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Fly Management
• Speaking today: Ashlee Swinford; No speaker on
• Next Speaker: Carolina Escomilla on Tuesday, Nov. 10.
• Recognition
Important Seminar Friday
• Phil Lounibos (Univ. Florida) – Student
Choice Speaker 3pm, N-12 Ag. Sci. North
• Speaking on the ecological interactions
between Asian tiger mosquitoes (Ae.
albopictus) and yellow fever mosquitoes
(Ae. aegypti).
• Has conducted extensive work on Aedes
aegypti in Florida, Colombia, & Brazil.
• Current projects.
Exam Review - Material
• Material Covered for the Exam: Lecture &
Reading material THROUGH today.
– Lecture material
– Text Readings (Chaps 11 (from ca. p. 157),
12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, & 19 (about 200 pp
of material)
• 5-min Presentations NOT Covered
Exam Review – Similar Format
Exam will have 3 General Parts – Somewhat
longer than the previous exam
1. Picture Questions
Five or so picture questions, pictures will change
every 15 sec. or so.
For each picture, there will be 3 – 5 questions.
2. Non-Picture Questions
About 20 multiple choice or “check all that apply”
3. Short-Answer
5 – 10 questions that can be answered in a
sentence or two.
General Study Guide - 1
• What insects have been discussed so far
(common names only)?
– To what orders/families do they belong? Families are
important only if there are very few in the order, e.g.
• Which pathogens/diseases do these insects
– What is the transmission pathway?
– What are the symptoms of the disease?
– What type of pathogen is it? (e.g. bacteria, virus,
protozoan, rickettsia, etc.).
General Study Guide - 2
• For each insect/pathogen combination:
– How prevalent/serious is the threat?
– What host-pathogen-insect factors are
involved in the transmission-disease cycle?
– What general categories/terms apply to the
various components?
– In what situations would you expect to
encounter the problem (geographical location,
season, ecological setting, specific sites/times
of day, etc.).
– What are the general management options?
General Fly Management
• Most fly management is host/site-centric
with key disease/problems being the
management objective(s)
– e.g. Livestock fly management focuses on
stable/face/horn flies, cattle grubs
– e.g. Urban fly management focuses on
mosquitoes & human disease reduction
– Hospital fly management focuses on
filth/house fly exclusion & elimination
Generic Fly Management
• Fly management programs are generally divided into
larval and adult components.
• Vectored pathogens generally managed
pharmacologically with prophylactic treatment used
where available.
– Therapeutic treatments not always available.
– If available, therapeutic treatments are often expensive, have
multiple contra-indications, not always well tolerated.
– Disease diagnosis means damage has already occurred
• For humans, education component is important.
• There may be a disease/fly reservoir management
component as well
Larval Fly Management
• Source Reduction – Elimination of larval
habitat and/or resources
• Biological Control – Use of one organism to
control another. Pest target is usually a
future generation.
– Conserving existing biological controls
– Augmenting existing biological controls
• Chemical Control – Contaminating larval
habitat with an agent toxic to the larva.
– Agent may be chemical or biological
– If biological, pest target is usually the current
Source Reduction for Larval Control
• Reducing standing water
• Reducing fecal material,
rotting vegetable material
• General sanitation
Stable fly breeding ground
Draining standing water in California
Fly swarms in Cambodia garbage
Biological Control via predators, parasites
• Some are commercially
available (e.g.
Muscidifurax raptor for
house fly control).
• Major emphasis of
mosquito management in Above: Muscidifurax parasitizing fly pupae
(left) and empty pupal cases after
rice lands
• Some cases of
managed for larval control
Above: Fly maggot infested with parasitic
nematodes that are killing the maggot.
Mosquito Fish
Key is conservation
First introduced from Asia into the
US during the early 1900’s
Several species, most are
tropical, there are some winter
hardy species.
