
temporal
– The Pope is ALWAYS higher than kings
•
•
Phillip proved this was not true, by kidnapping the pope and applying a
medieval beat down
Boniface VIII died less than a year later from the stress
ROME OR AVIGNON?
• Pope Boniface VIII
– Issued a papal bull (official statement) saying kings may
not tax church property (1296 CE)
– French King, Philip IV, had been taxing the church to
pay for war with England (back to the war, again!) Philip
ignored the papal bull
Papacy is pressured to move to Avignon by Phillip (13091376—Babylonian Capitivity
1377 Pope Gregory XI dies: Urban VI or Clement VII?
A Group of 13 French Cardinals sneak away to select a
new Pope: Clement VII (Robert of Geneva
TA DA!!: 2 Popes! Countries line up behind their pope
A great schism indeed: 1378-1417
Pisa, 1409—fed up religious leaders elect a 3rd pope!
Great Schism (1378 – 1417
CE)
• Each pope @ ½ power—religious leaders are angry
• Conciliar Movement:
Popes must bow to councils of clergy leaders
Checking the power of the Pope
Declining prestige of papacy and authority
William of Occam—all governments should be accountable to
the governed + church and state should be separate
Marsiglio of Padua: the church is
now subordinate to the state
Schism: social protest
New Heresies: The Lollards and the Hussites
John Wycliffe
Frustrated Catholics come up with new
ideas:
Jan Hus-Bohemia
“Christ was meek, but the pope sits on his
throne and makes lords to kiss his feet” –
John Wycliffe
Dangerous ideas
Christ is head of the church, not a pope
Clergy should live as Christ, in poverty
Bible is final arbiter of how to live as a
Christian
Christianity should be taught in the
vernacular
Hus: agreed with Wycliffe + congregations
should receive wine
Council of Constance (1417 CE):
Reduces 3 popes down to one (Martin V)
Hus, tricked, then burned.
Effects of the Great Schism:
Temporal
Spiritual
• Kings showed they
had more practical
power
• Catholics grow
frustrated with unclear
message
• New ideas emerge
• Popes lose power over
kings:
excommunication not
effective
• Popes lose spiritual
authority
• Local clergy left without
authority
• Lords and bishops lose
power
– Christianity moving into
the hands of ordinary
Christians
Criticism and Confusion over
Church power will lead to:
THE REFORMATION