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Created by:
Barton Middle School
Social Studies Department
Middle School
Updated 1-2017
8th Grade Social Studies
Power STAAR Review Book
Student Name:_____________
Teacher Name:_______________
Concepts Continued…..
Separation of Church and State- the church and the state (government)
are organized separately- Roger Williams started Rhode Island this way
and today it is separate because of the First Amendment.
Salutary Neglect- a time when Great Britain did not force American
colonists to follow all of its laws to allow the economy to prosper
Bacon’s Rebellion- Nathaniel Bacon rebels with other
citizens in Jamestown for not being allowed to settle
further west and lack of protection from Indian
attacks by government- first rebellion in the colonies
Pontiac’s Rebellion- also called Pontiac’s War- after the French and
Indian War the colonists tried to settle the Ohio Valley and were met with
resistance from Indians led by Pontiac
Shay’s Rebellion- Farmers in Massachusetts having problems paying
taxes and other debt rebelled against Massachusetts government for lack
of assistance and foreclosing on their land. The rebellion was violent and
motivated scared leaders to meet in Philadelphia to make changes to the
ineffective Articles of Confederation. This meeting eventually led to a
new government being formed under the new U.S. Constitution
Whiskey Rebellion- the government taxed the sale of whiskey and the
farmer’s did not want to pay the tax- put down by the government (led by
George Washington himself) and it proved that the government would
use force to enforce federal laws
Page 28
Important Dates that you MUST know!!!
1607: Jamestown, Virginia- the first permanent and successful English
settlement in North America.
1620: Mayflower Compact, written by Pilgrims aboard the ship Mayflower,
established their own self-government and laws.
1776: (July 4) the Declaration of Independence is approved.
1787: the U.S. Constitution is written at the Constitutional Convention in
1803: Louisiana Purchase- Jefferson buys the Louisiana Territory from
France, doubling the size of the United States.
1861-1865: the U.S Civil War- Union (North) vs. Confederates (South)
Important Documents, Policies and Events
The Magna Carta, signed in 1215 by King John of England, was the first
document that limited power of the ruler and established the principles of
trial by jury and the protection of life, liberty and property.
 The Mayflower Compact was the document written aboard the
Mayflower in 1620 by the founders of the Plymouth colony, the Pilgrims.
This document represented an early form of colonial self-government and
an early form of a written constitution, establishing the powers and duties
of the government.
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, drafted by the settlers in the
Connecticut River colony in 1639, was the first written constitution in
the colonies establishing a democratic government controlled by citizens.
 The Virginia House of Burgesses, established in 1619, was the first
representative assembly (group) in the American colonies. Famous
delegates included Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, and George
1754-1763: The French and Indian War- England and France go to
war over control of North America; England wins and France loses all
N.A. territories. Benjamin Franklin creates the Albany Plan of Union,
the first attempt at uniting the American colonies.
Page 1
Abolition- the movement to ban slavery
American System- the policy by Henry Clay
prompted (helped) U.S. industry with protective tariffs, more national
banks, and the development of internal improvements (roads, railroads,
canals, etc.)
Civil Disobedience- refusal to obey laws, pat taxes etc. as a nonviolent
way to protest
Civic Virtue- the act of putting the good of the country before one’s own
personal interests – Founding Fathers
Foreign Policy- how America deals with other countries
Founding Fathers- men who took part in winning independence and
creating the United States of America
Free Enterprise- business have few restrictions put on them and little
government involvement.
Mercantilism- the economic system used by European nations using
their colonies to supply raw materials and human labor for their benefit
and to increase their gold supply. (It’s all about the Mother Country)
Nullification- the refusal of a state to enforce a federal law
(State’s Rights)
The Plantation Economy – After the invention of the cotton gin by Eli
Whitney in 1793, the plantation system grew, especially in the South.
Plantations were large-scale farms typically with many slaves. The cotton
gin made it easier and cheaper to remove the seeds from cotton and cotton
became a much more profitable crop. This increased the demand for
slaves in the South.
Popular Sovereignty- the people rule by consent (voting)
Protective Tariff- a tariff (tax) placed on a foreign goods consuming into
the country so that American goods are protected by having lower prices
and thus selling more goods. Tariff’s encouraged American
Page 27
Reasons for European Exploration & Colonization
Religious Freedom: Many religious groups were looking to escape persecution
(mistreatment) based on religious beliefs.
