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Overview
10 reactions
glucose
C-C-C-C-C-C
2 ATP
2 ADP
convert
fructose-1,6bP
glucose (6C) to
P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P
2 pyruvate (3C)
DHAP
G3P
 produces:
4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P
2H
 consumes:
2Pi
2 ATP
 net:
2Pi
2 ATP & 2 NADH

AP Biology
pyruvate
C-C-C
2 NAD+
2
4 ADP
4 ATP
Cellular Respiration
Stage 2 & 3:
Oxidation of Pyruvate
Krebs Cycle
AP Biology
2006-2007
Glycolysis is only the start
 Glycolysis
glucose      pyruvate
6C
2x 3C
 Pyruvate has more energy to yield



3 more C to strip off (to oxidize)
if O2 is available, pyruvate enters mitochondria
enzymes of Krebs cycle complete the full
oxidation of sugar to CO2
pyruvate       CO2
AP Biology
3C
1C
Cellular respiration
AP Biology
Mitochondria — Structure
 Double membrane energy harvesting organelle


smooth outer membrane
highly folded inner membrane
 cristae

intermembrane space
 fluid-filled space between membranes

matrix
 inner fluid-filled space


DNA, ribosomes
enzymes
 free in matrix &
What cells would have
AP
Biology
a lot
of mitochondria?
outer
intermembrane
membrane
inner
membrane-bound space
membrane
cristae
matrix
mitochondrial
DNA
Mitochondria – Function
Oooooh!
Form fits
function!
Dividing mitochondria
Membrane-bound proteins
Who else divides like that? Enzymes & permeases
bacteria!
What does this tell us about
the evolution of eukaryotes?
Endosymbiosis!
AP Biology
Advantage of highly folded inner
membrane?
More surface area for membranebound enzymes & permeases
Oxidation of pyruvate
 Pyruvate enters mitochondrial matrix
[
2x pyruvate    acetyl CoA + CO2
3C
2C
1C
NAD
Where
does the
CO2 go?
Exhale!
3 step oxidation process
 releases 2 CO2 (count the carbons!)
 reduces 2 NAD  2 NADH (moves e )
 produces 2 acetyl CoA


Acetyl CoA enters Krebs cycle
AP Biology
]
Pyruvate oxidized to Acetyl CoA
reduction
NAD+
Pyruvate
C-C-C
[
Coenzyme A
CO2
Acetyl CoA
C-C
oxidation
2 x Yield = 2C sugar + NADH + CO2
AP Biology
]
Krebs cycle
1937 | 1953
 aka Citric Acid Cycle
in mitochondrial matrix
 8 step pathway

 each catalyzed by specific enzyme
Hans Krebs
1900-1981
 step-wise catabolism of 6C citrate molecule
 Evolved later than glycolysis

does that make evolutionary sense?
 bacteria 3.5 billion years ago (glycolysis)
 free O2 2.7 billion years ago (photosynthesis)
 eukaryotes 1.5 billion years ago (aerobic
AP Biology
respiration = organelles  mitochondria)
Count the carbons!
pyruvate
3C
2C
6C
4C
This happens
twice for each
glucose
molecule
4C
citrate
oxidation
of sugars
4C
6C
CO2
x2
4C
AP Biology
acetyl CoA
5C
4C
CO2
Count the electron carriers!
pyruvate
3C
6C
4C
NADH
This happens
twice for each
glucose
molecule
2C
4C
4C
citrate
reduction
of electron
carriers
x2
FADH2
AP Biology
acetyl CoA
4C ATP
CO2
NADH
6C
CO2
NADH
5C
4C
CO2
NADH
Whassup?
So we fully
oxidized
glucose
C6H12O6

CO2
& ended up
with 4 ATP!
What’s the
point?
AP Biology
Electron Carriers = Hydrogen Carriers
H+
 Krebs cycle
produces large
quantities of
electron carriers
NADH
 FADH2
 go to Electron
Transport Chain!

AP Biology
What’s so
important about
electron carriers?
H+
H+
H+
+
H+ H H+
H+
ADP
+ Pi
ATP
H+
Energy accounting of Krebs cycle
4 NAD + 1 FAD
4 NADH + 1 FADH2
2x pyruvate          CO2
3C
3x 1C
1 ADP
1 ATP
ATP
Net gain = 2 ATP
= 8 NADH + 2 FADH2
AP Biology
Value of Krebs cycle?
 If the yield is only 2 ATP then how was the
Krebs cycle an adaptation?

value of NADH & FADH2
 electron carriers & H carriers
 reduced molecules move electrons
 reduced molecules move H+ ions
 to be used in the Electron Transport Chain
like $$
in the
bank
AP Biology
What’s the
point?
The point
is to make
ATP!
ATP
AP Biology
2006-2007
H+
And how do we do that?
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
H+
 ATP synthase
set up a H+ gradient
 allow H+ to flow
through ATP synthase
 powers bonding
of Pi to ADP

ADP + P
ADP + Pi  ATP
ATP
H+
AP Biology
But…
Have we done that yet?
NO!
The final chapter
to my story is
next!
Any Questions?
AP Biology
2006-2007