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Nutrition
Guidelines
during
Pregnancy
•Ovum
•0-14 days
•Embryo
•2-8 weeks
•Fetus
•8 weeks to birth
Fertilization and Implantation
Eggs are viable for 72 hours
Sperm is viable for 48 hours
Implantation occurs about
5-6 days after conception
Development Week 1
Blastocyst
Inner Cell Mass
(Embryonic Stem Cells)
Developmental
Week 2
Embryonic Germ Cell Layers:
•Endoderm
•Mesoderm
•Ectoderm
Neural
Development
(Weeks 3-4)
•Neural Plate
•Neural Groove
•Neural Fold
•Neural Crest
•Neural Tube
Neural
Development
•Mitosis
•Migration
•Differentiation
•Dendritic Sprouting
•Synaptogenesis
•Cell Death
•Dendritic Pruning
•Myelination
Dendritic Sprouting
Synaptogenesis
Myelination
Major growth occurs
from birthto 2 years
of age
Cephalocaudal Development: from head to toe (tail)
Proximodistal Development: from midline to the periphery
Readiness Principle: Until children reach a state of readiness, they
will be unable to perform a task, even with training and practice.
Weight
gain (lb)
1st trimester
2nd trimester
3rd trimester
Increase in breast size
2
Increase in mother's
fluid volume
4
Placenta
1
Increase in blood supply
to the placenta
4
Amniotic fluid
2
Infant at birth
7
Increase in size of
uterus and supporting
muscles
2
Mother's necessary
fat stores
7
30
Fig. 13-7, p. 491
DON’T
DO
Do eat enough to support
the additional needs of
pregnancy plus exercise.
Do drink water before, after,
and during exercise.
Do cool down with 5 to 10
minutes of slow activity and
gentle stretching.
Do exercise for 20 to 30
minutes at your target heart
rate.
Do warm up with 5 to 10
minutes of light activity.
Do exercise regularly (at
least three times a week).
Pregnant women can enjoy the benefits
of physical activity.
Don’t scuba dive.
Don’t participate in activities
that may harm the abdomen
or involve jerky, bouncy
movements.
Don’t exercise if you
experience any
pain or discomfort.
Don’t exercise while lying on
your back after the first
trimester of
pregnancy or stand
motionless for
prolonged periods.
Don’t exercise when sick
with fever.
Don’t exercise in hot, humid
weather.
Don’t exercise vigorously
after long periods of
inactivity.
Fig. 13-8, p. 492
Table 13-7, p. 505
Fig. 13-12, p. 504
Table 13-10, p. 509
Nutrition Guidelines
for Children and Adolescents
Fig. 13-11, p. 503
CS 13-1, p. 514
CS 13-2, p. 516
How do I know if my child is eating enough?
Children eat when they are hungry and usually stop when they are full.
Some parents worry because young children appear to eat very small amounts
of food, especially when compared with adult portions. A child who is growing
well is getting enough to eat.
To check your child’s eating pattern, pay attention to his or her food choices.
Make sure no one food group is completely left out. If this happens for a few
days, don’t worry. But prolonged neglect of a food group could keep your child
from getting enough nutrients.
Encourage your child to be adventurous and eat a variety of foods within the
food groups too. Even within a food group, different foods provide different
nutrients. If the family is adventurous, then the child will likely join in.
Child-size servings: Be realistic
For children, adult-sized servings can be overwhelming. Offering child-sized
servings encourages food acceptance.
Here’s an easy guide to child-sized servings:
•Serve one-fourth to one-third of the adult portion size, or one measuring tablespoon
of each food for each year of the child’s age.
•Give less than you think the child will eat. Let the child ask for more if he or she is still
hungry.
Snacks make up an important part of childhood nutrition.
Children must eat frequently.
With their small stomachs, they cannot eat enough at meals alone for their highenergy needs.
