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Basic Cell Structures & Types
Gibson – Biology Fall 2011
The Cell Theory
(p.170)
• All living things are made up of “cells”
• “Cells” are the basic units of structure and
function (for all living things);
• New “cells” are produced from existing “cells”.
“Basic” Cell Structures
(p.171)
• Cell membrane – a thin, flexible barrier
around a cell that separates it from the
surrounding environment.
“Basic” Cell Structures
(p.171)
• Cell wall – for some types of cells… a strong
layer around the cell membrane that adds
support and structure.
“Basic” Cell Structures
(p.171)
• Cell nucleus – for some types of cells… a
relatively large structure that contains the
cell’s genetic material (DNA) and controls
cellular activities.
“Basic” Cell Structures
(p.171)
• Cell nucleoid – for some types of cells… a
relatively large AREA that contains the cell’s
genetic material (DNA) and controls cellular
activities (there is NO “structure” just an
area).
“Basic” Cell Structures
(p.171)
• Cytoplasm – for all types of cells… the waterrich “jello-like” material in which the nucleus
(if there is one), the ribosomes (all cells have
these), and the organelles (if there are any)
“float” inside the cell.
“Basic” Cell Structures
(p.171)
• Regarding cell structures so far; you may have
noticed a)…some of the slides said: “some types of cells
have this….” and;
b)… some slides said: “some types of cells don’t
have this…”.
• What we are going to do is review the cell structures
so far with respect to these “types” of cells.
“Basic” Cell Types
(p.172)
• Prokaryotes (pronounced: PRO-care-ee-oats)
• Eukaryotes
(pronounced: YOU-care-ee-oats)
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Cell
Membrane
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Cell
Membrane
A thin
flexible
barrier
around
the cell.
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Cell
Nucleus
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Cell
Nucleus
A large
structure
than
contains
the cell’s
genetic
materials
and
controls
cell
activities
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Cell
Nucleus
Cell
Nucleoid
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Cell
Nucleus
Cell
Nucleoid
A general
area that
holds the
cell’s
genetic
materials
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Cell
Nucleus
Cell ‘s
DNA
Cell
Nucleoid
Cell ‘s
DNA
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Cytoplasm
A water rich
“jello-like”
material in
which
everything
“floats”
Cytoplasm
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Organelles
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Organelles
The cell’s
“organs”
that
perform
specific
functions/d
uties
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Ribosomes
Ribosomes
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Ribosomes
The
structures
that are
involved with
& control
protein
production.
Ribosomes
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
“Basic” Cell Types
Prokaryotes
Cell Structure
Cytoplasm
Nucleoid
Ribosomes
Membrane
DNA
Nucleus
Organelles
(p.172)
Eukaryotes
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