The Magna Carta 1215-- England Magna Carta is Latin for "Great Charter" it literally means “Great Paper”. Magna Carta was the most significant early influence that led to the rule of constitutional law today. It guaranteed people a right to trial by jury. Guaranteed basic rights to citizens in England. Approved by King John. English Bill of Rights England -1689 An Act of the Parliament of England when William and Mary were in power. It is one of the basic documents of English law, along with the Magna Carta, It is a statement of certain rights that citizens ought to have. It gives right to petition, to bear arms for defense, and speaks of consent of the governed. It made the legislature more powerful than the monarchy. Mayflower Compact 1620—Massachusetts Agreement established by the men who sailed to America on the Mayflower. It set forth the idea of self government. Established laws for the good of the colony. The passengers knew that earlier settlements in the New World had failed due to a lack of government. The Mayflower Compact was a social contract in which the settlers agreed to follow the rules for the sake of survival. This document said that the government would get its power from the consent of the governed. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Connecticut- 1639 A short document, but contains principles that were later used in creating the US government. • Government is based in the rights of an individual. And allowed free men to vote. • Was carried to England by Governor John Winthrop and approved by the British King, Charles II. The colonists viewed the charter as a continuation and promise for their freedoms. • Today, the individual rights in the Orders, with others added over the years, are still included in Declaration of Rights in the first article of the current Connecticut Constitution. Albany Plan of Union USA- 1754 Benjamin Franklin drafted this. It was a plan to unite the colonies. It was modeled after the Iroquois League. It called for each colony to send a representative to a Grand Council and the Grand Council would govern the colonies. This never actually happened because the individual colonies didn’t want to give up control of themselves. The Olive Branch Petition USA-1775 Second Continental congress sent this document to King George III. An “olive branch” is a sign of peace. This document requested that the King end the conflict, repeal the Coercive Acts and guarantee American liberties. After reading this document, the King considered the colonists in a state of rebellion and he refused their requests. Declaration of Independence USA-1776 Adopted on July 4, 1776. Declared that the US was free from Britain. Written mostly by Thomas Jefferson, who believed in John Locke’s theory that if a government doesn’t provide life, liberty and the right to own property, then that government should be overthrown. An enlarged copy was signed by most of the delegates on August 2 and is on display in the National Archives and Records Administration in Washington, D.C. John Hancock was the first to sign the Declaration of Independence. Articles of Confederation USA- 1777 (ratified in 1781) The first governing document of the United States of America. Adopted by the Second Continental Congress Set the rules for operations of the US confederation. The Federal gov. could declare war, negotiate treaties, and resolve issues regarding the western territories; it could print money and borrow inside and outside the US. The Federal government couldn’t tax; it had to rely on donations from the states. Each state only had 1 vote. The bigger states found this unfair. The Articles were replaced by the United States Constitution on June 21, 1788. Treaty of Paris (there actually were many of these, the year matters) Paris 1783 Ended the Revolutionary War. Terms: Britain keeps Canada England had to recognize the 13 colonies as free and independent States USA gains all territory west to the Mississippi. Granted fishing rights to United States fishermen off the coast of Newfoundland and in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence Instructed that debts to be paid to creditors on either side Prisoners of war on both sides are to be released Preamble to the Constitution USA-1787 It is actually part of the Constitution. Explains why the constitution is being written. It outlines the purpose of the Constitution. It tells that the intent is to keep all Americans peaceful, safe, happy and free; including Americans who would be born after the document was written. Video US Constitution USA-1787 • AKA- The Supreme Law of the Land • Written in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania • James Madison was the primary author along with the rest of the Founding Fathers. • This document replaced the Articles of Confederation. • It divides the government into 3 branches. (legislative/executive/ judicial) • It has been amended twenty-seven times. • 13th Freed slaves • 14th Made slaves citizens • 15th Gave black males the right to vote • 19th Gave women the right to vote • 26th allowed 18year olds to vote American Bill of Rights USA-1791 • It is actually part of the Constitution. It is the first 10 amendments to the Constitution. (An amendment is a change or addition to a document) • It is a formal list of citizen’s rights and freedoms. • These amendments limit the powers of the federal government, protecting the rights of all citizens, residents and visitors on United States territory. • Rap song Federalist Papers USA - October 1787-August 1788 • The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles advocating (promoting) the ratification of the United States Constitution. • They appeared in newspapers. • A way for regular people to understand and support the Constitution. • The articles were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay. Monroe Doctrine 1823- USA • Written by