Economic Gain: Gold, land, cash crops, natural resources, and a market for exports
European Rivalries: Countries like England, France, Spain, Portugal and The Dutch
competing with each other for new territory, glory, and world dominance.
Northwest Passage: find a quicker route to Asia through the North America Continent
-Cities were established by water for survival, transportation, and trade
-Mountains and rivers were natural barriers to the pioneers moving west
-Mississippi River was important for transportation of goods and people
Page 2
Supreme Court Cases
Marbury v. Madison(1803)- established the principal of Judicial
Review- Supreme Court and no one else determines the
constitutionality of the law
McCulloch v. Maryland(1824)- limited state power by
forbidding states from interfering with federal institutions located
within their borders
Gibbons v. Ogden(1824)- upheld federal right to regulate
interstate commerce (trade between states); states could regulate
trade only within their own borders
(Cases listed above)
IMPACT: 1. Strengthened Supreme Court
2. Strengthened federal (national) power over the states
Worcester v. Georgia(1832)- ruled that the Cherokees did NOT
have to leave Georgia. Jackson ignored the ruling and forced the
Cherokee off their land anyway.
Dred Scott v. Sanford(1857)- ruling that slaves were property
and not citizens and could not file lawsuits. The Missouri
Compromise was unconstitutional. (The 36’30 line)
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)- This 1896 U.S. Supreme Court case
upheld the constitutionality of segregation under the “separate
but equal” doctrine.
Page 26
Mercantilism: the economic system used by European nations using their
colonies to supply raw materials and human labor for their benefit and to
increase their gold supply.
3 Colonial Regions Develop
New England Colonies: Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island,
• People: Mostly Puritans from England
• Climate: Long cold winters, rocky soil, vast forests
• Economy: Shipbuilding, timber, fishing, whaling, merchant trade
2. Middle Colonies: Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Delaware
• People: Diverse population from different European countries, Quakers
• Climate: milder winters, longer growing season, good soil for cash
• Economy: Cash crops of wheat, other grains, fruits, vegetables, artisans
3. Southern Colonies: Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
• People: English Anglicans, Catholics, enslaved Africans
• Climate: Warm, rainy, year-round growing season, rich soil for cash
• Economy: dominated by plantations, cash crops of tobacco, rice, indigo
And cotton
• Puritans-The Great Migration, wanted to purify the Church of England
Settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded all of
the New England Colonies
• Pilgrims- Separatists (Wanted to separate from the Church of England)
and settled in Plymouth, wrote Mayflower Compact 1620.
• Quakers- Wanted “Peace and Harmony”, William Penn founded
Pennsylvania, later worked for abolition and women’s rights
• Catholics- Maryland, Act of Tolerance (other religions were accepted)
Maryland founded by Lord Baltimore
Page 3
Grievances to Resolutions
Taxation without
King has absolute power
Colonists not allowed to
speak out against the
Quartering Act forced
colonists to house troops
Allowed homes to be
searched without
No trial by jury of peers
All citizens have
representation in
Congress which sets
Congress has the power
to override Presidential
1st Amendment- Freedom
of Speech
3rd Amendment-No
quartering of troops
4th Amendment- No
unwarranted search and
6th Amendment- Right to
speedy public trial
7th Amendment- Trial by
Page 25
The American Revolutionary Era
George Washington - Commander of the Continental Army during the
American Revolution. He was also the 1st President of the United States.
Thomas Jefferson – Thomas Jefferson was the primary author of the
Declaration of Independence and the third President of the United States . He was
inspired by English philosopher John Locke’s ideas of citizens having power over
their governments (“consent of the governed”). He was also Governor of Virginia.
1776: Declaration of Independence – (Philadelphia, Pa.-Second
Continental Congress) Lists grievances against King George III and announces to
the world that the colonies are forming their own nation and breaking away from
Unalienable rights - rights that cannot be taken away: life, liberty and the
pursuit of happiness.
Reasons for Colonists’ Discontent (anger)
Imposing taxes on colonists without their approval (No taxation without
Forcing colonists to quarter (house) British troops
Denying colonists the right to trial by jury in many cases
Preventing colonists from trading with nations other than Great Britain
Denying colonists legislative representation in Parliament
Causes of Revolution:
"No taxation without Representation!" - Colonists resented being
taxed without having a voice in Parliament.
