Download Types of Muscle Fibers

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
OpenStax-CNX module: m46480
1
Types of Muscle Fibers
∗
OpenStax College
This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the
Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0†
Abstract
By the end of this section, you will be able to:
• Describe the types of skeletal muscle bers
• Explain fast and slow muscle bers
Two criteria to consider when classifying the types of muscle bers are how fast some bers contract
relative to others, and how bers produce ATP. Using these criteria, there are three main types of skeletal
muscle bers. Slow oxidative (SO) bers contract relatively slowly and use aerobic respiration (oxygen
and glucose) to produce ATP. Fast oxidative (FO) bers have fast contractions and primarily use aerobic
respiration, but because they may switch to anaerobic respiration (glycolysis), can fatigue more quickly than
SO bers. Lastly, fast glycolytic (FG) bers have fast contractions and primarily use anaerobic glycolysis.
The FG bers fatigue more quickly than the others. Most skeletal muscles in a human contain(s) all three
types, although in varying proportions.
The speed of contraction is dependent on how quickly myosin's ATPase hydrolyzes ATP to produce
cross-bridge action. Fast bers hydrolyze ATP approximately twice as quickly as slow bers, resulting in
much quicker cross-bridge cycling (which pulls the thin laments toward the center of the sarcomeres at a
faster rate). The primary metabolic pathway used by a muscle ber determines whether the ber is classied
as oxidative or glycolytic. If a ber primarily produces ATP through aerobic pathways it is oxidative. More
ATP can be produced during each metabolic cycle, making the ber more resistant to fatigue. Glycolytic
bers primarily create ATP through anaerobic glycolysis, which produces less ATP per cycle. As a result,
glycolytic bers fatigue at a quicker rate.
The oxidative bers contain many more mitochondria than the glycolytic bers, because aerobic metabolism,
which uses oxygen (O2 ) in the metabolic pathway, occurs in the mitochondria. The SO bers possess a large
number of mitochondria and are capable of contracting for longer periods because of the large amount of
ATP they can produce, but they have a relatively small diameter and do not produce a large amount of
tension. SO bers are extensively supplied with blood capillaries to supply O2 from the red blood cells in
the bloodstream. The SO bers also possess myoglobin, an O2 -carrying molecule similar to O2 -carrying
hemoglobin in the red blood cells. The myoglobin stores some of the needed O2 within the bers themselves
(and gives SO bers their red color). All of these features allow SO bers to produce large quantities of
ATP, which can sustain muscle activity without fatiguing for long periods of time.
The fact that SO bers can function for long periods without fatiguing makes them useful in maintaining
posture, producing isometric contractions, stabilizing bones and joints, and making small movements that
happen often but do not require large amounts of energy. They do not produce high tension, and thus
they are not used for powerful, fast movements that require high amounts of energy and rapid cross-bridge
cycling.
∗ Version
1.3: Jun 4, 2013 11:30 am -0500
† http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
http://cnx.org/content/m46480/1.3/
OpenStax-CNX module: m46480
2
FO bers are sometimes called intermediate bers because they possess characteristics that are intermediate between fast bers and slow bers. They produce ATP relatively quickly, more quickly than SO
bers, and thus can produce relatively high amounts of tension. They are oxidative because they produce
ATP aerobically, possess high amounts of mitochondria, and do not fatigue quickly. However, FO bers do
not possess signicant myoglobin, giving them a lighter color than the red SO bers. FO bers are used
primarily for movements, such as walking, that require more energy than postural control but less energy
than an explosive movement, such as sprinting. FO bers are useful for this type of movement because they
produce more tension than SO bers but they are more fatigue-resistant than FG bers.
