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Transcript
Introduction to
Comparative
Government
AP Comparative
Government & Politics
6 THEMES
2015-16
Hoilman
#1: The Comparative Method
• Three world approach:
– “Advanced” democracies – wellestablished democratic gov. & high
level of economic development;
e.g. U.S.& U.K. (“First World”)
– Communist & post-communist countries –
some limits on individual freedom in order to divide
wealth more equally (gov. control); e.g. Russia &
China
– Less developed countries (LDCs) & newly
industrialized countries (NICs) (“Third World”)
• LDCs – lack significant economic develop.
w/ tendency toward authoritarian gov.; e.g. Nigeria
• NICs – rapid economic growth, tendency toward
some democratization & political/social stability
e.g. Mexico & Iran
http://youtu.be/4AivEQmfPpk
2015-16
Hoilman
#1: Comparative Method
continued
Formal v. Informal Politics
• Formal politics is defined by law – the
formal positions & organization of gov.
(can be neatly outlined in a chart)
• Informal politics is the way in which
citizens organize themselves, define their
interests & connect with policy-making
activities of government – it may also
include the behavior of politicians outside
their defined responsibilities
2015-16
Hoilman
#1: Comparative Method
continued
• Political Change – the nature of world
politics has changed significantly since
the fall of U.S.S.R. (1991) b/c the world
is no longer dominated by 2
superpowers & their alliances
– e.g. democratization, political
(in)stability, cleavages within society, state
capacity or power, international pressures
& globalization, & mobilization of the
citizenry
2015-16
Hoilman
#1: Comparative Method
continued
• Integration of political & economic systems
– Capitalism & command economies are economic systems &
philosophies, but translates into politics too
– Capitalism = less gov. control & citizens and businesses
can make free economic decisions (neoliberalism is the
movement toward more privatization & less gov.
interference); gov. is less centralized, in general
– Communism = gov. direction regarding quotas, supply
production, business opportunities, etc.; gov. is more
centralized
– Attitudes & behaviors of citizens and how they respond to
economic policies & economic decision-making influence the
actions of the government, especially regarding economic
inefficiencies (e.g. large gap between rich & poor, trade deficits,
outside influence of large corporations, etc.)
2015-16
Hoilman
#1: Comparative Method
continued
• Empirical v. Normative Approach
– Empirical data is based on factual statements
& statistics (e.g. infant mortality rate, GDP,
GNP, population growth rates,
military expenditures, etc.)
– Normative issue approach requires value
judgments (efficiency of government
program(s), lack of public policy regarding an
issue, “better” leader, protection of citizens,
etc.) – not quantitative, but qualitative
2015-16
Hoilman
#1: Comparative Method
continued
• Single country studies – often called “case
studies”; few generalizations can be made, but
vital for testing theories, formulating concepts,
etc. – high internal validity, but low external
• Small n analysis – a few carefully chosen
countries; e.g. Parliament in several countries is
studied to design generalizations; most-similar
(commonalities) or most-different approach (contrasting)
• Large N analysis – lots of countries; mainly
statistical; e.g. democratic stability as affected by
the difference between presidential/executive
institutions – higher external validity
2015-16
Hoilman
#1: Comparative Method
continued
• Systems theory – looking at an aspect or action of
government through the system itself (e.g. nuclear weapons
program: “inputs” – ideas & groups who influence the gov, including
officials themselvs; “output” – the policy the gov designs, “feedback” –
the influence of the policy on future gov actions, more policies, and how
citizens are affected by the policy, “environment” – domestic &
international situations that arise b/c of the policy
• Rational Choice theory – looking at the choices
humans make which they believe are in their best
interest regarding political or economic participation &
drawing conclusions or inferences
• Middle-level theory - comparisons of specific features
of a government in an attempt to draw generalizations,
but realizing the event may have unique features as
well (e.g. revolutions can be very different)
2015-16
Hoilman
#2: Sovereignty, Authority, &
Power
• Sovereignty: ability to design policies & carry
out actions within one’s borders independently
from interference either from the inside or the
outside; ultimate control over affairs
• Authority: claim of legitimacy (right to rule;
recognized by ruler and the ruled)
• Power: ability to influence others to act or
accept certain actions; those in political office
are often those with more power;
the government of a country can
give / take power
2015-16
Hoilman
#2: Sovereignty, Authority &
Power
• Government / Regime
continued
– The system of political rule of a state (e.g.
authoritarian government, theocracy,
constitutional monarchy, democracy,
republic, etc.)
