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Happy New Year
Bonne Année
Merry Christmas
Joyeux Noël
Quiz 2 - Translation
海洋山脊形成的新机制(Ocean ridges: then there were three)
最近對海床中最遙遠、相對來說也是最難以到達的一些地方所做的觀測,有可能改
變當前關于海床擴展机制的觀點。在對擴展速度非常慢的西南印度洋和北冰洋山脊
體系進行考察期間,科學家發現了一個以前不知道的海洋山脊類型。超慢擴展山脊
在机械上与兩种已知類型(快速和慢速)截然不同,它們是在地幔上涌的有效擴展
速度降到大約每年12毫米以下時形成的。這些超慢擴展山脊包括共存的岩漿增長和
非岩漿增長部分,后者是以前人們不知道的一种增長邊界結构。
(Articles, p. 405; News and Views)
机制 mechanism
海床擴展 sea-floor spreading 擴展速度 spreading rate
北冰洋山脊 Arctic Ridge
超慢擴展山脊 ultraslow spreading ridge
地幔上涌 mantle upwelling
共存的 co-existing 岩漿增長 magmatic accretion or addition
增長邊界 accretionary boundary
海洋山脊形成的新机制
New mechanism for the formation of ocean ridges
最近對海床中最遙遠、相對來說也是最難以到達的一些地方
所做的觀測,有可能改變當前關于海床擴展机制的觀點。
Recent observations (or A recent observation) in the most
remote and least accessible ocean floor may have
(significantly) changed the current viewpoint (or
hypothesis) on (about) the mechanism of sea-floor
spreading.
在對擴展速度非常慢的西南印度洋和北冰洋山脊
體系進行考察期間,科學家發現了一個以前不知道的海
洋山脊類型。
During the investigation (or excursion) in the
Southwest Indian Ocean and Arctic Ridges, (both of)
which are known for their very slow spreading, (the)
scientists have discovered another type of ocean ridge
which is not known heretofore (before).
超慢擴展山脊在机械上与兩种已知類型(快速和慢速)
截然不同,它們是在地幔上涌的有效擴展速度降到大約
每年12毫米以下時形成的。
With respect to the mechanism, the formation of
ultraslow spreading ridges is completely different from
that of the other two (well-)known types - fast and slow
spreading ridges. The ultraslow spreading ridges were
produced (or formed) when the effective spreading
induced by the mantle upwelling was slowed down to
(a rate of) 12 mm/yr.
這些超慢擴展山脊包括共存的岩漿增長和非岩漿增長部
分,后者是以前人們不知道的一种增長邊界結构。
These ultraslow spreading ridges comprise (or contain,
consist of, include) the two co-existing components (or
parts) of magmatic and non-magmatic accretion. The
latter is an accretionary boundary structure (or
complex) which is unrecognized until the present.
Complete translation
New mechanism for the formation of ocean ridges
Recent observations in the most remote and least accessible
ocean floor may have significantly changed the current viewpoint
on the mechanism of sea-floor spreading. During the investigation
in the Southwest Indian Ocean and Arctic Ridges, both of which
are known for their very slow spreading, scientists have
discovered another type of ocean ridge which is not known in the
past. With respect to the mechanism, the formation of ultraslow
spreading ridges is completely different from that of the other two
known types - fast and slow spreading ridges. The ultraslow
spreading ridges were formed when the effective spreading
induced by the mantle upwelling was slowed down to 12 mm/yr.
These ultraslow spreading ridges comprise the two co-existing
components of magmatic and non-magmatic accretion. The latter
is an accretionary boundary structure which is unrecognized until
the present.
OnLine English
The examples below are excerpts from texts in
which OnLine English made many changes. OnLine
English thanks clients for their generosity in granting
permission for the use of these texts.
The following excerpts show examples of ‘Before’ (in
blue) and ‘After’ (in red); (the text as originally sent by
the author and the text as returned to the author).
Please note that, with the return of all documents,
authors have ample opportunity to discuss changes to
their documents so that further modifications can be
made. This process ensures that the paper or document
conveys an author’s precise and intended meaning and
results in a final version that is the best possible. In this
process, authors often acknowledge an increase in their
understanding of English usage.
Company documents
Before (original document)
First of all, personal computer supply to the public has increased up to 5
million sets such that about one out of two families in xxxxx has a
personal computer. About 20 % of those personal computers are
interconnected to the public telecommunication system so as to utilize
PC on-line service. Moreover, domestic subscription of the Internet, the
worldwide computer communication network, is continuously increasing.
As a result, the PC communication is becoming a necessary tool
providing the new realm of life.
First of all, personal computer supply to the public has increased up to 5
million sets such that about one out of two families in xxxxx has a
personal computer. About 20 % of those personal computers are
interconnected to the public telecommunication system so as to utilize
PC on-line service. Moreover, domestic subscription of the Internet, the
worldwide computer communication network, is continuously increasing.
As a result, the PC communication is becoming a necessary tool
providing the new realm of life.
