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Transcript
Credit seminar
By
Dr. Madhukar
V 2004-30-04
Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology
College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences
CSK HPKV, Palampur
6th August, 2005
Nutraceuticals
dawn of a new era
What are nutraceuticals ?
• A food that provides medical or health benefits,
including the prevention and treatment of a
disease (Stephen De Felice, 1989)
• Contraction of
-nutrition and pharmaceutical.
• Similar words
- designer foods, functional foods,
- genetically engineered foods
• Taken in the form of
-pills
-capsule
-powders and
-tinctures.
History is repeating
2000 BC here eat this root
1200 AD this root is heathen, say this prayer
1500 AD prayer are superstitious, drink this potion
1900 AD the potion is snake oil, swallow this pill
1950 AD this pill is ineffective, take this antibiotic
2000 AD the antibiotic is synthetic, eat this root
Categories of nutraceuticals
Nutraceuticals
Dietary supplements
nutrients
Herbs
1. Nutrients
• Established nutritional functions
- vitamins
- minerals
- amino acids
- fatty acids
• Antioxidants - cancer & c.v. diseases
vitamin-E - Parkinson's disease
- pancreatic cancer
- asthma
- skin cancer
• Vit-E+beta-carotenes
- atherosclerosis
• Dehydroxyascorbic acid
- Alzheimer's disease
• Choline – fatty liver
• L-arginine – angina
2.Herbals
Herbs or botanical products as
extracts and concentrates.
•
•
•
Echinacea - cold & flu.
Kava – anxiety.
Gingko - dementia
- claudication.
• St John’s wort - depression
• Phenolic compounds
• Terpenoids
• Sulfur compounds
• Pigments
• Natural antioxidants
• Garlic, ginger, soybean, cabbageanticancer properties.
highest
• Garlic - diallyldisulfides
- diallylsulfides
- quercetin
• Tomato - kaempferol
- chlorogenic acid
- lycopene
• Honey - antimicrobial
• Green tea - immunomodulation
reduced risk of cancer.
3.Dietary supplements
• Ketogenic diets - seizure control.
• Burgeon (soy flour + linseed oil)
- breast cancer.
• Edible mushrooms
- immunomodulation
- antitumor.
• Zbar, nite-bite
- sucrose + proteins + uncooked starch
• Glucosamine /chondroitin sulfates
- osteoarthritis
• Dairy foods
• Health drinks
Veterinary nutraceuticals
•
TEN COMMANDMENTS (John Walton):
It must
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
improve performance effectively and economically.
have little therapeutic use.
not cause cross-resistance.
not involve in transfer of drug resistance.
not cause disturbance of gut normal flora.
not absorbed into edible tissues.
not be mutagenic or carcinogenic.
not permute salmonella shedding.
not give rise to environmental pollution, degradable.
non toxic to animal and human handlers.
Nutraceuticals for Pigs
• Enzymes:
- amylase, protease and lipase.
• FOS: (Fructo-Oligosaccharide)
- derivative of inulin.
- lactobacilli.
• MOS: (Mannose-Oligosaccharides)
- attracts pathogenic bacteria.
• Nucleotides
- improves immunity
-absorption of nutrients
Equine nutraceuticals
• Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
- antioxidant.
• Dimethyl Glycine (DMG, pangamic acid)
- increases phosphocreatine production in brain
& muscle.
• CoenzymeQ10 (ubiquinone)
- powerful antioxidant.
- heart diseases, high B.P
and enhancement of immunity.
Pet nutraceuticals
• Glucosamine and chondroitin
• Echinacea
- immunostimulant
• Ginger
- stomach problems
- anti-inflammatory
• Vitamin-c
- hip dysplasia
- urinary tract
problems
• Saint John’s wort
- viral infections
- neural disorders.
- arthritis .
• Milk thistle
- hepatitis.
• Gingko
- cognitive disorders
Cattle and buffalo
• Turmeric, amahaldi, ashwagandha, adalsa
and sitaphal.
• Polyunsaturated oils
enhance reproductive efficiency
• Bamboo leaves + ajwaine.
Retention of placenta
• Marigold + alum
treatment of wound
Cardiovascular
health
• $70 billion globally every year
• $3 billion in 2004 to research
cardiovascular health in U.S.
• Risk factors:
- elevated cholesterol levels
- high blood pressure
- diabetes.
Nutraceutical Interventions
• amenable to nutraceutical intervention.
• nutraceuticals positively influence
cardiovascular risk factors.
1. Cholesterol Reduction:
- garlic (allicin and alliin)
- fish oil (omega 3 fatty acid)
- policosanol (plant waxes)
•Theaflavins (Black tea):
- squalene epoxidase.
•Soy protein:
- prevent reuptake of cholesterol.
•PMFs (citrus ):
- cholesterol biosynthesis/absorption.
•Tocotrienols:
- reduce level of HMG-CoA reductase.
2. Hypertension:
- Sesamin.
- Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA).
- Green tea catechins.
3. Diabetes:
•
•
•
c-reactive protein (diabetics)
vitamin C, vitamin-E,
omega 3-fatty acids e.g. fish oil.
Cancer prevention
• Phytochemicals:
- affect membrane structure and function.
- signal transduction pathways regulating
tumor growth and apoptosis.
- immune function of host.
- cholesterol metabolism.
•Allyl sulfides (onions):
-
eliminates toxic compounds.
•Dithiolthiones (cabbage, turnips):
-
detoxification.
•Indoles (cruciferous vegetables):
-
estrogen metabolism.
• Isoflavones (soy foods):
- multiple effects.
• Lignans (rye):
- anti-estrogenic.
• Flavonoids (biological response
modifiers):
- quercetin (tomato, potato, onions).
- kaempferol (kale and tomatoes).
• Carotenoids:
Beta-carotenes (lung cancer):
-carrots, potatoes, red peppers and
pumpkins.
Lycopene (prostate cancer):
- tomatoes.
Lutein (macular degeneration):
- leafy green vegetables.
Areas of concern
• Safety and effectiveness:
- nutraceuticals are not regulated by
FDA.
- only few has been studied rigorously.
- in contrast prescription and over the
counter drugs have been reviewed by
FDA.
- scientific studies are not designed
for most.
• Purity
- nutraceuticals are not regulated for purity.
• Standardization
- each ingredients in a dose should be present in
precise quantity in standard form.
Interaction with drugs
Nutraceuticals
Affected drugs
• Echinacea
immunosuppressants
• Garlic
hypoglycemic drugs
anticoagulants
• Ginger
anticoagulants
• Ginseng
Corticosteroids,
opiods.
• Milk thistle
Saquinavir.
• St.John’s wort
Benzodiazepines,
digoxin and warfarin
Conclusion
• Destined to play important role in future
therapeutic developments.
• They will continue to appeal because of
convenience to today’s lifestyle.
• Genuine research is going on and many potential
agents are identified.
• Nutraceuticals promote overall health status in
addition to providing protection against diseases.
• Very soon they will find a prominent place in
clinical practice in treatment of diseases
Thanks
LET FOOD BE THY MEDICINE AND MEDICINE THY FOOD
Hippocrates 400 BC