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Hinduism Project Noah: C,D George: I,J Evan: G,H Matthew: A,B Zach: E Trace: F A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Hinduism is one of the oldest world religions. It is polytheistic and focuses a lot on the concepts of samsara and karma. Samsara is the doctrine of the cycle of rebirth(reincarnation). Karma is the universal doctrine of cause and effect. Which mainly is talking about how all of your actions have some sort of result, whether they are bad or good, and whether they occur in this life or the next. There are many gods and goddesses in Hinduism, some believe they are individual entities, some believe that they are all part of one god. It is believed Hinduism was founded anywhere from 1500-2500 BCE in India (Indus Valley Region). (There is no true/specific founder or year it was founded.) The term “Hindu” came about because that is what the Indus River was referred to as. The traditions and practices that are common in Hinduism existed before the religion was founded. (It wasn’t really founded, it pretty much just flowed into existence.) There is no single founder of Hinduism, because Hinduism was the flourishing culture of India, and further evolved into what is now the modern day religion of Hinduism. The earliest indication of Hindu practice started in the Indus Valley Civilization. Most traditions of Hinduism share the same core beliefs, even though Hinduism lacks a definite beginning in history, and the lack of a primary god. The Vedas, or the “Books of Knowledge,” were the principal sacred texts of Hinduism. There are four Vedas; the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, Atharva Veda. The Rig Veda, the oldest of the books was written about 1500 BCE, arranged into a systematic code around 600 BCE. The Vedas consisted of ancient Indian rituals, incantations and hymns. Hinduism believe in an omniscient being that manifests reality. Hindus base their religion of four Vedas which is some of the world’s most ancient scripture, these scriptures are the basis for Sanata Dharma, the “eternal religion.” These unseen beings exist in unseen dimensions and worlds were hindus can reach them through worship/praise. Hindus believe in karma which is the act of doing something and getting something good in return or vice versa. Hinduism also believes that all living things are sacred though the cow is one of the most valued of all animals, for the reason that it represents all other animals, and the earth. Hindus believe that the earth is continuously undergoing changes/cycles in creation. Hindus also believe only that not only 1 religion teaches the only way to salvation but rather that all religions are equal and each in some form is on the right path. Hinduism had a large impact on Indian culture, for example, most Indian cuisine is based off of Hindu beliefs. Hindu beliefs do not allow followers of Hindu to eat beef because the Hindus see cows as holy animals, and it is illegal in India to kill them. Also, every school in India studies some type of Hindu mythological in the form of literature. The Indian culture believes in karma, thus if you do something bad, bad things will happen to you. Because of this, the Hindus believe that the poor and sick did sinful acts that put them where they are, thus they don’t help them. In Indian law, there is Capital Punishment, but because of Hindu beliefs on violence/killing, it is rarely used. Today, more that 80% of Indians are Hindu, and Hinduism is the national religion of India.http://www.ancient.eu/hinduism/ Hinduism was believed to have been created over 5,000 years ago. Hindu is arguably the oldest religion on the face of the earth. Archaeologists have decided that civilizations in the Indus valley grew massively between 4000 and 1500 B.C.E. Around this time the people of this civilization was startled and moved out very quickly. Then they encountered people from central Asia who taught them warrior like fighting skills. Archaeologists have discovered in the ruins of the Indus valley civilization a lot of modern Hinduism this includes amulets of gods and goddesses, huge temple tanks for bathing, and pictures of people in yoga postures. The people of central Asia are believed to have settled in India. That is why is very likely that the tradition of the Indus valley and the Vedic gods and beliefs were combined. H. I. J. 2500 BCE: Indus River Valley Civilization begins to develops evidence shows that early Hindu practice begins. 1600 BCE: Aryan invade which brings Sanskrit language. 1500 BCE: Vedic Period begins. Vedas, a collection of hymns, are written. 800 BCE: The eleven major Upanishads, forms core philosophies, are written. 500 BCE: Epics and Puranas are written, beginning of devotional Hinduism. 320 BCE: Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya empire. 320 CE: Sri Gupta founded the Gupta empire. 550 CE: Gupta empire dissolves. 1497 CE: Vasco Da Gama is the first European to arrive in India by Atlantic Ocean. 1920- 1948 CE: Mahatma Gandhi lead a peaceful Indian Independence Group during the British rule.