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Hot Springs
Hot Springs
• Natural flow of underground water to the surface
of the Earth
• Water percolates underground through rock,
soil, and sediment
• Some water may have traveled great distances
underground before resurfacing as a spring
• Underground water is heated geothermally by
the mantle (30 – 100°C )
• Can occur at volcanic and non-volcanic areas
Types of Eruptions
• Water heats up as it comes into contact with
• If the water becomes so hot that it builds steam
pressure and erupts in a jet above the surface of
the Earth, it is called a geyser
• If the water only reaches the surface in the form
of steam, it is called a fumarole
• If the water is mixed with mud and clay, it is
called a mud pot
Therapeutic Uses
• Hot springs often have high mineral content in
the water, such as calcium, lithium, and sulfur
• This is because the water absorbs minerals as it
percolates through the ground
• Also, heated water can hold more dissolved
• The water is thought to have therapeutic and
medicinal value
• Thus, many hot springs are visited by tourists
from around the world
Life Around Springs
• Organisms that can survive near hot
springs are called thermophiles
• These include various bacteria, algae, and
some reptiles
Famous Hot Springs
• Yellowstone, Wyoming
• Blue Lagoon, Iceland
• Dallol, Ethiopia