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Guided Notes for Climate
Chapter 14, Section 1
Climatology is the study of
Earth’s climate and the factors
that affect past, present, and
future climatic changes.
2. Climate describes the longterm weather patterns of an
area, including annual
variations of temperature,
precipitation, wind and other
weather variables.
3. Normals, or standard values,
for a location include weather
data such as high and low
temperatures, amounts of
rainfall, wind speed and
direction, humidity, and air
4. Normals are the average
weather conditions over a
long period of time.
5. The amount of solar radiation
received by any one place
varies because Earth is tilted on
its axis, and this affects how
the Sun’s rays strike Earth’s
6. The tropics, between 23.5˚
north and south of the
equator, receives the most
solar radiation because the
Sun’s rays strike that area
from almost directly overhead.
7. The temperate zones lie
between 23.5 degrees and
66.5 degrees north and south
of the equator. Temperatures
in these regions are moderate.
8. Polar zones are located from
66.5 degrees north and south
of the equator to the poles,
where solar radiation strikes
at a low angle.
9. Large bodies of water affect the
climates of coastal areas because
water heats up and cools down
more slowly than land. Many
coastal regions are warmer in the
winter and cooler in the summer
than inland areas.
10. Mountain climates are
usually cooler than those
at sea level.
11. The climate on the windward
side of a mountain is usually
wet and cool. On the leeward
side, the air is dry, and it
warms as it descends. Deserts
are common on leeward sides
of mountains.