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• Decomposers break down dead
• Parasitism is when 1 benefits and 1 is
• Commensalism is when 1 benefits and the
other is not helped and not harmed
• Both algae and fungus is benefitted
through their relationship. (This is called
• The energy of an ecosystem is
replenished by the sun
• Food chain……starts with
plant/grass….then something that eats
grass…then something that eats it
• Predation = Animal dies
• Parasitism = Animal may or may not die
• The trees that produce the large McIntosh
apples are treated with a chemical so that
the apples have twice the number of
chromosomes in their cells. What type of
speciation is this? (Polypoid Speciation)
• AIDS—immune system
• colds—respiratory system
• influenza—respiratory system
• Bacteria and viruses both cause diseases
and disorders. Antibiotics are medicines
that kill bacteria.
• Colds = viruses = not killed by antibiotics
• Homologous structures = same origin
(maybe not same use….arm/bat wing0
• Analogous structures = different origin
….same function (bird wing/bat wing)
• Hawaiian honeycreepers are a group of
birds with similar body shape and size.
However, they vary greatly in color and
beak shape. Each species occupies its
own niche and is adapted to the foods
available in its niche. The evolution from a
common ancestor to a variety of species is
an example of divergent evolution
• As the matter moves from grasses to
coyotes the energy decreases……and the
population may increase or may decrease
• The mouse is the first-order consumer (1st
to eat the grass)
• The cat would be a second-order…….(at
the thing that ate the grass)
• The coyote would be a third-order
consumer….(at the thing that ate the thing
that ate the grass)
• Toxins increase in concentration as one
moves up a food chain… animals that
are far down the food chain are more
sick…….than those near the beginning of
the food chain