• State
– Basic unit of political organization with a permanent
population, defined territory, governing institutions,
sovereignty over its territory & int’l recognition (e.g.
country) – the institutions & individuals who run the
show
– Self-governing political entity (a state
is not necessarily a nation & vice versa)
2010-2011
Hoilman
#2: Sovereignty, Authority &
Power
continued
• Institution(s)
– Stable, long lasting organization(s) with authority to
turn political ideas into policy; e.g. legislature,
executive, judiciary, council of advisors, assembly of
religious experts
• Institutions often create agencies to carry out policies or
deal with a particular matter
• Institutions may refer to organizations outside of the formal
government (e.g. political parties, interest groups, media,
etc.)
2015-16
Hoilman
#2: Sovereignty, Authority &
Power
continued
• Legitimacy – the right to rule as determined by
citizens’ perception of gov.; citizens belief that
gov. has rightful power to compel obedience Max Weber’s 3 sources of political legitimacy:
– Traditional legitimacy – based on historical,
cultural and/or religious
experiences regarding who should
rule & how (e.g. monarch,
emperor, priestess, Ayatollah
Khemeini, etc.)
– Charismatic legitimacy - based on the
dynamic personality of an individual /small
group (e.g. clan chieftain, shaman, guru,
prophet, Ayatollah Khoemeini, etc.)
2015-16
Hoilman
#2: Sovereignty, Authority &
Power
continued
– Rational-legal legitimacy - based on a system of
well-established laws and procedures (U.K.,
Mexico, Nigeria? Russia?)
• Rule of law – no person is above the law; all will be held
accountable to the laws & will only be punished as set
forth by clear, objective, publicly disclosed laws;
consistency, predictability, transparency (most modern,
developed, stable states rely on this – Mexico & U.K.)
• President Xi has been promising “rule of law” & cracking
down on corruption with the CCP for the past two years.
2015-16
Hoilman
#2: Sovereignty, Authority &
Power
continued
• Authority, power & legitimacy influence,
and are influenced by, political culture &
ideology
– Political ideology: set of political values held by
individuals regarding the basic goals of government
& politics (what the government should or should not
do re: foreign policy, military endeavors, taxation,
etc.) – fascist, liberal, conservative, fundamentalist
– Political culture: broad political beliefs, values,
practices, & institutions the government is based
upon; shared by large segments of the population
(e.g. democracy, liberty, economic equality,
patriotism, individualism, etc.)
2015-16
Hoilman
#3: Political & Economic
Change
• Types of Change:
– Reform:
• Change practices, not substance (not advocating overthrow);
reformers want to influence business, environmental,
religious, or taxation practices; often must wait until
elections or become more involved in certain institutions
(Mexican reforms regarding drug war, Nieto’s neoliberal reforms, Chinese
economic reforms to privatize business or reduce corruption in the CCP,
Iran’s allowance of 3G mobile)
– Revolution:
• Change at the most basic level involving the revision or
overthrow of existing institutions; success often requires
widespread participation (Russian Revolution 1917 or Iranian
Revolution 1978)
– Coup d’etats (“blows to the state”):
• Replaces leadership, but undirected – often carried out by
the military in countries where leaders have already taken
control by force & are weak; usually results in another
coup(Nigerian coup d’etat 1993)
2015-16
Hoilman
#3: Political & Economic
Change
continued
TRENDS & PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT
• Democratization - expansion of
democracy; transition process & outcome
– Liberal democracies
• Fair, free & competitive elections
• Civil liberties
• Rule of law
• Neutrality of the judiciary
• Open civil society
• Civilian control of the military
2015-16
Hoilman
#3: Political & Economic
Change
continued
– Illiberal democracies
• Coined in 1997 by Fareed Zakaria, IndianAmerican journalist, correspondent & author
• “Democratically” elected leaders restrict rights &
consolidate the power of their government
• Basic civil liberties (freedom of speech, religion,
press, etc.) are often denied
• Is not qualified as “free” by Freedom House
(NGO that conducts research on democracy,
political freedom & human rights)
• Some of these leaders may believe they have the
right to act so long as they hold regular elections
(Russia)
2015-16
Hoilman
#3: Political & Economic
Change
continued
• Economic Policy Shifts
– Organizational re-structuring/economic liberalization:
movement toward market economy & away from
command economy; involves decentralization, deregulation, removal of subsidies & tariffs &
privatization e.g. Russia 1990’s, Mexico today, China under Deng)
– Mixed economy: blending of characteristics of
socialist & capitalist economies; some economic
freedom & some gov. regulation e.g. China
– Any economic reforms influence, and are influenced
by, political change (in China, CCP fights for weiwen (status
quo); there is a cycle known as fang-shou (loosening of
economic restrictions, but tightening of political restrictions
which is uncommon)
2015-16
Hoilman
#3: Political & Economic
Change
continued
• Revival of Ethnic or Cultural Politics
– 21st Century globalization requires an
understanding & acknowledgment of
fragmentation (divisions within society based
on ethnic, cultural or religious identity)
– Nationalism remains strong in many parts of
the world as well and can influence economic &
political practices (e.g. trade policies, military
aggression, regime change, etc.)