 Tax acts passed include the Stamp Act (tax on most printed paper in the
colonies), Sugar Act (placed taxes on sugar on other luxuries), and
Townshend Acts (tax on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea)
 The Boston Massacre – conflict between colonists in Boston and British
soldiers which resulted in the death of five people; named a “massacre”
by Samuel Adams, and used as propaganda against the British.
The Boston Tea Party- Sons of Liberty dump British tea into the Boston
Harbor to protest the Tea Act (granted a tea monopoly to the British East
India Company)
 The Intolerable Acts – A series of laws passed by Parliament to punish
the people of Boston and Massachusetts and bring the colonists under
Loyalists - Americans who supported Great Britain during the revolution.
Patriots - Americans who favored independence from Great Britain during
the revolution.
Patrick Henry: Virginian patriot that famously proclaimed
"Give me liberty Or Give me death!”
Thomas Paine: wrote “Common Sense” to convince Americans that
Independence from the British was necessary.
Page 4
Even more important historical figures/events:
Thomas Hooker: Puritan leader, founder of Connecticut, main writer of the
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut.
Charles de Montesquieu: French philosopher whose ideas of separation of
powers and checks and balances inspired the design of the U.S. Constitution.
Wentworth Cheswell: African-American patriot during the American
Revolution, made a midnight run to New Hampshire to warn of a British
invasion, fought with Continental Army at Saratoga.
Abigail Adams: American patriot, wife of John Adams, and early supporter of
women’s rights.
Mercy Otis Warren: American patriot woman, famous for writing anti-British
Revolutionary poetry and books.
James Armistead: former slave, served in the Continental Army under Marquis
de Lafayette, was also a spy for the Americans.
Bernardo de Galvez: Spanish naval commander, helped the Continental Army,
defeated a British fleet at New Orleans during the Revolutionary War, secured
the Gulf of Mex.
Crispus Attucks: African-American patriot, shot and killed at the Boston
Massacre in 1770, 1st American to be killed by the British.
Haym Salomon: polish-born Jewish immigrant, banker and financier, supplied
the U.S. government with loans to finance the Revolutionary War.
William Carney: African-American soldier that fought with the 54th
Massachusetts Regiment in the Civil War, first black soldier to win the Medal of
Philip Bazaar: Chilean immigrant, Hispanic Union naval hero during the Civil
War, received the Medal of Honor.
Battle of Antietam: bloodiest one-day battle of the Civil War, 23,000 dead,
close victory for the North, ended Lee’s attempt at winning in Maryland.
Hiram Revels: (1870) First African-American to be elected into the U.S.
Senate, represented Mississippi.
Henry Bessemer: Invented the Bessemer Process, a way to make cheaper steel
from iron.
Page 24
Other Significant Revolutionary Individuals
King George III – King of Great Britain during the American Revolution who
disbanded the colonial legislatures, taxed the colonies, and refused the Olive Branch
Petition leading to the final break with the colonies.
Samuel Adams – was a founder of the Sons of Liberty who started the
Committees of Correspondence to stir public support for American independence,
organized the Boston Tea Party.
Paul Revere- member of Sons of Liberty, Boston silversmith, created Boston
Massacre engraving, rode to Lexington and Concord warning of the arrival of the
British. “The Regulars Are Out!” (“The British Are Coming!”)
Benjamin Franklin – was an inventor, statesman, diplomat, and signer of the
Declaration of Independence. He negotiated the alliance with France and then the
Treaty of Paris which ended the war. He also participated in the U.S.
Constitutional Convention in 1787.
The Marquis de Lafayette – was a wealthy French nobleman who came to
America to support the Revolution. He became good friends with General
Washington and was with him at Valley Forge and Yorktown.
Thomas Paine – wrote the pamphlets Common Sense and The Crisis to
encourage American independence and resolve.
Important Revolutionary Events:
The first battles of the American Revolution were fired at Lexington and
Concord, Massachusetts, in April 1775. Known as the “Shot heard round the
Battle of Bunker Hill: (June 1775) A British Victory but sustained heavy losses.
Battle of Trenton: (Dec. 1776) Washington and the Americans cross the
Delaware River and defeat a Hessian army camped in Trenton, New Jersey.
The Battle of Saratoga in New York (1777) was the turning point of the
American Revolution; it resulted in a major American victory that helped to
convince the French to join the Americans against the British.
