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ABS Workshop on “certificate
of origin/source/legal
provenance”, Addis Ababa
March 28th-30th 2007
Commercialisation of
alkaliphilic bacteria
originating from Kenya
Peter Munyi
International Centre of Insect Physiology and
Ecology (ICIPE)
[email protected]
Name and type of genetic resource
Alkaliphilic Bacterium (Extremophiles)
-micro organisms that thrive under extreme
conditions including high Ph and salt
concentration and which live in the highly
caustic lakes of Kenya’s Rift Valley so
called ‘soda’ lakes.
Actors involved
The Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS) (Kenya)
University of Leicester (UK)
Genencor International (USA)
Gist Brocades (the Netherlands)
How the genetic resource is used
To manufacture a product, Indiage, that
softens the fabric denim giving them the
faded look.
 To manufacture a product, Puradax, an
ingredient in washing powders.
Both products are believed to be enzymes
maintained and multiplied through
cloning. There is no known tk related to
these products
Genencor’s 2002 Annual
Type/kind of ABS Agreement
Agreed benefits in the agreement
None as no agreement exists
However, the understanding is that ex post
facto arrangements are under negotiation.
Benefits realised to date
• None, as no agreement exists.
• However, the understanding is that these
are under negotiations.
Lack of clarity in Kenya’s legal framework has
been cited as the cause of this case.
Lack of capacity and resources to address the
issue in key Kenyan institutions.
Problems in regulating research in the academic
Enforcement questions.
Issues arising due to pre and post CBD
Questions and/or comments??
Thank you!!