Download Silk Road

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Buddhism and Hinduism wikipedia, lookup

Women in Buddhism wikipedia, lookup

Buddhism and sexual orientation wikipedia, lookup

Vajrayana wikipedia, lookup

Pre-sectarian Buddhism wikipedia, lookup

Silk Road transmission of Buddhism wikipedia, lookup

Decline of Buddhism in the Indian subcontinent wikipedia, lookup

Buddhist ethics wikipedia, lookup

Buddhist texts wikipedia, lookup

Enlightenment in Buddhism wikipedia, lookup

Sanghyang Adi Buddha wikipedia, lookup

History of Buddhism wikipedia, lookup

Buddhist philosophy wikipedia, lookup

Gautama Buddha wikipedia, lookup

Buddhism and Western philosophy wikipedia, lookup

Buddha-nature wikipedia, lookup

Greco-Buddhism wikipedia, lookup

Wat Phra Kaew wikipedia, lookup

Buddhist art wikipedia, lookup

Buddhism in Myanmar wikipedia, lookup

Chinese Buddhism wikipedia, lookup

Longmen Grottoes wikipedia, lookup

Mogao Caves wikipedia, lookup

Badami cave temples wikipedia, lookup

Ajanta Caves wikipedia, lookup

Ellora Caves wikipedia, lookup

The Silk Route
Buddhist Caves
Mural Painting
Northern Wei and Tang Dynasties
• Northern Wei (Toba): 386-535
• Sui: 581-618
• Tang: 618-907
Mahayana Buddhism: Western Paradise (Pure Land
paradise) spread from India around the 5th century,
Esoteric Buddhism (Tang-7th) and Ch’an Buddhism
Important images are Amida Buddha (Amitabha) who
resides in the Western paradise, Maitreya Buddha (Future
Buddha) and Gyanyin (bodhisattva of Compassion)
Gyanyin (became more feminine from 1279)
Maitreya: laughing pot-bellied Buddha in China
4.12 Colossal Buddha, Cave 20, Yungang Cave, late 5th C.
(13.7 m)
Yangang Caves
• 50 caves at Yangang began around 460-490
(Capital moved to Luoyang) (contemporary
with Ajanta caves in India); located in
• Cave 20 was is one of the oldest caves,
dedicated by the Toba Wei rulers.
• The Buddha seated in mediation (fifteen
Yungang Cave, late 5th C.
Sakyamuni, Yungang Cave
Dun Huang caves
• Buddhist caves situated on the Silk Route; it is an
important stopping between the N and S tracks of
the Tarim Basin.
• They were carved out of natural soft gravel cliffs;
approximately a thousand caves but only half of
them survived.
• Many were decorated with wall paintings; the
themes mainly focus in the Western Paradise of
Amitabha Buddha.
• Avalokitesvara (Chinese: Gyanyin) became highly
4.17 Western paradise, Dunhuang, Tang Dynasty, late 8th c
Avalokistesvara and Gyanyin
• Bodhisattva of Compassion
• He was regarded as the guide of souls and one who bring
the blessing of many children
• Reside in the Western paradise of Amithaba
• In Chinese art, he is depicted as a male bodhisattva, like
those of India, until around the end of the 12th C (early
part of Song Dynasty)
• He gradually transform into a male figure with some
female qualities such as the body, the face, and the hands
• By the 17th century (Ming period), the male form was
replaced with more feminine form
4.18 Gyanyin as the Guide of Souls, Dunhunag, 10th c.
Lotus sutra
• Gyunyin images became feminized; represented as a
middle-aged fair lady in a white robe.
• The transformation marked the Sinification of
Avalokistesvara by the Chinese who believed in the Lotus
Sutra, which gives Ava the ability to assume innumerable
• She is depicted as a lady in white robe or a bodhisattva
with a thousand hands
Gyanyin, 12-13th C.
• Watchtower-like structure (from clay models made
for the dead to use afterlife)
• Represents the center of the earth, axis mundi
• Han period, exterior decorated with paint and
• Motifs evoke the World outdoors (trees and birds)
Great Wild Goose Pagoda
Brick Pagoda of Songyuesi, Mt. Song, 520 CE
4.16 Isometric view of the timber-framing, main hall, Foguangsi temple,
Shanxi, c. 857
Three-color wares
• They were tomb deposited; earthenware with
• They vary in size from animals and tpys a few
inches high to gigantic horses, Bactrian camels,
armed men, dancers, musicians; women figurines
were predominate
• Human figurines were made in molds, with front
and back cast separately; animals were made in
several pieces
• They declined after the mid 8th century
4.19 Yen Lipen (attributed), Emperor Wu Di, the Scroll of the Emperors, Tang Dynasty,
7th c. (11th century copy)
Tang period (618-907 CE)
• It is the golden age of Chinese civilization;
expanding their territories to Korea, Vietnam, and
Central Asia
• Emperors supported trading on the Silk Road
• Emperor Wu Di
• Capitals at Luoyang and Chang’an (modern
Xi’an); population of one or two millions; it was
the most cultivated metropolitan center in the
• Art and literature flourished; Buddhism was
supported by the Kings
Court lady figurines, Tang period, 7th century
Camel with musicians, Tang period (618-907 CE)
Foreign attendants, Tang Dynasty (618-907), earthernware
Girl resting on a camel, Tang period,(618-907), earthenware with pigments
Horse and groom, pottery with polychrome glaze, Tang Dynasty