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Fusion of Art & Science
Hunter Cole
Artist & Scientist
Loyola University Chicago
www.HunterCole.org
Blue
Self-Portrait
2001
Media:
digital print, neon and
plexiglass
The background in "Blue" is the
microscopic image of a developing wing
of a butterfly provided by Biotechniques,
Eaton Publishing and Dr. Paddock.
Contagious
Beauty
2001
The Creation of Organs: Stem Cell Research, 2001
Madonna con Clon, 2001
Mother Tiktaalik
2009
From Ape to Woman
2010
From Ape to Woman
2010
Exploring Molecular Worlds, 1999
(mixed media: paint on plexiglass and
x-ray films detecting DNA, RNA and protein)
Exploring Molecular Worlds, 1999, detail
The Discovery of DNA
James Watson
and
Francis Crick
Rosalind Franklin Maurice Wilkins
copyright ©2000 The Chemical Heritage Foundation
Rosalind Franklin
copyright ©2000
The Chemical Heritage Foundation
The first X-ray photograph of crystalline DNA in 1952.
Source: http://www.genomicart.org/offerings.htm
Rosalind Franklin
and the Discovery of
DNA Structure
2002
(digital)
Randolfe Wicker
The first human cloning activist
Let My Family Live!
Portrait of Randolfe Wicker, the First Human Cloning
Activist, 2001 (Digital)
Anthrax Clock, 2002
A Few Cells Create a Kidney and a New Life:
Portrait of Shauna Anderson, 2002
Human Dog Spine
2001
Media:
dog spine, neon
and plexiglass
Hunter Cole and
Electric Eye Neon
The Art of Death: Viruses Are Beautiful!, 2001
Hunter Cole and Electric Eye Neon
Hunter Cole and Electric Eye Neon
The System Forgets Scientists Are Only Human:
Laboratory Installation, 2001-2002
ART = Aerosol Resistant Tips
Hunter Cole and Electric Eye Neon
DNA visualized in an
Ethidium Bromide
stained gel
using a
UV transilluminator
Fralin Biotechnology Center at Virginia Tech
Hunter Cole and Electric Eye Neon
The System Forgets Scientists Are Only Human:
Laboratory Installation, 2001-2002
DNA running through an agarose gel
DNA visualized with UV light.
www.RadioactiveBiohazard.com
Hunter Cole
Discussion with
Peter McLeish
on Art and Science
July 18, 2003
Dialogue between
Science and Art Workshop
in Hluboka, Czech Republic
Hunter Cole
Workshop title: “Does
genetic engineering act as
an accelerator of evolution?
United principles of life and
artistic perception”
July 2003
Dialogue between Science
and Art Workshop in
Hluboka, Czech Republic
Lecturer: Ondrej Scheinhost
Hunter Cole
Colloquium title:
“Amphioxus, evolution,
and development, or why
the chick, fish, fly, frog,
mouse, and nematode
aren't enough”
October 20, 2003
UW-Milwaukee
Lecturer: Linda Holland, Scripps
Institution of Oceanography
chemiluminescence light produced by a chemical reaction without
the involvement of heat or flame, “cool light”
bioluminescence the emission of visible light caused by
catalytic chemical reactions in certain
organisms, such as glowworms, fireflies,
jellyfish, and some fungi; chemiluminescent
reactions that occur in living organisms are
called bioluminescent reactions
Sources: http://www.academicpress.com/inscight/03111999/biolumi1.htm
http://scifun.chem.wisc.edu/HOMEEXPTS/Chemilum.html
Bioluminescence is not “fluorescence”
or “phosphorescence,” although these
terms are often mistakenly used to
describe it.
Fluorescence and phosphorescence
both involve absorbance of light
energy followed by re-emission of
light energy at a longer wavelength.
What all bioluminescence has in common:
Luciferin: The light-emitting molecule
Luciferase: The enzyme that catalyzes
the energy transfer
Oxygen: participates in the reaction
What types of organisms
are bioluminescent?
Bacteria
Dinoflagellates
Radiolarians
Fungi
Animals
Bacteria
Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryotic
microorganisms.Typically a few micrometres in
length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging
from spheres to rods and spirals.
Dinoflagellates
The dinoflagellates are a large group of
flagellate protists that constitute the phylum
Dinoflagellata. Most are marine, but they are
common in fresh water habitats as well.
Bioluminescent Bay in
Vieques Island, Puerto Rico
This unique bay contains up to 720,000 non-toxic
dinoflagellates per gallon of bay water. Each flash a
strobe of bluish light when agitated at night and can
create enought light to read a book from.
www.biobay.com
Bioluminescent Bay in
Vieques Island, Puerto Rico
www.biobay.com
Radiolarians
The Radiolaria are protozoa of that produce intricate
mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule
dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions.