Valley Forge, PA.: Americans spend a brutal winter camped there, becomes a
symbol of American suffering and commitment to the war.
The British, commanded by Lord Charles Cornwallis, are defeated at Yorktown,
Virginia (Oct. 1781) by American and French troops, becomes the final major
battle of the Revolutionary War.
The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the American Revolution and forced Britain to
recognize the United States as an independent nation.
Page 5
Important Speeches and Laws during the Civil War and Reconstruction:
Lincoln’s First Inaugural Address: “One section of our country believes
slavery is right and ought to be extended, while the other believes it is wrong
and ought not to be extended. This is the only substantial dispute. Physically
speaking, we cannot separate. We cannot remove our respective sections from
each other nor build an impassable wall between them. A husband and wife may
be divorced and go out of the presence and beyond the reach of each other, but
the different parts of our country cannot do this…In your hands, my dissatisfied
fellow country-men, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war.”
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address: “With malice toward none, with charity
for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on
to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who
shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which
may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all
Jefferson Davis’s Inaugural Address: “Our present position has been achieved
in a manner unprecedented in the history of nations. It illustrates the American
idea that government rests upon the consent of the governed, and that it is the
right of the people to alter or abolish a government whenever it becomes
destructive of the ends for which it was established. The declared purposes of
the compact of Union from which we have withdrawn were to establish justice,
insure domestic tranquility, to provide for the common defense, to promote the
general welfare, and to secure the blessings of liberty for ourselves and our
posterity; and when in the judgment of the sovereign States now comprising this
Confederacy it had been perverted from the purposes for which it was ordained,
and had ceased to answer the ends for which it was established, an appeal to the
ballot box declared that so far as they were concerned the government created
by that compact should cease to exist..”
Homestead Act: 1862 law that gave loyal Americans 160 acres of land west of
the Mississippi River as long as they lived on it for 5 years.
Dawes Act: 1887 law which allowed individual Native Americans the right to
own their own land in reservations and established a path to citizenship for
Morrill Act: 1862 law that provided federal lands and money for the
establishment of higher-education facilities throughout the United States
greatly increased access to colleges and universities for millions of
Page 23
1787: The United States Constitution (Philadelphia, PA.)
Magna Carta- Govt. power limited/individuals have rights
English Bill of Rights (1689) – English document that further
limited the power of the English king and granted even more
rights to all English people.
Mayflower Compact 1620- the first governing document of
Plymouth Colony.
Important American Documents
Declaration of Independence (1776) – The Bill of Rights and the Constitution
addressed grievances from the Declaration of Independence. It also lists the
unalienable rights: life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. This document
declared to the world that the 13 Colonies were independent from British Rule.
Federalist Papers (1787-1788) – anonymously written essays to encourage
ratification of the constitution. The authors include Alexander Hamilton, John
Jay, and James Madison.
The Articles of Confederation (1781-1787) – the first federal government of
the United States, created a weak central government and stronger states. It
was replaced by the US Constitution.
Weaknesses of the Articles included…
No executive branch to enforce laws
Congress could not collect taxes or regulate trade
No national court system
Each state had only one vote in Congress, regardless of population
There were 14 different types of currencies (Money)
The Northwest Ordinance (1787) – created a process for U.S. territories to become states,
prohibited slavery in the NW Territory.
Important Facts
1787 – Delegates from the 13 states drafted the US Constitution in Philadelphia.
The Preamble – is the introduction of the Constitution that states its purpose. We the
People, in order to form a more perfect union…
Great Compromise – Compromise between the big and small states over representation
in Congress. Created a bicameral (two-house) Congress – the Senate and the House
of Representatives. The number of members in the Senate is equal for all states (2),
and the number of representatives in the House is proportional (dependent on the
size) to a state’s population.
Three-Fifths Compromise – Compromise between northern and southern states over
how slaves would be counted in determining a state’s population for representation
3 out of every 5 slaves would be counted.
Ratification – to formally approve. Before it could go into effect, 9 out of the 13 states
had to ratify the Constitution.
Page 6
Results of the Civil War
Robert E. Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia in
1865 and the South loses the war.
Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth five days after the
end of war.
The Southern economy is devastated while the Northern economy
became stronger than before the war.
Reconstruction begins.
“With malice (evil) toward none and charity (love) for all.”
Abraham Lincoln
Reconstruction (1865-1877) – The period after the Civil War in the US when
the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union.
