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What’s happening in this picture?
Where are these events occurring?
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 5-5, Copyright by The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
 By 395 AD, Diocletian had divided the Roman Empire
 Byzantium = eastern empire
 Rome = western empire
 476, Germanic forces from the north conquered the
Western Roman Empire
 Byzantium survived for almost another 1000 years and
carried on the Greco-Roman tradition.
476: Germanic tribes conquered the old Roman Empire Territories
 Middle Ages = European history between the
fall of the Roman Empire (476) and the Modern
Era (1450)
 Also called the Medieval Period (“Medium”
is Latin for Middle; “aevum” is Latin for age)
 Early Middle Ages = 500 – 1000 C.E.
 High Middle Ages = 1000 – 1300 C.E.
 Late Middle Ages = 1300 – 1500 C.E.
Some believed that
pestilence, war, famine, & death
• Instability after Rome’s fall
• Lawlessness, corruption, political
assassinations, & starvation
• No national government; local
regional lords held the power
• Lords controlled estates through
• Constant fear of plunderers and
• High inflation and low trade
500-1000 C.E.
 At 1st, the Byzantines
controlled only a small
area around the eastern
Mediterranean a 1st
 Justinian (527-565),
recovered much of the
territory of the old
Roman empire
 Capital of Byzantium for almost 1,000 years
 Largest city in Medieval Europe
 Major center of commerce
 Constantinople is Istanbul today
Why is
the city
What is
Glencoe Chapter Transparency 9, Copyright by The McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
Horn =
inlet off of
that forms
a natural
The Golden Horn
 Justinian = ruled as an
 Autocrat – ruler who
has complete authority
 Justinian & Theodora
created a huge
Christian empire
 The empire reached its
greatest size under
their rule
Queen Theodora
This map depicts the
Empire at the death
of Justinian I, who
had reigned from
527 to 565 as sole
sometimes in
concert, and
sometimes in
conflict, with his
powerful wife
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 9-4, Copyright by the McGraw Hill Companies, Inc.
= “The New Rome”
 Wealthy
 Produced: gold, silk, grain,
olives and wine
 Traded for spices, ivory and
precious stones
 Traders used the Silk Road
and other trade routes
 Traders traveled as far as
China and India
Sponsored a Rebuilding Program in Constantinople
Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom)
 Rebuilt the
 Used for gladiator
fights and chariot races
 Justinian I organized
the first written
compilation of Roman
 Called The Justinian
 Influenced the
development of the civil
law system in many
What is happening
in this slide?
What are the men
Who are the men?
 Laws were fairer to women. They
could own property and raise their
own children after their husbands
 Children were allowed to choose
their own marriage partners.
 Slavery was legal and slaves must
obey their masters.
 Punishments were detailed and fit
the crime
 Inspired the modern concept of
Classical and
Roman Law
Eastern Europe
Christian Art
Middle East
Islam spread throughout Africa, Asia, and
In the 7th Century. Muslims, conquered Palestine
where Jesus Christ had lived and preached
Muslims were tolerant
let Christians/Jews and keep their faiths
Christian pilgrims visited the Christian 'Holy Land‘ & shrines freely
In the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks conquered Jerusalem
Persecuted Christian pilgrims
1071, defeated the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert;
Threatened Byzantine Empire; Emperor Alexius asked the Pope for help
 Pope Urban II called for a “Holy War” or “Crusade” against the Muslim
“infidels” (unbelievers) and occupiers of the Holy Lands
1000s responded and pinned crosses on their tunics
The Crusades
Between 1096-1212, there were 7 crusades
1000s responded and pinned crosses on their
tunics & marched to fight/die for God
1st Crusade: (1096-1099)
 French, German, and Italian armies captured
 Sacked the city, slaughtered many Muslims &
Jews; stole/ransacked goods
 Many Crusaders went home--left surrounding
territories vulnerable
 Muslim leader, Saladin captured Edessa
2nd Crusade: (1147-1149)
 2nd Crusade failed to win Edessa back
Additionally, Saladin re-captured Jerusalem in
1187 for the Muslims
The Crusades
3rd Crusade: (1189-1192)
 Emperor Frederick Barbarossa of Germany drowned in a local river
 English King Richard & French King Philip II of France arrived by sea
 captured the coastal cities
 unable to move inland & capture Jerusalem
 Saladin was impressed with King Richard’s fighting on the coast
 King Richard earned the nickname the “Lionhearted” here
 Saladin agreed to allow Christian pilgrims free access to Jerusalem
 Muslim leader
 Established the
Ayyubid Dynasty
 Very devout
 Legendary chivalry
 Defeated
Europeans in the 2nd
& 3rd Crusades
Saladin (1138-1193)
 Spared Jerusalem
 Made Cairo a
vibrant medieval city
The Crusades
3rd Crusade (1202-1204)
 Venetian leaders used the opportunity to weaken their largest
economic competitor
 Diverted Crusaders to Constantinople; sacked the city and ruled it
until 1261
 Byzantine army recaptured Constantinople in 1261
 Byzantine Empire never regained their great power
 Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453
3rd Crusade = 1204
 Venetian merchants encouraged the Crusaders
 Jealous of Constantinople’s economic competition
 1261, Byzantines regained control of the city
 Byzantine empire never regained its former glory
 “Limped along” until conquered by the Ottomans in 1453
What was the main effect of the Crusades?
 Italian port cities prospered economically
 Opened Europeans to a variety of goods and products: silks, spices,
coffee, tea, science, and knowledge
 Access to the compass/astrolabe provided Europeans with the means to
travel away from the coastline and to seek new goods
 Access to information about gun powder will enhance their more
aggression and lead to imperialistic tendencies in
Asia, Africa, and the Americas
 3rd Crusade sacked Constantinople;
weakened the Byzantine Empire
 Led to Anti-Semitism in Europe
 Broke down feudalism;
Paved the way for the development of European nation-states
Lasting impact: bred centuries of distrust
& enmity between Muslims &Christians
Crusaders sacked Constantinople
Collapse of the Byzantine Empire
Mehmet II
 1453 – the Muslim
Ottoman Empire
surrounded and
 Constantinople was
renamed Istanbul
 Istanbul = the capital of
the Ottoman Empire.
Constantine XI
Religious Influences
Area – Geographic Influences
Intellectual Influences
Political Influences
Social Influences
Economic Influences