After
First of all, the number of personal computers (PCs) supplied to the
public has increased to five million sets, so that about one in every two
families in xxxxx has a personal computer. About 20 per cent of these are
interconnected via the public telecommunication system so as to utilize
PC on-line services. Moreover, domestic subscriptions to the Internet, the
worldwide computer communication network, are constantly increasing.
As a result, PC-based communication is becoming a necessary tool,
creating new realms in daily life.
Biotechnology
Before
Obviously, the results from the experiments with single strain (=
ancestry, family) of yeast and the bacteria in the defined culture broth
could not be compared that of multiple species of yeasts and
thermophilic
bacteria in extremely complex material such as food waste. However,
our data provided indirect evidence for the mechanism of stimulation
of thermophilic bacteria by growing yeasts.
Before
Obviously, the results from the experiments with single strain of
yeast and the bacteria in the defined culture broth could not be
compared that of multiple species of yeasts and thermophilic
bacteria in extremely complex material such as food waste. However,
our data provided indirect evidence for the mechanism of stimulation
of thermophilic bacteria by growing yeasts.
After
Obviously, the results from the experiments with single strains of
yeast and bacteria in the defined culture broth can hardly be
compared with all the interactions between multiple species of yeasts
and thermophilic bacteria in an extremely complex material such as
food waste. However, our data did provide indirect evidence for the
mechanism of stimulation of thermophilic bacteria by growing yeasts.
Computer science
Before
During the all development phases of software system life-cycle, it is
a inevitable phenomenon that many documents that retains many
relationship to others would be generated. Furthermore, because of
the evolutionary nature of the software development process, each
document must exist in a number of versions. Keeping track of
relationship between versions of different documents is a major
source of problems to those involved in software engineering.
Before
During the all development phases of software system life-cycle, it is
a inevitable phenomenon that many documents that retains many
relationship to others would be generated. Furthermore, because of
the evolutionary nature of the software development process, each
document must exist in a number of versions. Keeping track of
relationship between versions of different documents is a major
source of problems to those involved in software engineering.
After
During development phases in the life-cycles of software systems, the
generation of a number of documents retaining relationships to others
is an inevitable phenomenon. Furthermore, because of the
evolutionary nature of the software development process, each
document exists in a number of versions. Keeping track of
relationships between versions of different documents is a major
problem for software engineers.
Effects of climate
While there is wide generality of freezing injury mechanism, there are also
exceptions on the cause of freezing injury depending upon species:
chilling sensitive materials may be injured prior to freezing if slow rate of
cooling is applied, some of animal cells are sensitive to dehydration itself
at lesser degrees that do not yet bring close approach of membranes,
some bacterial materials adapt equilibrium freezing by avoiding close
approach of membranes but are injured by effect of concentrated solution
during prolonged cryopreservation, and some tissues of higher plants are
injured by intracellular freezing by breakdown of supercooling even after
freezing by extremely slow rate of cooling.
While there is wide generality of freezing injury mechanism, there are also
exceptions on the cause of freezing injury depending upon species:
chilling sensitive materials may be injured prior to freezing if slow rate of
cooling is applied, some of animal cells are sensitive to dehydration itself
at lesser degrees that do not yet bring close approach of membranes,
some bacterial materials adapt equilibrium freezing by avoiding close
approach of membranes but are injured by effect of concentrated solution
during prolonged cryopreservation, and some tissues of higher plants are
injured by intracellular freezing by breakdown of supercooling even after
freezing by extremely slow rate of cooling.
While this freezing injury mechanism is widespread, there are also other
causes of freezing injury depending upon the species involved: chillsensitive materials may be injured prior to freezing if a slow rate of cooling
is applied; some animal cells are sensitive to dehydration at temperatures
that do not result in the close approach of membranes; some bacterial
materials adapt to equilibrium freezing by avoiding the close approach of
membranes, but are injured by the effect of the concentrated solution
used during prolonged cryopreservation; some tissues of higher plants
are injured by intracellular freezing as a result of the breakdown of
supercooling, even after freezing using an extremely slow rate of cooling.
Electrical engineering
Before
This paper presents a method which aims at these points. Here,
especially, the component of rule generation is discussed which bases
on a special evolutionary concept. The rule base is generated by an
incremental collecting of individual rules. The structure of the rules is
flexible by a free number of linguistic statements in the premises (=
argument, hypothesis). Negations in the premise are possible. Beside
positive rules also negative rules are generated which warn of or forbid
certain output values.
Before
This paper presents a method which aims at these points. Here,
especially, the component of rule generation is discussed which bases
on a special evolutionary concept. The rule base is generated by an
incremental collecting of individual rules. The structure of the rules is
flexible by a free number of linguistic statements in the premises.
Negations in the premise are possible. Beside positive rules also
negative rules are generated which warn of or forbid certain output
values.
After
This paper presents a method that aims to address these points. The
rule generation component in particular is discussed and is based on a
special evolutionary concept. The rule base is generated by the
incremental collection of individual rules. The structure of the rules is
flexible using a free number of linguistic statements in the premise.
Negations in the premise are possible. Positive rules as well as
negative rules are generated, which warn of or forbid certain output
values.
Mechanical engineering
In this case, conventional cutting tool materials such as high speed
steel and tungsten carbide can not machine above materials in the sense
of cutting tool life, and grinding process is used for finish machining.
