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NIGERIA
A TALE OF MANY ETHNICITIES
AMANDA BRUNT
ANDI DEMA
LONG VU
www.cob-net.org/docs/nigeria/africa02.gif
DEMOGRAPHICS
• Population: 137,253,133
• Note: estimates account for AIDS and
higher infant death rate and lower
population growth rates
• Africa’s most populous country
• 9th most populous country in the world
LIFE EXPECTANCY AND HIV/AIDS
• Life expectancy at birth: 50.49 years
– 2.9% of the population is over 65 yrs. Old
– Infant Mortality Rate:
• 70.49 deaths/1,000 live births
• Living with HIV/AIDS:
– 5.4% of adults
– 3.6 million (out of 137 million Nigerians)
• HIV/AIDS - deaths:
– 310,000 (2003 est.)
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
• Literacy rate (Age 15 and over who can
read and write):
– total population: 68%
male: 75.7%
female: 60.6% (2003 est.)
• Urbanization rate is below 25%.
• Population comprises 20% of all West
Africa
ETHNICITIES
• The predominantly Catholic Igbo are the largest
ethnic group in the southeast.
• English is the lingua franca, but many tribal
languages exist and most Nigerians are multilingual.
• There are 521 listed Nigerian languages.
• Most widely used Nigerian languages:
– Hausa, Yoruba, and Igbo
u
MAP OF
NIGERIA’S
ETHNIC
GROUPS
http://www.nigerianembassy.co.il/
ETHNICITIES
• Nigeria’s population consists of about 300 ethnic
groups.
• Major Ethnic groups (total 65% of pop.):
– North: Hausa-Fulani
– Southwest: Yoruba
– Southeast: Igbo
NIGERIA IN DECLINE
• “Nigeria was once perceived as Sub-Saharan
Africa’s economic giant. As Africa’s most
populous state, Nigeria was expected to assume
the mantle of political leadership and steer the
region toward economic prosperity.
Unfortunately, Nigeria…is now mired in political
turmoil, ethno-regionalism, and economic
mismanagement.”
– World Regional Geography, by David
Clawson et al
NIGERIA IN DECLINE
• Now categorized as a low-income country with
poor human-development capabilities
• Causes of decline:
– geopolitics of oil
– deep-seated ethnic divisions
– the excess of military rule, greed, corruption,
and mismanagement.
DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH
• GDP per capita (adjusted PPP) = $900
• 60% live below the poverty line
• Consumer inflation rate: 13.8%
ECONOMICS
• Import vs. export ratio
– Import : $27.604 million
– Export : $58.876 million
– Ratio: $0.47 value imported per $1 value
exported
• Nigeria’s main trading partners
– Exports go to : US (54%), Brazil (10.4%),
Spain (8.3%), France (3.2%)
– Imports come from: China (10.5%), US (7.4%),
UK (6.9%), Netherlands (6.2%)
LAND
• arable land:
33.02%
permanent crops:
3.14%
other:
63.84% (2005)
• Irrigated land: 2,820 km2 of a total 923,768 km2
• Nigeria is about twice the size of California.
Picture thanks to: www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/africa/nigeria/debt.html
OIL IN NIGERIA
– Too dependant on oil:
• 20% of GDP
• 95% of foreign exchange earnings
• 65% of government budgetary revenue
– Of its commodity exports, 95% is petroleum and
petroleum products.
– The current administration claims to be lowering
dependence on oil. Most current politicians,
however, depend on oil funds for election.
– In 2004, it was estimated that Nigeria exported
58% of the natural gas it produced.
GOVERNMENT
• Nigerian military has dominated the country’s
politics for decades following its independence
in 1960.
• Its history contains a series of trade-offs
between military and civilian rule
• Current government has a “democratic” rhetoric,
but all “elected” presidents were former military
officers
• Most recent elections categorized by violence
and corruption
CURRENT PRESIDENT
lusegun Obasanjo, former military general
Picture thanks to: http://www.coventrycathedral.org.uk/peaceprize05.html