John Adams. • European powers would no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the independent nations of the Americas. • The United States planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and their colonies. However, if these latter types of wars were to occur in the Americas, the United States would view such action as hostile. • President James Monroe first discussed this during his annual State of the Union Address . This is a defining document in US foreign policy. (Foreign policy means how we relate to other countries) Northwest Ordinance USA—1783 (ratified in 1789) • Created the Northwest Territory. (Land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River) • Established the plan by which the United States would expand westward across North America. (Adding more states, not expanding existing states) • Banned slavery in the territory. • Out of this land we got: Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Indiana. Indian Removal Act USA- May 1830 • President Andrew Jackson called for an Indian Removal Act. • White people generally wanted the Indians off the land because the white man wanted more farming land. • Especially in Georgia, the largest state at that time, people wanted to push the Cherokee off the land. • Christian missionaries, and some people like Davey Crockett did stick up for the Indians. • It was passed after bitter debate in Congress. • Indians were forced to move to Indian Territory (Western lands). • The Trail of Tears. is one situation that occurred because of this law. Declaration of Sentiments (and Resolutions) 1848-New York • Written by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. • Seneca Falls Convention was organized by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. • Called for voting rights for all citizens. Women didn’t get this right for another 70 years. • In 1920, the 19th Amendment was passed and women got the right to vote. • The Declaration of sentiments and resolutions took the preamble from the D of I and changed it to, “We hold these truths to be self evident that all men and women are created equal” Missouri Compromise (aka Compromise of 1820) 1820- USA • A series of laws that were drafted to keep the balance of power between the slave states and the free states. • It accepted Missouri as a Slave state and Maine as a free state. • It banned slavery north of the 36 30’ parallel. Compromise of 1850 USA- 1850 • Prompted by California wanting to enter the union as a free state. • Strengthened the fugitive slave law. (Fugitive Slave law allowed slave owners to reclaim run away slaves—the strengthening made it a law obligating people to assist in the capture and return run away slaves). • Halted slave trade in the District of Columbia. (Slavery was still permitted in District of Columbia, just not the trading of slaves) • Allowed California to enter as a free state. Kansas Nebraska Act USA-1851 • Led to violence between pro slavery and anti slavery settlers. • Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands for settlement, and allowed the settlers to decide whether or not to have slavery. • This repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820. • The act established that settlers could decide for themselves whether to allow slavery, in the name of "popular sovereignty" or voting. Emancipation Proclamation USA -1863 • Abe Lincoln issued this order. • It freed all the slaved in the rebelling states. This was symbolic movement. • But, it committed the Union to ending slavery, and invited freed slaves to join the union army. • The proclamation did not free any slaves in the border states (Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia). • The 13th Amendment officially ended slavery in the USA in 1865. Gettysburg Address Gettysburg Pennsylvania- 1863 • Speech given by Abe Lincoln to honor fallen Civil War soldiers. • That battlefield was the site of the turning point of the civil war. (In the union’s favor) • Famous words “and that government of the people by the people and for the people shall not perish from the earth.” • Short speech, but explained the importance of preserving the union. Report to the Massachusetts State Legislature Massachusetts 1843 By Dorthea Dix • Dix researched conditions in prison and insane asylums in Mass. She discovered that people suffering from mental illness were confined in prisons and were receiving no medical treatment. Even in mental asylums the patients were often confined in cages and bound with ropes and chains. • This report explained to the government that the conditions of mental institutions and jails were deplorable. • She said that the mentally ill were being put in jail because there was no where else to put them. • She convinced the legislature to appropriate $ to expand mental hospitals and help the insane. • An example of citizen action!!!!! Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World USA- 1829 • David Walker a Black Male was born to a free mother and a slave father. He was a free man who spent his life trying to end slavery. • He wrote a series of articles titled, Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. The intent of these was to call to end slavery immediately. • Walker also used Christian language to assert that slavery was a sin. • Walker also attacked Thomas Jefferson's argument that blacks were inferior to whites. • June 18, 1830, Walker died just months after completing the Appeal. Walker’s sudden and mysterious death caused speculation that he was poisoned • An example of citizen action!!!!! Wilmot Privoso USA August 8, 1846 • Wilmot Privoso • USA August 8, 1846 • The intent of the proviso, submitted by Congressman David Wilmot, was to prevent the introduction of slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico. • The proviso did not pass. • But, many consider it as the first event in the long slide to Civil War .