Reconstruction Plans- Lincoln (lenient-easy), Radical Republicans (harsh)
Freedmen’s Bureau: federal agency that supplied the newly freed slaves with
money, education, houses, and protection.
“Carpetbaggers”: Northerners that went south to help former slaves.
“Scalawags”: Southerners that supported helping the former slaves.
Andrew Johnson becomes first President to get impeached.
Black Codes- state and local laws in the South that enforced segregation and
limited the rights of African-Americans.
The Compromise of 1877: Rutherford B. Hayes promises to remove federal
soldiers from the South if they vote for him as President. The South agrees.
Hiram Revels- First African-American in the Senate (In office for one year)
Blanche K. Bruce- First African-American in Senate to serve full four year term
Reconstruction Amendments
13 Amendment – Abolished slavery in all of the United States.
14th Amendment – Gave citizenship and equal protection to anyone born in the
15th Amendment – Gave black men the right to vote.
Page 22
The United States Constitution (1787)
Separation of Powers – Divides the powers of government into 3 branches.
1. Legislative Branch – makes the laws
2. Executive Branch – enforces the laws
3. Judicial Branch – interprets the laws
Checks and Balances – makes sure no branch of the
government becomes too powerful. Example: The
President can veto a bill, Congress can impeach a
president, the Supreme Court can rule a law unconstitutional
Federalism – Power is shared between the states and national government.
Limited government – the power of the government is restricted by the U.S.
Constitution. “No one is above the law.”
Republicanism – A system where people vote for elected representatives to run
the government. (Elect Representatives)
Popular Sovereignty – The people hold the ultimate power. “We the people…”
Individual Rights-Individual rights and liberties protected
Federalists: supported a strong federal government, wanted the Constitution
ratified as is. Hamilton, Madison, and Jay wrote the Federalist Papers to
push ratification.
Anti-Federalists: feared a strong federal government, opposed ratification
without a Bill of Rights added. Led by George Mason and Patrick Henry.
Bill of Rights
1st ten amendments to the Constitution
Protect individual rights and liberties
1 Amendment – Freedom of speech, religion and press; right to assemble; right
to petition our government
2nd Amendment – Right to bear arms (to own guns).
3rd Amendment – No quartering of troops during peace time.
4th Amendment – No unlawful search and seizure.
5th Amendment – Right to Due Process, no double jeopardy, do not have to
testify against yourself.
6 Amendment – The right to a fast and public trial, right to a jury in a criminal
trial, right to have a lawyer.
7 Amendment – Trial by jury in civil cases.
8th Amendment – No cruel or unusual punishment.
9th Amendment – Rights reserved to the people.
10th Amendment – Powers reserved to the states
Page 7
Important Battles:
1. Fort Sumter: first battle of the Civil War
2. Battle of Antietam: bloodiest one-day battle
3. Shiloh-Very bloody battle. Union victory. Grant and Sherman
criticized despite winning the battle
4. Merrimack v. Monitor- battle of ironclad ships
5. Emancipation Proclamation- a military strategy in which
Lincoln freed the slaves in the South (not border state slaves)
6. Battle of Gettysburg: turning point of the war, ends Lee’s
attempt at winning in northern territory.
7. Siege of Vicksburg: victory by Grant gives the Union complete
control of the Mississippi River.
8. Sherman’s March to the Sea- a strategic march conducted
by General Sherman that resulted in Atlanta and a large
portion of Georgia being destroyed. Portions of South
Carolina were also destroyed. March was designed to
destroy the South’s capacity to wage war and to mentally
break it’s will to fight.
9. Appomattox Courthouse- final surrender of Robert E. Lee
to General Grant
Abraham Lincoln - President of the US during the Civil War. Lincoln
was the first Republican President and his election in 1860 encouraged the
South to secede (withdraw) from the Union and form the Confederate States
of America.
“Copperheads”: Northern Democrats that were against the Civil War
and went against Lincoln’s policies.
Ulysses S. Grant – Supreme Union general during the Civil War and later
served as President of the United States.
Robert E. Lee – Supreme Confederate general during the Civil War.
Jefferson Davis – President of the Confederate States of America.
Emancipation Proclamation (1863) – Document by Lincoln, declaring
that all of the slaves in the South were free in territories under rebellion.