– Supranational organizations are influenced by
these politics too (U.N., E.U., OAU, NATO, etc.)
2015-16
Hoilman
#4: Citizens, Society & State
• Divisions within society (religion, ethnicity,
gender, race, social or economic classes) are
known as social cleavages & they dramatically
influence political & economic activity
(fragmentation)
e.g. What mix of each group does a
country have? What laws are in place to
inhibit or protect the rights of certain groups?
Do political elites come from a certain group?
Are some groups denied access to the political
system?
2015-16
Hoilman
#4: Citizens, Society, & State
continued
• Citizen-state relationships
– Citizens’ belief that they can influence the gov.
(political efficacy) influences their participation
– Citizens’ opinions about how government should
operate (political ideology) influences decisions about
voting or which groups to support
– Political socialization – the way in which citizens
learn about politics (family, media, gov., etc.)
– Voting behavior – consider whether elections are
regular, competitive, free & inclusive and whether
turnout is high or low
– Social cleavages influence citizens’ beliefs, participation,
involvement in groups, political influence etc.
2015-16
Hoilman
#5: Political Institutions
• Political institutions – structures of the
political system (both formal & informal)
– Legislative, executive, judiciary, Supreme Leader, P.M.,
etc. (may or may not be distinct & separate branches
with or without checks of power)
• Levels of government
– Federal system – shares/divides power
with sub-units or geographical provinces or
states (Mexico, U.S., Russia, Nigeria)
– Unitary system – concentrates power
within one central government (Britain, China,
Iran) http://youtu.be/rNu8XDBSn10
2015-16
Hoilman
#5: Political Institutions
continued
• Other institutions
– Linkage institutions – connect citizens with
policy-making arena (e.g. interest groups,
political parties, electoral systems, public opinion
polling organizations, media, etc.)
– Supranational organizations – globalization has
given rise to an increase in supranational
organizations – groups that go beyond state
boundaries
• Relationships with other countries & membership in
these organizations can influence trade (NAFTA),
economics & politics (OPEC, E.U., OAU), military security
(NATO), & international peace (U.N.)
2015-16
Hoilman
#6: Public Policy
• Policies are created to address certain
issues & solve certain problems
• Created by legislative vote, executive
decision, judicial rulings, or a
combination of all three
• My be influenced by political parties or
interest groups too
• Governments differ in how they approach
issues and what importance they assign
to the issues
2015-16
Hoilman
#6: Public Policy
• Economic performance
continued
– Domestic (unemployment, inflation, GDP, etc.) and
international (trade, export v. import policies, GDP, etc.)
• Social welfare of citizens
– Health, employment, transportation infrastructure, family
assistance, education, etc. (prioritization of needs,
budgetary concerns, efficiency of bureaucracy, etc.)
• Civil liberties, rights, & freedoms
– Civil rights (group protections such as voting, equality of
opportunity, etc.) & civil liberties (individual protections of
behaviors – speech, religion, trial by jury, etc.)
– Government protection & interpretation of laws
– Freedom House international rankings (1-7)
• Environment
– Decisions regarding prevention & reduction of harmful
effects on the environment & natural resources, and how
gov. will address negative behaviors
2015-16
Hoilman