Download WORDS AND WORD-FORMATION PROCESSES Lecture 7

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Transcript
There are systematic word-formation
processes that take place across human
languages. Depending on the language,
some of these processes might be available
in particular languages, whereas others may
not. But the result is the same: new words
are always created and added to the lexicon
of the language.
Morphology
Word formation
Inflection
Derivation
Affixation
Other
Compounding
2(+) free roots
reduplication conversion
prefix
suffix
infix
+/- class-changing
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The most productive process of word
formation in a language is the use of
derivational morphemes to form new words
from already existing forms.
For example, from arrange we can derive
rearrange, from which we can still derive
rearrangement.
Can you think of other examples?
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Coinage is the invention of totally new words.
The typical process of coinage usually
involves the extension of a product’s name
from a specific reference to a more general
one.
For example, think of Kleenex, Xerox, and
Nylon. These started as names of specific
products, but now they are used as generic
names for different brands of these types of
products
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Conversion is the extension of the use of one
word from its original grammatical category
to another category. Technically it is called a
change of paradigm.
For example, the word must is a verb (as in
“You must attend classes regularly”), but it
can also be used as a noun as in “Class
attendance is a must”.
Conversion from one category to another is
very common in some languages, e.g.
English, and is one way of enriching the
lexicon of a language.
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New words also enter a language through contact
with other languages.
English, for example, borrowed a lot of French
words as a result of the Norman invasion in
1066, and that’s why the English lexicon has a
Latinate flavor to it, even though English did not
descend from Latin.
Here are some examples of foreign words that
found their way into English:
(a) leak, yacht (from Dutch)
(b) barbecue, cockroach (from Spanish)
(c) piano, concerto (from Italian)
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New words are also created through the
common process of compounding, i.e.
combining two or more words together to
form a new complex word. Here are some
examples of compounding:
(a) post + card → postcard
(b) post + office → post office
(c) book + case → bookcase
(d) black + bird → blackbird
We may also combine more than two words,
e.g. mother-in-law, sergeant-at-arms, jackin-the-box.
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Acronyms are words created from the initial
letters of several words.
Typical examples are NATO, FBI, CIA, UN,
UNICEF, FAQ, WYSIWYG, radar, laser.
Back-formation results when a word is formed
from another word by taking off what looks like a
typical affix in the language.
 A noun enters the language first and then a verb
is “back-formed” from it. This is the case with
the verbs edit and televise, for example, which
entered English as back-formations from editor
and television.
 Other examples:
a) liaise (to exchange information with someone who works in another
organization or department so that you can both be more effective) from
liaison
b) burgle from burglar
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Another process of word-formation is
clipping, which is the shortening of a longer
word.
Clipping in English gave rise to words such as
fax from facsimile, gym from gymnasium,
and lab from laboratory.
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Blending is another way of combining two
words to form a new word.
The difference between blending and
compounding, however, is that in blending
only parts of the words, not the whole words,
are combined.
Here are some examples:
(a) smoke + fog → smog
(b) motor + hotel → motel
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Often enough extensions of meaning are
metaphors , e.g. the grapes, the grapevine
With frequent use the metaphoric origin can
be forgotten, as in head (of the department),
the chair (in a meeting), hence to chair,
The more recent: virus, bug, icon, menu, to
surf
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a) bookworm __________
j) rise (n) ________
b) Eurovision __________
c) American ___________
k) chicken burger______
d) mice _ ____________
l) televise _______ _
e) best __ ___________
f) ohm ______________
m) radar ___ _______
g) UCLA ______________
h) gas __ ___________ n) nylon ____ _______
i) arena __ __________
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a) COMPOUNDING
b) BLENDING
c) AFFIXATION
d) SYMBOLISM
e) SUPPLETION
f) EPONYMY
g) ACRONYMY
h) CLIPPING
i) BORROWING
j) FUCTIONAL SHIFT
k) MORPHOLOGICAL MISANALYSIS AND COMPOUNDING
l) BACKFORMATION
m) ACRONYMY
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n) COINAGE
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