Gettysburg Address – “Four Score and seven years ago…” Speech given by
Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg. In the speech, Lincoln stated, "We here
highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain--that this nation, under
God, shall have a new birth of freedom--and that government of the people, by the
people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
Page 21
The New Nation (Washington to Monroe)
George Washington: 1st President (1789-1796)
Washington’s Farewell Address – First President of the United States. President
Washington served two terms as president of the United States. In his last speech
Washington made these key points:
Warned against alliances with other countries
Warned against political parties
First two political parties are formed: 1. The Federalists,
led by Hamilton and Adams, believed in a strong federal government and an
industrial economy. 2. The Democratic-Republicans, led by Jefferson and
Madison, believed in stronger states and an agricultural economy.
John Adams: 2nd President (1796-1800)
The XYZ Affair and Alien and Sedition Acts: Events during the John Adams
Presidency which caused friction with France and with many people in the U.S.
Jefferson and Madison write the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions to oppose
Adams, introduce idea of State’s Rights.
Thomas Jefferson: 3rd President (1801-1809)
1803: the Louisiana Purchase – Thomas Jefferson buys territory from France
that doubles the size of the U.S.
1804-1806: Lewis and Clark explore the Louisiana Territory. With the help of a
native woman named Sacagawea, they bring back much valuable information.
Embargo Act of 1807- Issued by Thomas Jefferson in response to Great Britain’s
interference with U.S. trade and impressment of U.S. sailors. It bans imports and
exports (trade) with all foreign countries. It ruins U.S. economy and Jefferson’s
Page 8
The Civil War (1861-1865) – War between the North and South
Events that led to the Civil War:
Sectionalism, Wilmot Proviso, Compromise of 1850,
Fugitive Slave Act, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Kansas-Nebraska
Act of 1854, “Bleeding Kansas”, John Brown rebellion,
Election of Lincoln in 1860
Causes of the Civil War
Differences between the North and South over slavery
and the issue of states rights.
Increase of anti-slavery sentiment in the North
The Plantation Economy – After the invention of the cotton gin by Eli
Whitney in 1793, the plantation system grew, especially in the South.
Plantations were large-scale farms typically with many slaves. The cotton gin
made it easier and cheaper to remove the seeds from cotton and cotton became
a much more profitable crop. This increased the demand for slaves in the South.
Political and economic power in the South was dominated by the wealthy
plantation owners.
United States of America
Abraham Lincoln
Ulysses S. Grant
William T. Sherman
54th Massachusetts Regiment
(All African American Regiment)
Union (North)
Food Production
Confederate States of America
Jefferson Davis
Robert E. Lee
Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson
Confederacy (South)
Military Leaders
Fighting on own territory
Page 20
The New Nation (Washington to Monroe) Continued
James Madison: 4th President (1809-1818)
The War of 1812 – Great Britain had been seizing American ships,
kidnapping American sailors, and helping Natives against the U.S.
government. This led to the outbreak of war between the United States and
Great Britain. The war ended in 1815 without an obvious winner.
KEY EVENTS of the War of 1812: Francis Scott Key wrote “The Star
Spangled Banner”, Andrew Jackson wins the battle of New Orleans, a
new spirit of unity, patriotism, and nationalism spreads throughout the
U.S., leads to the Era of Good Feelings.
James Monroe: 5th President (1819-1824)
The Monroe Doctrine (1823) President James Monroe issued this doctrine
declaring the Western Hemisphere off-limits to further colonization by
European powers. Other key events that took place during Monroe’s
Era of Good Feelings
Missouri Compromise
Monroe Doctrine
The Marshall Court - John Marshall served as chief justice of the U. S.
Supreme Court. During his tenure he shaped federal law and increased the
power of the federal government. Most important was the Marbury v.
Madison decision (1803) in which he ruled that the federal courts had the
power to determine whether or not a law was constitutional. This power
became known as Judicial Review. Marshall’s other important cases were
McCulloch vs. Maryland, Gibbons vs. Ogden – both increased the power
of the federal government.
Page 9
ABOLITION: to get rid of slaveryFrederick Douglass-(North Star),Sojourner Truth-(Abolitionist/ Women’s
Rights), William Lloyd Garrison-(The Liberator),Harriet Beecher Stowe
(Uncle Tom’s Cabin), Harriet Tubman (Underground Railroad/Safe
houses/hiding spots)
WOMEN’S RIGHTS: - Seneca Falls Convention(Declaration of sentiments),-Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott,
Lucy Stone & Susan B. Anthony, Sojourner Truth(Ain’t I a Woman)
PUBLIC EDUCATION: Horace Mann- pressed for government-supported
education for all children
The Civil Disobedience movement was led by the author
Henry David Thoreau’s refusal to pay taxes to support the US-Mexican War.
