Download Copper Geology/History

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Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral. It is a key constituent of the respiratory
enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs & crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood
pigment hemocyanin, which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish & other vertebrates. The
main areas where copper is found in humans are liver, muscle & bone. Copper compounds are used as
bacteriostatic substances, fungicides & wood preservatives. Copper occurs synthesized in massive star
formations & is present in the Earth's crust at a concentration of about 50 parts per million (ppm), where it
occurs as native copper or in minerals such as the copper sulfides chalcopyrite, chalcocite, copper
carbonates azurite & malachite. Also as the copper oxide mineral cuprite. The largest mass of elemental
copper discovered was found in 1857 on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Michigan, US & weighed 420 tones.
Copper is heavily integrated in human history first discovered in the Middle East around 9000BC & named
after Cyprus, the principal mining place in Roman era (Cyprium). Copper was one of the first metals to be
worked into implements & the first metal to be smelted from ores. Its excellent ductility & high conductivity
assure its use as a conductor of heat & electricity, a building material & a constituent of various metal
alloys. Commonly encountered as copper salts, which often impart blue or green colours to minerals such as
azurite & turquoise. These minerals have been widely used historically as pigments. Architectural structures
built with copper corrode to give green verdigris (or patina). Decorative art prominently features copper in
various forms.
Metaphysical Meaning
The stone of courage. A super conductor & amplifier. Stimulates positive energy & moves energy blocks.
Releases & neutralizes negative energy. Boosts the souls light pillar & raises Kundalini energy
strengthening divine connection. Illuminates the beauty of your chosen incarnation & makes soul lessons
easier to understand shows the bigger picture & provides a fearless state of mind. Draws out pain & painful
memories. & neutralizes negative energy. Is an excellent stone to power boost other stones. Brings luck &
good fortune.
Crystal Healing
Hold to head to release tension & stress headaches. Increases circulation. Fights bacterial infection.
Group: Native Elements – Copper Group
Composition: Cu
Atomic Number: 29
Standard atomic weight: 63.546(3)
Element Category: Transition Metal
Electron Configeration: [Ar] 3d10 4s1
Melting point: 1357.77 K (1084.62 °C, 1984.32 °F)
Boiling point: 2835 K (2562 °C, 4643 °F)
Colour: Red orange metallic lustre. Tarnishes to green
Crystal Structure: face-centered cubic (fcc)
Hardness: 2.5 - 3
Crystal System: Isometric
Form/Habit: Cubes, dodecahedra & as tetrahexahedra - rarely as octahedra & complex combinations.
Filliform, herringbone, arborescent, wires & massive.
Fracture: Hackly
Lustre: Metallic
Streak: Copper-red
Specific Gravity: 8.94 - 8.95 g/cm3
Transparency: Opaque