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CANCER –
CELLS GONE WILD!
The summary color on the following slides is red;
vocabulary words are underlined!
Adapted from PPt by
Karobi Moitra (Ph.D)
NCI Frederick , NIH
Cancer Inflammation Program
Human Genetics Section
Frederick MD.
Earliest Mention of Cancer
1600 BC
The earliest
written
description of
cancer known to
exist is the Edwin
Smith Papyrus. It
describes eight
cases of breast
tumors or ulcers.
Image
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a
/a1/AncientEgyptianMummy-Antjau-CloseUpROM.png
Origin of The Word “Cancer”
 The origin of the word cancer is credited to the Greek
physician Hippocrates (460–370 B.C.), considered the
"Father of Medicine." Hippocrates used the terms carcinos
and carcinoma to describe non-ulcer and ulcer-forming
tumors. In Greek, these words refer to a crab, most likely
applied to the disease because the finger-like spreading
projections from cancer called to mind the shape of a crab.
 The Roman physician, Celsus (28-50 B.C.), later
translated the Greek term into cancer, the Latin word for
crab.
 Galen (130-200 A.D.), another Roman physician, used the
word oncos (Greek for swelling) to describe tumors. Galen's
term is now used as a part of the name for cancer
specialists -- oncologists.
What is cancer?
Link 1
Link 2
Image http://breakthroughs.cityofhope.org/wpcontent/uploads/2013/02/lung-cancer.jpg
Cancer is a group of related diseases which are
characterized by uncontrolled cellular growth
and division.
Cell Suicide or Apoptosis
Cell damage—
no repair
First
mutation
Second
mutation
Third
mutation
Fourth or
later mutation
Cancerous cells divide when they should not divide
and they lack the normal control systems to shut off
unwanted cell division.
Cell death =
Cell growth
Cell death <
Cell growth
R
In most cases, cancer forms a cell mass
called a tumor.
Breast Mammogram
Image
http://cdn.sheknows.com/
filter/l/gallery/mammogra
m_breast_cancer_tumor.j
pg
Lung Carcinoma Image
http://en.wikipedia.org/wi
ki/File:Lung_cancer.jpg
R
Types of Tumors
Benign tumor – has restricted growth and tends to remain in
one area. EX wart.
Malignant tumor - does not remain localized but
invades other tissue and gives rise to
secondary tumors in other parts of the
body (metastasis).
R
What is Metastasis?
Metastasis – when a cancer
travels to different
parts of the body,
usually through
the blood stream
R
http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/v4/n9/images/nrc1430-f3.jpg
R
Causes of Cancer
Carcinogen - substances and exposures that can lead to
cancer
• Radiation – including the sun
• Alcohol
• Engine exhaust
• Tobacco smoke
• Certain chemicals
Cancer can also be caused by random mutations and
exposure to certain viruses.
R