Download There are 4 families of instruments in the orchestra

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Music technology (electronic and digital) wikipedia, lookup

Music technology wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Instruments of the
Orchestra
Revision
There are 4 families of instruments
in the orchestra:
Strings
Brass
Woodwind
Percussion
Strings – MAIN
INSTRUMENTS
 Violin
 Viola
 Cello
 Double Bass
 Harp
Strings – MAIN CONCEPTS
 Arco
 Pizzicato
 Col Legno
 Vibrato
 Double Stopping
 Tremolo/Tremolando
 Arco – to play using the bow
 Pizzicato – to pluck the strings with the fingers
 Col legno – to play using the back
(wooden side) of the bow
 Double stopping – a bowing method where two
strings are bowed at the same time producing
two different notes
 Tremolo/Tremolando – the rapid up and down
movement of a bow on a stringed instrument
creating a restless effect
 Vibrato – rock the hand back and forth on the
string to create a warmer sound
Brass – MAIN INSTRUMENTS
 Trumpet
 French Horn
 Trombone
 Tuba
Brass – MAIN CONCEPTS
 Blowing
 Mute
 Flutter Tonguing
 Vibrato
 Glissando
 Blowing – to blow into the mouthpiece
of an instrument to create the sound
 Mute – a cone shaped device which
alters the sound of the instrument,
making it quieter
 Flutter Tonguing – the player rolls the
letter ‘r’
 Glissando – where as many notes as
possible are played by sliding between
the notes
 Vibrato – a slight wavering in pitch to
bring warmth to the tone
Woodwind – MAIN
INSTRUMENTS
 Piccolo
 Flute
 Oboe
 Cor Anglais
 Clarinet
 Bassoon
 Saxophone –
Soprano
Alto
Tenor
Baritone
Woodwind – MAIN
CONCEPTS
 Blowing
 Flutter Tonguing
 Vibrato
 Reed
 Reed – a small piece of wood placed
on the mouthpiece of woodwind
instruments to help create their
sound
Percussion – MAIN
INSTRUMENTS
Tuned
Piano
Tubular bells
Xylophone
Glockenspiel
Timpani
Un-tuned
Drum kit
Woodblock
Castanets
Triangle
Tambourine
Cymbals
Percussion– MAIN CONCEPTS
 Striking
Keyboard Instruments
 Organ – found in churches, usually have
foot pedals & pipes
 Harpsicord – used in Baroque period
performing ornaments and bass lines
(continuo). Strings are plucked rather than
hammered.
 Piano (pianoforte) – used from the Classical
period onwards. Can perform/accompany
sonatas.
 Synthesizer – an electronic keyboard found
in modern music.
Types of Guitar
 Acoustic – non-electric with 6 strings which
can be strummed or plucked
(fingers/plectrum)
 Electric – as acoustic but uses an amplifier
to produce sound
 Slide – a method of guitar playing using a
metal tube or bottle neck to slide across
the frets. Found in country and western
music.
 Bass – and electric 4 stringed guitar which
produces low pitched notes. Performs
riffs/bass lines.
Electronic Concepts
 Distortion – an electronic effect used to
alter the sound of an electric guitar, making
it sound harsh
 Delay – an electronic effect used to repeat
the sound over and over like an echo
 Reverb – an electronic effect which gives
the impression of different hall
atmospheres
 Slapping – a method of playing the bass
guitar where the thumb is used to hit the
side of the strings
 ORNAMENTS – a decoration of the melody
to add melodic and rhythmic interest:
 Trill – the rapid alteration of two adjacent
notes
 Grace note -a short note played before
the main note of the melody
 Drum fill – a rhythmic decoration played on
the drum kit
Bands & Groups
 String Quartet – 2 x violins, viola & cello
 Chamber Music – music composed for a
small group of instruments & performed in a
small venue
 Pipe Band – Bagpipes, bass drum & snare
drum, performs Scottish music to march to
 Scottish Dance Band – fiddle, accordion,
keyboard, bass & drums, performs
Scottish dances at Ceilidhs
Bands & Groups
 Orchestra – all 4 sections of the
orchestra performing orchestral music
 Wind/Military Band – woodwind, brass
& percussion, often performs marching
music
 Brass Band – brass & percussion only
 Steel Band – steel drums & drum kit,
from the Caribbean
 Folk Group – singers & instrumentalists
performing traditional music
Bands & Groups
 Pop Group – guitars, vocals, keyboards &
drum kit, performs popular ‘chart’ music
 Rock Band – as above but with a heavy,
driving beat
 Jazz Group – instruments include:
saxophone, drums, piano, brass (trumpet),
improvisation is a feature
 Big Band – instruments include: trumpets,
trombones, saxophones & a rhythm section
of guitars, bass & piano, performs jazz/
swing
Jazz Styles
 Blues – African/American folk music, slow in
tempo, 4 beats in a bar & strophic. Used
blues scale – C Eb F Gb G Bb C - & 12 bar
blues chord progression:
I
I
I
I
IV
IV
I
I
V
IV
I
I
 Ragtime – used vamped left hand (oom-cha)
& syncopated melody, e.g. The Entertainer.
Jazz Styles
 Dixieland – written for a small
ensemble consisting of rhythm section
– piano, banjo, drums, tuba/bass
(pizzicato walking bass) - & front line
– trumpet, clarinet, trumpet &
saxophone – performing improvises
passages
 Scat singing – nonsense words,
syllables and sounds improvised by a
singer,
e.g. do-wap-a-doobie-doobie
Jazz Styles
 Boogie-Woogie – a jazz style for
the piano with the left hand playing
an ostinato in broken octaves while
the right hand improvises:
 Swing – big band style using the
following rhythm:
Jazz Styles
 Walking bass – a bass line where
each note has the same value, usually
crotchets, & moves mainly in step,
performed by piano, tuba or double
bass (pizzicato)
Orchestral Styles
 Symphony – a large work for orchestra,
usually in 4 movements – fast, slow, minuet
& trio, & fast (classical period)
 Concerto – work for solo instrument +
orchestra (piano concerto, violin concerto,
etc), normally 3 movements. The soloist
can ‘show off’ their technical ability in a
cadenza, performing scales, fast running
passages and ornaments, often ending in a
trill.