Ethnic , Gender and Other Dialects African American English (AAE) Phonological Differences R-deletion guard = god, sore = saw, poor = pa L-deletion all = awe, help = hep Neutralization of [I and [E] before nasals (intermediate sound) pin = pen, ten = tin Loss of interdental fricatives Ruth = roof Brother = brover This = dis That = dat Syntactic Differences Double negatives “he don’t know nothing” “he don’t got none” Deletion of the verb “to be” He is nice. = He nice. I am gonna do it. = I gonna do it. Habitual “be” Sarah is happy. = Sarah be happy. ( Sarah is a always a happy person) He is late. = He late He is always late. = He be late. Latino/Hispanic/Chicano English Phonological Differences Substitution of the Spanish 5 vowel system for the English 11 vowel system ship & sheep = sheep rid and read = read Interchangeability of sh and ch show = cho check = sheck Devoicing some consonants easy = isi guys = gais Final consonant cluster simplification war and ward = war star and start = star Consonant substitution th = t (thin = tin) th = d (they = dey) Addition of e sound at beginning of s words school = eskool start = estart Latino/Hispanic/Chicano English Syntactic Differences: Double negatives “he don’t know nothing” “he don’t got none” Use of more for move often Use of out from for away from Styles and Registers • Situational dialects that are used in different roles and in differing social situations. • Informal vs formal EG. Tu vs usted in Spanish Motherese with young children Slang • An informal set of alternative vocabulary and/or meanings • Including: – Recombining existing words in new ways to create meanings (“spaced out”) – Introducing new words (zonked) – Attaching new meanings to existing words (“to text”) Jargon/Argot • A set of vocabulary that is used in a specified limited technical, professional or occupational context. • EG. The vocabulary that you have been learning in this class that is used by specialists in Linguistics: phoneme, morpheme, phonetics, phonemics, morphology, syntax, semantics, grammar, etc. Taboo Language vs Euphemisms Taboo = language that should not be used in polite situations Euphemism = a word that replaces a taboo or unpleasant word Class Exercise Why Use Taboo Language? Why Use Euphemisms?