Fungi
A fungus is any member of a large group of
eukaryotic organisms that includes
microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as
well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Animals
Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the
kingdom Animalia. Their body plan eventually
becomes fixed as they develop, although some
undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their
lives.
Bioluminescence is found in at least
ten phyla of animals:
-Cnidaria (jellyfish, etc.)
-Ctenophora (comb jellies)
-Nemertea (ribbon worms)
-Nematoda (roundworms)
-Annelida (segmented worms)
-Chaetognaths (arrow worms)
-Arthropoda (shrimp, copepods, etc.)
-Molluska (snails, slugs, squid, etc.)
-Echinodermata (sea cucumbers,
brittle stars, etc.)
-Chordata (many fish, and at least
three tunicates)
Angler fish
Linophryne
coronata
From Widder, 2010
Octopus
Stauoteuthis
sytensis
From Widder, 2010
Tunicate
Pyrosoma
atlanticum
From Widder, 2010
Light organs range in complexity from
simple single cells to elaborate
multicellular structures that modulate
intensity, color, and directionality of light.
What is bioluminescence
used for?
Defense (predator evasion):
-startle predator
-decoy
-illuminate predator (“burglar
alarm”)
-camouflage (counterillumination)
Offense:
-Lure prey (example: deep sea
angler fish)
-Illuminate prey (examples:
flashlight fish, pinecone
fish, possibly dragonfish)
Communication:
-Mating (examples: ostracods,
syllid polychaete worms)
-Territoriality (example: flashlight
fish)
Where is marine bioluminescence found?
Coastal and surface waters:
-about 10% of organisms
Midwater (~200-1200 meters):
-about 90% of organisms
Deep water (>1200 meters):
-about 10% of organisms
Most marine bioluminescence is not
found in the deepest, darkest regions
of the ocean, but rather in the dimly
lit midwater regions.
This gives us a clue as to its most
prevalent use.
The position of most light organs
gives us another clue.
Most midwater organisms have
ventral light organs, thus illuminating
their undersides.
Of all the uses of marine bioluminescence,
camouflage by counterillumination is
thought to be the most prevalent.
It has been shown experimentally that
counterilluminating marine organisms
can adjust the intensity of their
bioluminescence to match the intensity
of the downwelling light.
Most marine bioluminescence is blue.
Why?
Because in order for bioluminescence
to be advantageous, it must be seen.
Water absorbs light
Surface light
Light at 400 meters
Most midwater fish see only blue light
What we see
What most midwater
fish see
Some marine bioluminescence is not blue.
Examples:
-The jellyfish Aequorea emits
green light.
- At least one type of bacterium
emits yellow light.
- A type of dragonfish emits both
blue and red light.
The red-emitting dragonfish is an
interesting exception to the “rule”
of blue visual sensitivity in midwater
fish.
The dragon fish can see both blue
and red.
What we see
What most midwater
fish see
What dragonfish see
This gives the dragonfish a “private
wavelength” that other fish can’t see.
Possible uses:
-Predation. Illumination of prey without
alerting them.
-Communication with other dragonfish.
Living Drawings
Drawings Created
with
Bioluminescent Bacteria
Viewing DNA Under the Moonlight
bioluminescent bacteria, agar and Petri dishes, 2003
Rabbit, 2005
Mother, 2005
Her Own DNA, 2005
Her Own DNA, 2005
Her Own DNA, 2005
LIVING DRAWINGS
CREATED WITH BIOLUMINESCENT BACTERIA
MOVIE
Bioluminescence mp3
Duration: 9 min. 42 sec.
soundLAB VII: soundCELEBRATION
10th anniversary of
[NewMediaArtProjectNetwork]:||cologne
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Biology through Art Course
Student Bioluminescent Bacterial Drawing
Living Light
Photography by the
Light of Bioluminescent Bacteria
The Cave, 2010
The Cave, 2010
Body, 2010
The Entomologist, 2010
Vesna Jovanovic
Dan Wallace
Peter Gray
Peter N. Gray
Artist & Scientist
Metal-i-Genics Studio
“Point Mutation”
steel and African Red Granite
2007
Size: 9'H x 48"W x 36"D
Location: MYMA Sculpture Center
Missouri Valley, Iowa
http://www.metal-i-genics.com/
Peter Gray
Stephanie Burke
MK Meador
Hands, 2010
Bioluminescent Weddings
Photography by the
Light of Bioluminescent Bacteria
Angel Bride, 2014
Bed of Roses: Two Women Getting Married, 2014
Wedding Circle : Two Women Getting Married, 2014
Two Beams of Light : Two Women Getting Married, 2014
Experiments
in Bioluminescent Bacteria Art
Outdoor Bioluminescent Bacteria
Installation
Making a Bioluminescent Leaf
www.HunterCole.org