By changing to hard turning, the elimination of subsequent grinding
may result in productivity increases of several times. Particularly, cutting
tools in CNC lathes can be used for a variety of different machining tasks
and complex geometrical profiles compared to formed grinding wheel.
Good surface integrity of machined parts is another consideration of
hard turning. Geometric accuracy is very high and surface roughness is
less than 1.0 . The residual stresses occurred by hard turning may be
expected to lie within the compressive range that is more favorable.
Therefore, the wear resistance in automobile parts applied by fatigue
load is increased due to compressive stress [2-3]. However, cutting tool
is subjected to the extremes of stress and temperature. Thus, tool life is
shorten due to the mechanical and thermal stresses as well as chemical
reactions.
In this case, conventional cutting tool materials such as high speed steel and tungsten carbide
can not machine above materials in the sense of cutting tool life, and grinding process is used for
finish machining.
By changing to hard turning, the elimination of subsequent grinding may result in productivity
increases of several times. Particularly, cutting tools in CNC lathes can be used for a variety of
different machining tasks and complex geometrical profiles compared to formed grinding wheel.
Good surface integrity of machined parts is another consideration of hard turning. Geometric
accuracy is very high and surface roughness is less than 1.0 . The residual stresses occurred by
hard turning may be expected to lie within the compressive range that is more favorable.
Therefore, the wear resistance in automobile parts applied by fatigue load is increased due to
compressive stress [2-3]. However, cutting tool is subjected to the extremes of stress and
temperature. Thus, tool life is shorten due to the mechanical and thermal stresses as well as
chemical reactions.
Conventional cutting tool materials, such as high-speed steel and tungsten carbide, are
unsuitable for machining hardened materials because of reduced cutting tool life, and a grinding
process is used for finish machining.
With a change to hard turning, the elimination of subsequent grinding may increase
productivity several times. Moreover, cutting tools in CNC lathes can be used for a wider variety
of machining tasks and complex geometrical profiles, compared to a formed grinding wheel.
Good surface integrity of machined parts is another consideration in favour of hard turning.
Geometric accuracy is very high and surface roughness is less than 1.0. The residual stresses
incurred by hard turning may be expected to lie within the compressive range, which is more
favourable; for example, in automobile parts under fatigue load, wear resistance is increased due
to compressive stress [2-3]. However, in hard turning the cutting tool is subjected to extremes of
stress and temperature. Thus, tool life is shortened due to high mechanical and thermal stresses
as well as accelerated chemical reactions.
Medicine
This study attempted to determine the effect and optimal application
time of lidocaine tape (xxxxxxxx xxxxx) for blood withdrawal. Blood
was withdrawn from veins in antecubital fossa of 8 healthy volunteers
with 19 gauge butterfly needles for 3 to 6 times with longer than 14 day
interval. The patch was not applied before the first withdrawal, but
applied before other withdrawals for 30, 60, 90, or 120 minutes. Visual
analog scores (VAS) during venepuncture (T1) and needle withdrawal
(T3) inversely related to the duration of patch, but not did that of blood
withdrawal (T2).
This study attempted to determine the effect and optimal application
time of lidocaine tape (xxxxxxxx xxxxx) for blood withdrawal. Blood
was withdrawn from veins in antecubital fossa of 8 healthy volunteers
with 19 gauge butterfly needles for 3 to 6 times with longer than 14 day
interval. The patch was not applied before the first withdrawal, but
applied before other withdrawals for 30, 60, 90, or 120 minutes. Visual
analog scores (VAS) during venepuncture (T1) and needle withdrawal
(T3) inversely related to the duration of patch, but not did that of blood
withdrawal (T2).
This study attempted to determine the effect and optimal application
time of lidocaine tape (xxxxxxx xxxxx) for blood withdrawal. Blood was
withdrawn 3 to 6 times at intervals of greater than 14 days from veins in
the antecubital fossa of 8 healthy volunteers using a 19-gauge butterfly
needle. The patch was not applied before the first withdrawal, but
applied before each of the other withdrawals for 30, 60, 90, or 120
minutes. Visual analog scores (VAS) during venipuncture (T1) and
needle withdrawal (T3) were inversely related to the duration of patch
application, but the duration of patch application did not affect the VAS
during blood withdrawal (T2).
Pharmacology
Sulfate conjugation generally results in a decrease of biological
activity and increase of excretion rate of the acceptor compound. In
several cases, however, sulfation enhances the activity of
compounds, such as cholecystokinin (8), hirudin (21), and the
antihypertensive agent minoxidil (6).
Before
Sulfate conjugation generally results in a decrease of biological
activity and increase of excretion rate of the acceptor compound. In
several cases, however, sulfation enhances the activity of
compounds, such as cholecystokinin (8), hirudin (21), and the
antihypertensive agent minoxidil (6).
After
Sulfate conjugation generally results in a decrease in biological
activity and an increase in the excretion rate of the acceptor
compound. In several cases, however, sulfation enhances the
activity of compounds such as cholecystokinin (8), hirudin (21), and
the antihypertensive agent, minoxidil (6).