FG bers primarily use anaerobic glycolysis as their ATP source. They have a large diameter and
possess high amounts of glycogen, which is used in glycolysis to generate ATP quickly to produce high levels
of tension. Because they do not primarily use aerobic metabolism, they do not possess substantial numbers
of mitochondria or signicant amounts of myoglobin and therefore have a white color. FG bers are used
to produce rapid, forceful contractions to make quick, powerful movements. These bers fatigue quickly,
permitting them to only be used for short periods. Most muscles possess a mixture of each ber type. The
predominant ber type in a muscle is determined by the primary function of the muscle.
1 Chapter Review
ATP provides the energy for muscle contraction. The three mechanisms for ATP regeneration are creatine
phosphate, anaerobic glycolysis, and aerobic metabolism. Creatine phosphate provides about the rst 15
seconds of ATP at the beginning of muscle contraction. Anaerobic glycolysis produces small amounts of
ATP in the absence of oxygen for a short period. Aerobic metabolism utilizes oxygen to produce much more
ATP, allowing a muscle to work for longer periods. Muscle fatigue, which has many contributing factors,
occurs when muscle can no longer contract. An oxygen debt is created as a result of muscle use. The three
types of muscle ber are slow oxidative (SO), fast oxidative (FO) and fast glycolytic (FG). SO bers use
aerobic metabolism to produce low power contractions over long periods and are slow to fatigue. FO bers
use aerobic metabolism to produce ATP but produce higher tension contractions than SO bers. FG bers
use anaerobic metabolism to produce powerful, high-tension contractions but fatigue quickly.
2 Review Questions
Exercise 1
Muscle fatigue is caused by ________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
(Solution on p. 4.)
buildup of ATP and lactic acid levels
exhaustion of energy reserves and buildup of lactic acid levels
buildup of ATP and pyruvic acid levels
exhaustion of energy reserves and buildup of pyruvic acid levels
Exercise 2
(Solution on p. 4.)
A sprinter would experience muscle fatigue sooner than a marathon runner due to ________.
a.
b.
c.
d.
anaerobic metabolism in the muscles of the sprinter
anaerobic metabolism in the muscles of the marathon runner
aerobic metabolism in the muscles of the sprinter
glycolysis in the muscles of the marathon runner
Exercise 3
What aspect of creatine phosphate allows it to supply energy to muscles?
a. ATPase activity
b. phosphate bonds
http://cnx.org/content/m46480/1.3/
(Solution on p. 4.)
OpenStax-CNX module: m46480
3
c. carbon bonds
d. hydrogen bonds
Exercise 4
(Solution on p. 4.)
Drug X blocks ATP regeneration from ADP and phosphate. How will muscle cells respond to this
drug?
a.
b.
c.
d.
by absorbing ATP from the bloodstream
by using ADP as an energy source
by using glycogen as an energy source
none of the above
3 Critical Thinking Questions
Exercise 5
(Solution on p. 4.)
Exercise 6
(Solution on p. 4.)
Why do muscle cells use creatine phosphate instead of glycolysis to supply ATP for the rst few
seconds of muscle contraction?
Is aerobic respiration more or less ecient than glycolysis? Explain your answer.
http://cnx.org/content/m46480/1.3/
OpenStax-CNX module: m46480
4
Solutions to Exercises in this Module
to Exercise (p. 2)
B
to Exercise (p. 2)
A
to Exercise (p. 2)
B
to Exercise (p. 3)
D
to Exercise (p. 3)
Creatine phosphate is used because creatine phosphate and ADP are converted very quickly into ATP by
creatine kinase. Glycolysis cannot generate ATP as quickly as creatine phosphate.
to Exercise (p. 3)
Aerobic respiration is much more ecient than anaerobic glycolysis, yielding 36 ATP per molecule of glucose,
as opposed to two ATP produced by glycolysis.
Glossary
Denition 1: fast glycolytic (FG)
muscle ber that primarily uses anaerobic glycolysis
Denition 2: fast oxidative (FO)
intermediate muscle ber that is between slow oxidative and fast glycolytic bers
Denition 3: slow oxidative (SO)
muscle ber that primarily uses aerobic respiration
http://cnx.org/content/m46480/1.3/