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Messed-up Mitosis
Cancer
Cancer (Transformed) Cells

Are cells which do NOT respond to the
body’s control mechanisms; these cells
DO NOT STOP dividing (mitosing).
Characteristics
of Transformed Cells

Will divide FOREVER with appropriate
nutrients
• Note #1:
• Note #2:

Do NOT divide more quickly
HeLa cells
May have altered genome
Transformed Cells

Usually the body’s IMMUNE SYSTEM
will destroy cancer (transformed) cells.

If not, a tumor will form.

tumor – mass of transformed cells in
otherwise normal tissue
What TWO events must occur for
an individual to get cancer?
#1:
#2:
Implication: Which of these two can be
more readily controlled/influenced by the
individual?
Two Types of Tumors

Benign
Localized

Malignant
Cells have spread

Tough tumor membrane

No tumor membrane

Cells may retain some of
normal function


Individual does not
“have cancer”

Treatment?

Cells show weird
abnormalities
 Loss of normal function
 Cells lose attachments to
other cells  enter blood &
lymph  spread
= METASTASIS
“Cancer”/ Treatment?
What causes cancer ?
(Cell Transformation)

Cause of virtually ALL cancers:

Proto-oncogene –mutates  Oncogene
table 12-04