Specialized for mosquito
Many are known, few are actually managed for mosquito control
Mermethid Parasite
Lagenidium water mold
Chemical Control (Insecticides),
• Applied to larval habitat
• Non-parasitic larvae: General
environmental application for typical
• Parasitic Larvae:
application of avermectins
(vertebrate systemics)
– Synthetic analogues of a soil microbial
extract found in Japan, 1978
Larvicides for Free-Living Larvae
• Nerve Poisons – Interfere with nerve action,
larva can’t swim/orient/breathe, cause of death
usually asphyxiation (anoxia) or dehydration
• Insect Growth Regulators – Interfere with the
ability to grow and molt
• Microbial Insecticides – Infectious units of a
pathogenic microbe, targeted at the existing
• Smothering Agents – Prevents respiration,
cause of death is anoxia, mostly for aquatic
Nerve Poisons as Larvicides
• Originally, organochlorine, organophosphate, &
carbamate insecticides. Those aren’t used
• Primary nerve poison now are spinosyns,
synthetic analogues to spinosad.
– Originally found in Jamaican rum barrels in 1982.
– Produced by a soil actinomycete, Saccharopolyspora
spp (now several species)
– Naturally-occurring blend of several compounds (esp.
spinosyn A & D), along with many other components.
Spinosyns for Diptera Control
• Different mode of action from
other nerve poisons (mostly used
on adults)
• Wide use in agriculture
• Can be used in rotation with other
• Classified as “Reduced Risk”
• Active area of work with new
applications still being found.
– e.g. promotion of wound healing.
Insect Growth Regulators
• Methoprene is the most
• Advantages – Harmless
to non-insects,
inexpensive, rapid acting
• Disadvantage – no
additional effect on
adults, affects other
insects (including
• Examples
• PreStrike Granules
Larvicides: Microbial Agents
Bacillus sphaericus & Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti)
– Non-target Safety
– Control for 30+ days
– Short window of treatment
– May have disagreeable
– Mosquito Dunks
– Mosquito Quick Kill Granules
– VectoLex
Physical Smothering Agents
“Suffocates” mosquito
• Advantage:
– Also acts on pupae and
ovipositing adults
– Can be used to treat very
large areas
• Disadvantage:
– Oil film
– Subsurface larvae
• Examples:
– BVA, Golden Bear
– Agnique (monomolecular)
Adult Fly Management
• Personal Protection
• Exclusion (buildings, small areas)
• Insecticides
– Residual
– Non-residual
• Other
– Trapping in sensitive areas
– Mating Disruption
Personal Protection
• Stay indoors at dusk &
during evening hours
• Long shirts and pants
• Repellants
– Deet:
• N,N-diethyl-metatoluamide
• 30%
– Non-deet:
• Eucalyptus oil
• Avon Skin-So-Soft
• Citronella oil
Repellents – Two Types
Small Space
Protects a single individual
Protects a small group of people
Effective Range ~ 1 foot
Effective Range ~ 10 feet
Mechanical Exclusion
• Shut them out
• Netting and
– 16-18 mesh
• Nonresidual Area Sprays
– Contact insecticides, droplets must make
direct contact with mosquito
• Dominant Products
– Sumethrin + PBO (Anvil)
– Resmethrin (Scourge)
Non-residual adulticiding is used
for large-area space treatments
using ULV equipment
• ULV = “Ultra Low Volume”
– Very small droplets;8 to 30 microns
• Prefer low air currents:
– 3.2 kph to 12.9 kph
– Excessive wind & updrafts
reduce control but some is
necessary for dispersal
• Disadvantages:
– Gets everywhere: in
residences, on food, etc.
– Expensive
– Products may act by temporary
Perimeter treatments use residual
• “Pyrethroids” synthetic
derivatives of
chrysanthemum extracts
•Provides weeks of
• Residual but do not
move in the food chain
• Disadvantages
• Extensive non-target
arthropod effects
• Fairly expensive