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Application of Nuclear Chemistry Cancer Treatment – Cancer cells are more susceptible to radiation bc they are fast growing. Thyroid cancer can be treated with Ir-192 or Co-60. Food Preservation – Strawberries are exposed to Co-60. This kills most of the bacteria and mold on the food. Radioisotope – an isotope that is radioactive. Half-life – The amount of time it takes for ½ of a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay. (1/2 of the radioactive atoms) Ex. 90Sr = 28.8 yrs Radiocarbon Dating uses carbon-14 carbon-14 is radioactive half-life is 5730 yrs Produced naturally from reaction between N-14 and cosmic rays Rate of production carbon-14 = rate of decay of carbon-14 Nuclear Bombardment Reactions Process used to make stable nuclei unstable by bombarding nucleus with a stream of particles Usually neutrons Have to be fast because nucleus is positive and particles are positive. Makes this hard to do. Byproducts are electrons Fission A large nucleus is split into 2 smaller nuclei or approximately equal mass. U-235 releases 3 neutrons. If this continues a chain reaction will occur. Measuring Radiation Dosimeter – Measures the total amount of radiation that a person has received. A badge with a piece of film is worn, if the film is developed, the person has been exposed to radiation Radiation Alpha particles – weakest of all particles Can be written as a helium nucleus Beta – medium strength can also be written as an electron Gamma – strongest type of radiation. Affects electrons in the body. REM Used to measure radiation exposure in humans Includes BOTH the amount of energy transferred by radiation AND the sensitivity of the body to that type of radiation. Leukemia – Most common type of cancer caused by radiation.