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A Biblical and Historical Perspective on Iraq Map of Iraq (in the present time) Sumerian, Babylon and Assyria area (map of Iraq in the old era) Sumerian Civilization About 6200-6500 years ago there was a civilization located between two great rivers: Tigris and Euphrates. That area is called Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia was famous because of the Geographic location. The city was perfect place to irrigate the land and raise productive crops, as well as domesticate sheep, goats and other animals. There was a city called Ur, which is now 250 miles from the capital Baghdad, is still existed until this day. Ur is known in the Bible as Ur of the Chaldees, refers to the Chaldeans (who settled the area about 900 B.C). It was known as the city of Sumerian civilization and home of Abraham. Sumerian Civilization One of the temples ,which is still standing till now is called Ziggurat (built before more than 4000 years), was a piece of temple complex. People thought that the dwelling of the moon god, serves as a tool to bridge the distance between the sky and the earth. The height 100 feet, and the base is 210 feet by 150 feet on trapezoidal base. First writing in the world was invented by Sumerian, which called the cuneiform writing. Ziggurat in City of Ur Bible words Genesis Chapter 11:27-32 First Abram born and lived in Ur of the Chaldeans with his father, and his wife Sarai, and then went to Canaan. But when they came to Haran, they settled there. (11:31). Civilization of Babylon Also, other civilization located in the same area of Mesopotamia is called Babel ( 63 miles south of Baghdad), at year 2100 before B.C. by king called Hamorabi, the civilization in his years called the golden years. The first law in the world was done by this Babylon king. Suspended garden was constructed to a height of more than 295 feet, and was provided with eight huge gates, and this civilization was the expanded from the Sumerian civilization. Between year 606-536 B.C, Babylon kingdom was a great and powerful civilization; therefore it control all the surrounding area starting from Perish from the east and Turkey from north, and reached Egypt to the west, and down to Saudi Arabia. Civilization of Babylon Bible words Genesis Chapter 10:11-23 Some of clans of Noah's sons , the first kingdom were in Babylon, Ereck, Akkad, and Caneh in Shinar. (10:10), and some of them were built and lived in Nineveh and Calah, that is the great city. (10:12). Genesis Chapter 11:1-9 Babylon Tower. The Lord came down to see the city and the tower that the men were building. (11-5). Come let us go down and confused their language so they will not understand each other. (11:7). So the Lord scattered them from there over the earth, and they stopped building the city. That is why it was called Babel. (11:8-9). 2Chronicles Chapter 36:5-21 Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon attack Jehoiakim who was king of Jerusalem. Jeremiah Chapters 50, 51, and 52 This is the word the Lord spoke through Jeremiah the prophet concerning Babylon and the land of the Babylonians. (50:1). Ezekiel Chapters 12, 17, 34, 24, 26, 29 and 30 Land of Babylon. Daniel Chapters 1 to 9 In the third year of the Jehoiakim king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came to Jerusalem and besieged it. (1:121). Ancient monuments of Babylon Civilization of Assyrian Another civilization in the north of Iraq called Assyrian (about 300 miles north of Baghdad), was from the same Chaldeean groups, this civilization was starting during the third millennium B.C and the city called Nineveh taken as a capital at a year of 1080 B.C. Civilization of Assyrian Genesis Chapter 10:11-23 Some of clans of Noah's sons, the first kingdom were in Babylon, Ereck, Akkad, and Caneh in Shinar. (10:10), and some of them were built and lived in Nineveh and Calah, that is the great city. (10:12) 2 Kings Chapters 18 and 19 Assyria, locate north of Iraq (Nineveh) war between king of Israel and king of Assyria. Bible words Isaiah Chapters 36, 37, 38 and 39 Sennacherib king of Assyria attack all the fortified cities of Judah and captured them. Isaiah (36:1-10). Then Isaiah the prophet went to king of Hezekiah and asked what did those men say, and where did they come from? From a distance land , Hezezkiah replied they came to me from Babylon. Isaiah(39:3). Bible words Jonah Chapters 1 to 4 The word of the Lord came to Jonah son of Amittai: go to the great city of Nineveh (north of BaghdadIraq) and preach against it, because its wickedness has come up before me. (1:1). Nahum Chapters 1 to 3 An oracle concerning Nineveh. The book of the vision of Nahum the Elkoshite.(1:1) Elkoshite is taken from city called Elkosh now is a small city located outside the Nineveh (south of Baghdad-Iraq) of about 25 mile. Bible words Zephaniah Chapter 2 He will stretch out his hand against the north and destroy Assyria, leaving Nineveh utterly desolate and dry as the desert. (2:12). Zechariah Chapter 10 I will bring them back from Egypt and gather them from Assyria. (10:10) Ancient monuments of Assyrian Ancient monuments of Assyrian Christianity in Iraq In the first century A.C. the city of Nineveh became connection point between Iraq, Syria and area of Great Sea (Mede train Sea). In the first century (A.C.) and from Nineveh, the Syrian and Palestrina Christianity starting in spread in the north and all others cities of Iraq, in the third century (A.C.) the Christianity became religion for the most Iraq peoples. Aramaic and Roman books references stated the followers of apostle Thomas preached the Christianity in the north and then middle and south of Iraq, and first church was built at year of 82 (AC) in a city called COOKHE behind Al MADAIN (city located south of Baghdad distance about 20 miles), this church became larger and larger and then named The Iraqi Christianity Reference, officially named BABYLON Church. After the Christianity became a high name in the area of Iraq and shared the churches in Syria ( for example: unity agreement about Easter celebration day in 189-199 A.C.), Persian’s kings and with abet by Jewish peoples who were residents in the area, were afraid that the Christianity will threat their authority specially when the Christianity reach China, India and most parts in Arab Desert. Therefore, in the fourth century ( 339379) A.C., and through 40 years, Persians kings killed about 160000 Christians peoples in the north of Iraq and more than 30000 in the south. But the faithful people in Christianity continued to preach about the gospel and they built 50 Christian schools in the Ninth century, and also teach all different sciences beside the Christianity. Aramaic Language The Aramaic language is the Semitic language from the beginning of the history and it is the language of Jesus. Most of the chapters in old and new testament are written by Aramaic language. Aramaic language was used in the official education and in public language in that time, and was used in all east area of the Great sea starting from north of Iraq, north of Syria, middle of Syria, Lebanon, Palestine and north of Egypt. Later on, the Aramaic language divided into different dialects between the East of Euphrates river in Iraq and the west area in Syria, and this became the base or the root of the Aramaic language. As mentioned above, The Aramaic language was used as an official language in trades, sciences and educations in many eastern empires. Moreover, Aramaic language was used in writing contracts, laws, codes and in protocol, because it was clear, correct and easy in reading.