(Civil Disobedience= refusal to obey laws, pay taxes, etc. as a nonviolent way to
19th Century writers and artists such as Walt Whitman and John Jay Audubon
contributed to the creation of a unique American identity. (People should get back
to and be one with nature)
Other Reform Movements:
Child Labor/Workers Rights- child labor laws and labor unions were created
to protect the rights of children and workers in the workplace.
Page 19
The Age of Jackson- Jacksonian Democracy
Andrew Jackson: 7th President, “Old Hickory”
*War hero, won the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812.
First poor-born President
Jacksonian Democracy- “The Common Man” – Common
people(farmers, laborers, shopkeepers)- suffrage(voting) should be open to all
white men.
Spoils system- those who helped him get elected received a government job
whether or not if they were qualified.
National Bank Veto- Jackson vetoed the re-charter of the bank which led to its
closure. This led to the Panic of 1837 which hurt the U.S. economy.
Tariff of 1828-“Tariff of Abominations” Tariff (Tax) placed on foreign goods to
protect American manufacturers. This caused people to buy more American
goods(Northern Manufacturers happy) – South became angry because less cotton
was bought and goods from foreigners cost moreThis led to the Nullification Crisis. (States Rights)
Trail of Tears- Indian Removal Act 1830,
Worcester v. Georgia(Jackson Ignored), Indian Territory(Oklahoma)
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The Growth of Sectionalism – Sectionalism, or conflict, between the North
and the South increased during the 1800s.
Two main causes of sectionalism were:
 Disagreements over states’ rights and tariffs
 The issue of slavery in the western territories
Northerners felt that the federal (national) government had greater powers under
the Constitution.
Southerners felt that the federal government’s power under the Constitution was
limited and that the states were left with the most power.
Sectional Leaders: North- Daniel Webster, South- John C. Calhoun,
West- Henry Clay
Missouri Compromise 1820- Missouri enters a slave state, Maine enters
a free state, 36’30 line drawn (slavery not allowed above this parallel)
Protective Tariff of 1828- Jackson-raised prices of foreign goods and
protected American manufacturing- South hated it and called it the
“Tariff of Abominations”
Compromise of 1850- California a free state- Fugitive Slave Act made
stronger-the other territories in Mexican Cession would decide slavery
issue by popular sovereignty
“Uncle Tom’s Cabin”- Harriet Beecher Stowe-book highlights the evils
of slavery- South angered by the book
1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act- Kansas was to use popular sovereignty
(people voting) to decide slavery issue- fighting broke out-known as
“Bleeding Kansas”
1856 Dred Scott v Sanford- the ruling that slaves were not citizens and
the Missouri Compromise 36’ 30 line was determined to be
unconstitutional. This angered many abolitionists.
“Harpers Ferry” Raid- John Brown and his followers attack federal
arsenal to ignite a slave revolt. He failed and was later hanged
Election of 1860 (Abraham Lincoln)- The South believes Lincoln will
end slavery and southern states begin to secede (leave the country)
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The Age of Jackson- Jacksonian Democracy
The Nullification Crisis: Andrew Jackson vs. John Calhoun
In 1828 and 1832, the U.S. Congress placed tariffs on imported manufactured goods. This
benefited U.S. manufacturers in the northeast but increased prices for consumers in other
parts of the country. Southerners, led by John C. Calhoun felt that the tariff was unfair
because there was very little manufacturing in the South and called it the “Tariff of
Abominations”. South Carolina nullified or voided the tariff saying that it would secede
from, or leave, the Union. President Andrew Jackson threatened to send troops to South
Carolina to enforce the tariff. Compromise was reached with the help of Henry Clay –
Congress reduced the tariff and South Carolina backed down.
Indian Removal Act in 1830- In 1830, President Andrew Jackson had the Indian Removal
Act passed. The act called for Native Americans living in the southeastern United States to
be moved west of the Mississippi River, into modern-day Oklahoma.
