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A Biblical and Historical
Perspective on Iraq
Map of Iraq
(in the present time)
Sumerian, Babylon and Assyria area
(map of Iraq in the old
Sumerian Civilization
About 6200-6500 years ago there was
a civilization located between two
great rivers: Tigris and Euphrates.
That area is called Mesopotamia.
Mesopotamia was famous because of
the Geographic location. The city was
perfect place to irrigate the land and
raise productive crops, as well as
domesticate sheep, goats and other
There was a city called Ur, which is
now 250 miles from the capital
Baghdad, is still existed until this
Ur is known in the Bible as Ur of the
Chaldees, refers to the Chaldeans
(who settled the area about 900 B.C).
It was known as the city of Sumerian
civilization and home of Abraham.
Sumerian Civilization
One of the temples ,which is still
standing till now is called Ziggurat
(built before more than 4000 years),
was a piece of temple complex.
People thought that the dwelling of
the moon god, serves as a tool to
bridge the distance between the sky
and the earth. The height 100 feet,
and the base is 210 feet by 150 feet
on trapezoidal base.
First writing in the world was invented
by Sumerian, which called the
cuneiform writing.
Ziggurat in City of Ur
Bible words
Genesis Chapter 11:27-32
First Abram born and lived in Ur of the
Chaldeans with his father, and his
wife Sarai, and then went to Canaan.
But when they came to Haran, they
settled there. (11:31).
Civilization of Babylon
Also, other civilization located in the same
area of Mesopotamia is called Babel ( 63
miles south of Baghdad), at year 2100
before B.C. by king called Hamorabi, the
civilization in his years called the golden
years. The first law in the world was done
by this Babylon king.
Suspended garden was constructed to a
height of more than 295 feet, and was
provided with eight huge gates, and this
civilization was the expanded from the
Sumerian civilization.
Between year 606-536 B.C, Babylon
kingdom was a great and powerful
civilization; therefore it control all
the surrounding area starting from
Perish from the east and Turkey from
north, and reached Egypt to the
west, and down to Saudi Arabia.
Civilization of Babylon
Bible words
Genesis Chapter 10:11-23
Some of clans of Noah's sons , the
first kingdom were in Babylon,
Ereck, Akkad, and Caneh in
Shinar. (10:10), and some of
them were built and lived in
Nineveh and Calah, that is the
great city. (10:12).
Genesis Chapter 11:1-9
Babylon Tower. The Lord came
down to see the city and the
tower that the men were
building. (11-5). Come let us go
down and confused their
language so they will not
understand each other. (11:7).
So the Lord scattered them from
there over the earth, and they
stopped building the city. That is
why it was called Babel. (11:8-9).
2Chronicles Chapter 36:5-21
Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon
attack Jehoiakim who was king
of Jerusalem.
Jeremiah Chapters 50, 51, and 52
This is the word the Lord spoke
through Jeremiah the prophet
concerning Babylon and the land
of the Babylonians. (50:1).
Ezekiel Chapters 12, 17, 34, 24, 26,
29 and 30
Land of Babylon.
Daniel Chapters 1 to 9
In the third year of the Jehoiakim
king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar
king of Babylon came to
Jerusalem and besieged it. (1:121).
Ancient monuments of Babylon
Civilization of Assyrian
Another civilization in the north of
Iraq called Assyrian (about 300
miles north of Baghdad), was
from the same Chaldeean
groups, this civilization was
starting during the third
millennium B.C and the city
called Nineveh taken as a capital
at a year of 1080 B.C.
Civilization of Assyrian
Genesis Chapter 10:11-23
Some of clans of Noah's sons, the first
kingdom were in Babylon, Ereck,
Akkad, and Caneh in Shinar. (10:10),
and some of them were built and
lived in Nineveh and Calah, that is
the great city. (10:12)
2 Kings Chapters 18 and 19
Assyria, locate north of Iraq (Nineveh)
war between king of Israel and king
of Assyria.
Bible words
Isaiah Chapters 36, 37, 38 and 39
Sennacherib king of Assyria attack all
the fortified cities of Judah and
captured them. Isaiah (36:1-10).
Then Isaiah the prophet went to king
of Hezekiah and asked what did those
men say, and where did they come
from? From a distance land ,
Hezezkiah replied they came to me
from Babylon. Isaiah(39:3).
Bible words
Jonah Chapters 1 to 4
The word of the Lord came to Jonah son of Amittai:
go to the great city of Nineveh (north of BaghdadIraq) and preach against it, because its
wickedness has come up before me. (1:1).
Nahum Chapters 1 to 3
An oracle concerning Nineveh. The book of the vision
of Nahum the Elkoshite.(1:1) Elkoshite is taken
from city called Elkosh now is a small city located
outside the Nineveh (south of Baghdad-Iraq) of
about 25 mile.
Bible words
Zephaniah Chapter 2
He will stretch out his hand against the
north and destroy Assyria, leaving
Nineveh utterly desolate and dry as
the desert. (2:12).
Zechariah Chapter 10
I will bring them back from Egypt and
gather them from Assyria. (10:10)
Ancient monuments of Assyrian
Ancient monuments of Assyrian
Christianity in Iraq
In the first century A.C. the city of
Nineveh became connection point
between Iraq, Syria and area of
Great Sea (Mede train Sea). In the
first century (A.C.) and from Nineveh,
the Syrian and Palestrina Christianity
starting in spread in the north and all
others cities of Iraq, in the third
century (A.C.) the Christianity
became religion for the most Iraq
Aramaic and Roman books references stated
the followers of apostle Thomas preached
the Christianity in the north and then
middle and south of Iraq, and first church
was built at year of 82 (AC) in a city called
COOKHE behind Al MADAIN (city located
south of Baghdad distance about 20
miles), this church became larger and
larger and then named The Iraqi
Christianity Reference, officially named
After the Christianity became a high
name in the area of Iraq and shared
the churches in Syria ( for example:
unity agreement about Easter
celebration day in 189-199 A.C.),
Persian’s kings and with abet by
Jewish peoples who were residents
in the area, were afraid that the
Christianity will threat their
authority specially when the
Christianity reach China, India and
most parts in Arab Desert.
Therefore, in the fourth century ( 339379) A.C., and through 40 years,
Persians kings killed about 160000
Christians peoples in the north of
Iraq and more than 30000 in the
But the faithful people in Christianity
continued to preach about the gospel
and they built 50 Christian schools in
the Ninth century, and also teach all
different sciences beside the
Aramaic Language
The Aramaic language is the Semitic
language from the beginning of the
history and it is the language of
Jesus. Most of the chapters in old and
new testament are written by
Aramaic language.
Aramaic language was used in the
official education and in public
language in that time,
and was used in all east area of the
Great sea starting from north of Iraq,
north of Syria, middle of Syria,
Lebanon, Palestine and north of
Egypt. Later on, the Aramaic
language divided into different
dialects between the East of
Euphrates river in Iraq and the west
area in Syria, and this became the
base or the root of the Aramaic
As mentioned above, The Aramaic
language was used as an official
language in trades, sciences and
educations in many eastern empires.
Moreover, Aramaic language was
used in writing contracts, laws, codes
and in protocol, because it was clear,
correct and easy in reading.