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Expectations and Limitations of
Kepler Ground-Based Follow-Up
Observations
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz
Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Instytut Astronomiczny
ul. Kopernika 11, 51-622 Wrocław
POLAND
March 6, 2009 – launch
of the Kepler spacecraft
The aim of the Kepler mission: find out how many stars in the
Milky Way can harbour potentially habitable Earth-size planets.
The Kepler photometer being
lowered onto spacecraft.
Habitable zones at stars of different temperatures.
•Field of View: continuously viewable; rich in stars similar to our Sun
•One broad-band filter
•Photometric precision: several ppm
•Mission extended through 2016
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
74 confirmed planets and 2321 candidates
160 planets in habitable zone
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Behind each planet, there is a star!
Kepler 10b – the first Kepler rocky planet
Star:
Mass: 0.9 M±0.06 M⊙
Radius: 1.06±0.02 R⊙
Surface gravity: 4.3±0.01 dex
Luminosity: 1.004 ± 0.059 L⊙
Batalha et al. 2011, ApJ 729, 27
Planet:
Orbital period: 0.84 d
Radius: 1.42±0.03 R
Mass: 4.6±1.2 M
Mean density: 8.8±2.5 g/cm3
Mean temperature: 1,800 K
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Asteroseismic determination of mass
e.g., Chaplin et al. 2011 ApJ, 732, 54
Evolutionary sequence of 1M⊙star:
Silva Aguirre et al. 2011 ApJL 740, L2
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Red Clump stars and ultra-cool dwarfs
Mass of stars near the RC of NGC 6791 and NGC 6819:
Corsaro et al. 2012 arXiv1205.4023
Greiss et al. 2012, AJ 144, 24
•Spectral type M7 and later: very low-mass
stars as well as brown dwarfs.
•9 very low-mass dwarfs are actually being
monitored by Kepler (Martin et al. 2011, AAS
Meeting #220, #419.06)
•Kepler Guest Observers Program: 'The Kepler
View on Activity, Binarity, Habitability and
Weather in Late-M and L Dwarfs' (P.I.: Eduardo
Martin;)
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Our precise methods of deriving atmospheric
parameters are not particularly accurate...
Kepler Input Catalog was designed
to separate dwarfs from giants
at Teff ~6,000 K
Differences between atmospheric parameters in the KIC
and those derived from ground-based spectroscopy
Molenda-Żakowicz et al. 2010, AN 331, P26
Bruntt et al. 2012, MNRAS 423, 122
Thygesen et al. 2012, A&A 543, 160
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Differences between atmospheric parameters in the KIC
and those derived from ground-based spectroscopy
McNamara et al. 2012, AJ 143, 101
Yang X., Fu J.N., et al., in preparation
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Differences between atmospheric parameters in the KIC
and those derived from ground-based photometry
Pinsonneault et al. 2012, ApJS 199, 30
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Differences between
atmospheric parameters derived
from ground-based photometry
and from spectroscopy
5
Molenda-Żakowicz, Sousa, et al.,
in preparation
Pinsonneault et al. 2012, ApJS 199, 30;
Tygesen et al. 2012, A&A 543, 160
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Differences between atmospheric parameters derived by
different methods from the same ground-based data
Metcalfe et al. 2010, ApJ 723, 1583
Molenda-Żakowicz, Sousa, et al.,
in preparation
Creevey et al. 2012 A&A 537A, 111
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Why different methods of the data analysis
produce significantly different results?
•Spectroscopic:
ROTFIT, ULySS, ARES,
VWA, MOOG, SYNSPEC
•Photometric:
IRFM, various photometric
calibrations for different
sets of filters, SED
Fröhlich et al. 2012, A&A 543, A146
Casagrande et al. 2010, A&A 512, A54
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
How important is the interstellar extinction?
[email protected] Observatory of Izaña, Tenerife, Spain; [email protected] Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos,
La Palma, Spain – Katrien Uytterhoeven (P.I.), Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, et al.
[email protected] Bill Chaplin and Andrea Miglio (Birmingham, UK), Victor Silva Aguirre (Aarhus, DK) Chris Flynn
(Tuorla, FIN) Sofia Feltzing (Lund, S) Antonino Milone (IAC, E) Simon Hodgkin at (IoA/Casu, UK), Martin
Asplund and Luca Casagrande (ANU/Stromlo, AU)
Pointings done in June 2012
Molenda-Żakowicz et al.
(2009) AcA 59, 213
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Calima in 2012
The telescope needs to be closed when the limit 0.025 is reached.
(plot made by STELLA http://stella.aip.de/stella/status/status.php)
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
Why is it always the fainter stars that are so interesting?
(Katrien Uytterhoeven)
around 3,400 stars
over 160,000 stars
Pinsonneault et al. 2012, ApJS 199, 30
over 160,000 stars
Yang X., Fu J.N., et al., in preparation
Pinsonneault et al. 2012, ApJS 199, 30
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
The future is BRITE
BRITE-Constellation, short for “BRIght Target Explorer Constellation,” is a group of six seven-kilogram nanosatellites from
Poland, Austria, and Canada.
Purpose: photometrically measure low-level oscillations and
temperature variations in stars brighter than visual magnitude 4.0
(and fainter than 7.0)
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
The future is BRITE
'While there are more than a dozen telescopes larger than
6.5 meters there is plenty of interesting astronomy which
can be done with much smaller instruments.'
Bohdan Paczyński
'Astronomy with small telescopes'
Joanna Molenda-Żakowicz, IAU GA, 20-31 August 2012, Beijing, China
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