Indian Removal – In 1830, President Andrew Jackson had the Indian Removal Act
passed. The act called for Native Americans living in the southeastern United States to be
The most well-known incident of removal is known as the Trail of Tears, which was the
forced removal of the Cherokee Indians from Georgia to Oklahoma in 1838 and 1839.
Thousands of them died during the forced march.
Worcester v. Georgia: Supreme Court case that ruled in favor of the Cherokees keeping
their lands in Georgia but Jackson ignored it and forced the Cherokees to move anyway.
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The Industrial Revolution
made by hand
one at a time
Products made in
factories en mass
People moving to
U.S. from other
countries for a
better life.
Most immigrants move to cities for
jobs in factories
Mass Production
Assembly Line
Interchangeable Parts
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Westward Expansion
Factors That Encouraged Westward Expansion:
1. Economic Growth – the Industrial Revolution, the spread of
cotton and wheat farming, advances in transportation, and the
California Gold Rush (1849) all contributed to westward
2. Territorial Expansion – Treaty of Paris 1783, the Louisiana
Purchase (1803), Annexation of Texas (1845), the Oregon
Territory (1846), the Mexican Cession (1848), and the Gadsden
Purchase (1853).
3. The Mormon Migration – Mormons, seeking religious freedom,
head west and settle in modern-day Salt Lake City, Utah.
Manifest Destiny – The belief that America had the God-given right to
expand across the continent.
James K Polk- 11th US President: was a strong believer in Manifest
Destiny and goes to war against Mexico to achieve it.
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Technological Innovation
Cotton Gin
Textile factories
Eli Whitney
Removed seeds from Cotton
Slavery Increased because cotton
could be cleaned faster so planters
were able to plant more cotton
Samuel Slater/Frances Cabot Lowell
Power Loom
Lowell Mills
Women and Children Workers
NOTE: the first factories were powered by water but
later replaced by steam power.
Parts that could be substituted for one
another in the manufacturing process.
Reduced the amount of time it took to
produce goods and greatly increased
factory production.
Eli Whitney
Robert Fulton
Powered by Steam
Faster, more efficient
New markets
Steel Plow and the McCormick Reaper
Interchangeable parts
John Deere,(Steel Plow)
Cyrus McCormick (McCormick Reaper)
Made farming corn and wheat easier
More profitable and contributed to
the westward expansion of farming.
Samuel Morse
Early form of electric communication
Morse Code
Rapid communication along long
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Westward Expansion-War with Mexico
The Annexation of Texas – In 1845, Texas becomes the 28th state in the
U.S., Mexico claims Texas still belongs to them.
 Border Dispute- Mexico claims Nueces River is the border
U.S. claims Rio Grande is the border
 President Polk- offers to buy northern Mexico territory for
30million dollars. Mexico refuses and Polk is angered.
The U.S.-Mexican War – The U.S. vs. Mexican War began in 1846 and was
caused by the annexation of Texas. The war ended in 1848 with the United States
defeating Mexico and the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo- Officially ends the war with Mexico. The
treaty resulted in the U.S. annexing a large portion of northern Mexico.
This was known as the Mexican Cession. This region makes up most of
the western part of the United States.
Terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo:
Mexico officially gives up all claims to Texas and recognizes the Rio
Grande as the official border between the U.S. and Mexico.
Mexico cedes northern territories to U.S. (Mexican Cession). This
includes all or parts of California, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico,
Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah.
U.S. pays Mexico 15 million for the territories.
Mexican Cession:
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Industrialization: The use of machines (factories) to produce goods;
radically changed life for many Americans.
Origins: During the War of 1812, trade between the U.S. and Britain
stopped, forcing the U.S. to start manufacturing many items. After
the war, this revolution continued to grow.
Effects of Industrialization:
1. Led to rapid economic growth in the United States
2. Became the main system for manufacturing goods
3. Allowed workers without much skill or experience to earn
4. Urbanization—people moved to cities where most of the
factories were located, causing rapid growth of cities.
5. Increased immigration from other countries
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Trails Listed:
Oregon Trail- Begins in Independence Missouri/Ends in Portland Oregon
Spanish Trail- Begins in Santa Fe New Mexico/Ends in Los Angeles, CA
Mormon Trail- Begins in Nauvoo, Illinois/ Ends in Salt Lake City, Utah
California Trail- Begins off of Oregon Trail/Ends in Sacramento, CA
Santa Fe Trail- Begins in Independence, Missouri/ Ends in Santa Fe, NM
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