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Transcript
DC-DC Fundamentals
1.3 Switching Regulator
What is a Switching Regulator?
• The switching regulator is a DC-DC converter that
delivers power by using switcher components.
• It offers high power conversion efficiency and
design flexibility
+
Vin
C
Vout
L
-
L-C Components
Switchers
2
Pros and Cons
Advantages
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
High efficiency
Good thermal performance
High power density
Allow wide input voltage range
Vout can be smaller or larger than Vin
Isolation possible with transformer
Multiple outputs possible with
transformer
Disadvantages
• Switching produces higher output
ripple & noise
• Slow transient response
• High complexity as more external
components and design variables
3
How Does a Switching Regulator Work?
• The inductor stored and released energy to output load get energy from
the input source which is controlled by the switches.
• An example of Buck converter:
– When switched to position 1, the inductor is storing energy; when switched
to position 2, the inductor is releasing energy
– The average voltage over the inductor is zero: D(Vin-Vo)-D’Vo=0 => Vout =
D*Vin
D = Duty Cycle (% of time switch
in the position for charging L)
D’ = 1-D
4
Basic Topologies
• Three basic types of switching converter topologies:
Buck, Boost and Buck-boost
Boost
Buck
VOUT
VIN
VOUT
VIN
Vout = Vin/(1-D)
Vout = D*Vin
Buck-boost
VIN
VOUT
Vout = -DVin/(1-D)
5
Synchronous vs. Non-Synchronous
Non-Synchronous Buck
Non-synchronous
L
Q1
D1
C0
1. Diode voltage drop is fairly
constant with output current
2. Less efficient
3. Less expensive
4. Used with higher output voltages
Synchronous Buck
L
Q1
Q2
Synchronous
C0
1.
2.
3.
4.
MOSFET has lower voltage drop
More efficient
Requires additional control circuitry
Costs more
6
Isolated vs. Non-isolated
• Isolated has no DC current flow between input and output.
• Transformer couples energy from primary to secondary through
magnetic fields
• Isolated typically used in medical and offline applications requiring
primary to secondary isolation
• Not typical for standard point of load solutions
Transformer coupling
AC input
Feedback across isolation boundary
Typically an optocoupler
Primary Side Switched Mode Power Supply
with Power Factor Correction (PFC)
7
Controller vs. Regulator
• Controller
–
–
–
–
Discrete MOSFETs
Provides the “brains” to control the power stage
More complicated to design
Full control over FET selection, switching frequency, overcurrent, compensation,
softstart
– Can tailor the power supply to meet your specific needs
• Fully integrated regulator
–
–
–
–
Integrated switches
“plug and play” design
Limited range of output filter components
Limited control over functionality
• Partially integrated regulator
–
–
–
–
May offer full or partial feature set , internal or external compensation
Internal Power FET, external sync-FET or catch diode
Limited control over frequency, overcurrent, softstart, etc.
Allows wider range of output filter components
8
Summary
• Introduction to switching regulator
• The operation of switching regulator
• Types of switching regulator
– Basic topologies
– Synchronous vs. Non-synchronous
– Isolated vs. Non-isolated
9
Thank you!
10