Three meals and 2 or 3 healthy snacks a day help children to meet their daily nutrition
needs.
To make the most of snacks, parents and caregivers should offer healthy snack
choices and be consistent with the time snacks are served.
Offer a Variety of Snacks.
Choose mostly healthy snack foods that are a good source of nutrients
(protein, vitamins, minerals) as well as calories.
Examples include:
•raw vegetables
•fresh or dried fruits
•low-fat dairy products
•100% fruit juices (unsweetened)
•are an alternative to soda and fruit drinks but should be limited to 4 to 6 ounces per day.
Plan Snacks.
Schedule snacks around normal daily events
Space them at least 2 hours before meals.
Children should not feel full all the time.
A feeling of hunger between meals and snacks encourages children to eat well
when healthy foods are offered.
If your schedule is hectic, pack a snack. This helps prevent a cranky, hungry
child with no options besides fast food.
Foods to choose:
Foods from all the groups work together to supply energy and nutrients necessary for health
and growth. No one food group is more important than another. For good health, you and
your child should choose foods from all 5 food groups.
Grains: Whole-grain products such as breads, crackers, cereal, pasta, brown rice, bagels, tortillas, corn
bread, pita bread, bran muffins, English muffins, matzo crackers, pancakes, breadsticks, and pretzels.
Vegetables: Asparagus, beets, bok choy, broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, collard greens, corn, cucumbers,
green and red peppers, jicama, kale, okra, peas, potatoes, pumpkin, snow peas, squash, spinach, string
beans, sweet potatoes, tomatoes, vegetable juices, and zucchini.
Fruits: Apples, applesauce, apricots, bananas, berries, cantaloupe, figs, 100% fruit juices (unsweetened),
grapefruit, kiwi, mangoes, nectarines, oranges, papayas, peaches, pears, plums, pineapple, raisins,
prunes, starfruit, strawberries, tangerines, and watermelon. Many of these can be offered as dried fruits as
well.
Meat, Poultry, Fish, Legumes: Lean cuts of beef, veal, pork, ham, and lamb; skinless chicken and
turkey; fish; shellfish; cooked beans (kidney beans, black-eyed peas, pinto beans, lentils, black beans);
refried beans (made without lard); peanut butter; eggs; reduced-fat deli meats; tofu; nuts; and peanuts.
Dairy: Low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, string cheese, cottage cheese, pudding, custard, frozen yogurt, and
ice milk.
Soft Drink Consumption
Milk Consumption
High School Students taking Daily PE Classes
Fig. 14-3a, p. 523
Nutrition Guidelines for the Elderly
Nervous
System
Decline with
Age
•Decrease in brain size/weight
•steady, slow, and mild
•Decrease in Brain blood flow
•Decrease in the use of Glucose
•Decrease in Sensory Systems
Senses Decline with Aging
Recall and
Recognition
in
Adulthood
•Recognition
•stable
•Recall
•declines
Table 14-6, p. 539
Alzheimer's Disease:
Symptoms
• memory impairment
–starts slow and gradual
–forget events, lose objects
• agnosia - can’t recognize objects
• aphasia - language problems
• apraxia - motor problems
• emotional changes
–aggressive, agitated, public displays, wandering
• average survival is 8-10 years
General Brain Atrophy
Neuronal Degeneration
Normal
Alzheimer’s
Decreased Cerebral Metabolism
Alzheimer's
Normal
Beta-Amyloid Plaques
Beta-Amyloid Plaques
Tau Filaments
Pathology:
•Interferes with Ca2+ regulation
•Increases free radicals
•Stimulates mircroglia aggregation
•Increases inflammation
Table 14-10, p. 546
Alzheimer's: Treatment
• nothing can correct the damage
• possible agents that slow the deterioration:
– education
– tacrine hydrochloride
– estrogen replacement therapy
– vitamin E
– aspirin
• helping patients adjust to memory loss
– memory wallet, key baskets, tags