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Adiabatic Circuits
Mohammad Sharifkhani
• Applying slow
input slopes
reduces E below
• Useful for driving
large capacitors
• Power reduction >
4 for pad drivers (1
Dissipated E
over R
Basic concepts
If we slow down the powerclock’s
risetime by a factor of N:
• The time required increases by a
factor of N.
• The current decreases by a factor
of N.
• The power decreases by a factor
of N 2 .
• The dissipated energy per
operation decreases by a factor of
• The transferred charge and energy
stored on Cap are unchanged.
Basic concepts
• The output has a predetermined “resting” level
(ground in this case). Whenever the output
makes a transition away from the resting level, it
must be returned (“recharged”) to the resting
level before the start of the next calculation. This
recharge step carries a terrible price.
• Three ways to do the recharge:
– Retractile cascade schemes
– Memory Scheme
– Reverse function
Retractile scheme
• The input to stage 1
must be valid for 2M +
1 phases.
• What’s worse is that
the throughput is
reduced by a factor of
M or so, since no
pipelining is possible.
Memory scheme
Memory Scheme
Next stage
Reversible Functions
• If we know the prior
state of the node. If the
gate at stage m
implements a logically
reversible functionthe
stage-m outputs to
control the recharge of
the stage-m inputs (F-1)
• Not all functions are
reversible  extra
computation might be
Reversible Functions
• Up to 8 phase
clock is
An adder
the three-bit reversible adder
requires 20 times the
number of devices and 32
times the area of a
conventional adder using the
same technology and laid
out by the same designer.
Athas 94 TVLSI
Reversible Functions
(a) ready
(b) ready
F2-1 internal ready (same as (a))
(a) recharged
to VDD/2
1- When one gate driving the other
in Tri-state
2- During the hand-off, the output of
both gates are guaranteed to be the
F1 out tied
F2 out tied
Hand-off(F2-1 drives a, F1 untie)
Rail driver ckt
• Initial voltage of the rail : Vinint
• Vfin is the target voltage
• Cut the MOSFET when the peak voltage is
reached (current is zero)
• Off-chip inductor
Single phase/Memory based
Single phase/Memory based
• Arbitrary logic
functions are
• Auxiliary clock
is needed
Single Pck + Reference Voltages
Either MP1 or MP2 turns off
Only the inputs set the IC at out, out_
N or P current
Adiabatic μP
Dynamically jumps up to
more than VDD
M2 blocks the pull back
energy-recovery latch (E-R latch)
Adiabatic μP : Two phase
• Similar to what have been
observed in LC tanks of RF
• For a constant capacitive
load, the frequency will be
stable and can be locked to a
specific frequency with a
varactor based phase-locked
• If synch with other blocks are
– We can use a FIFO and treat
the adiabatic circuit as an
asynch circuit
Adiabatic μP
Large capacitive nodes
Adiabatic μP
Domino style:
When phi2 is
the middle gate
is precharged
already and can
Same phase  can
not use PMOS
precharge MOS fet 
higher than VDD is
Precharged gates
driven by E-R
latches do not need
protection nFET’s in
their pull-down
stacks since the
input signals are low
during precharging.
Combinatorial middle blocks
Some energy in the tree can be recovered