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Transcript
Human Nutrition
Grade 11 CAPS 2013
Flipped classroom
Gerry Noel
INTRODUCTION
Grade 11 Human Nutrition for 2013
Flipped classroom?
Flipped Classroom advantages…
What I want you to do?
Make your own life sized poster on the Human
Digestive System:
→ Journey of BIG MACromolecules to Smaller molecules.
→
4 Parts to this journey (make sure you have the 4 hand
outs and mark schemes)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Structure and Function (Group)
Digestive Processes (Group)
Chemistry of Life (Extension work for group)
Digestive Processes (Individual)
Textbook: Shuters Top Class Life Sciences, Grade
11 (2012).
Let’s get the show on the road!
Read over all the instructions first!
Make sure you’ve read and understood the
mark scheme.
Animal Nutrition
Food gives organisms energy for all cellular
functions.
Producers/autotrophs
Consumers/heterotrophs:
→ Herbivores
→ Carnivores
→ Omnivores
Part 1: Structure and Function
Overview
Eyes, Nose and tongue
Mouth and teeth
Oesophagus
Stomach
Small Intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum)
Colon/Large Intestine
Rectum and anus
Salivary glands
Liver and gall bladder
Pancreas
Sensing food and the mouth, tongue
and teeth
All starts with the senses in the body!
Mouth:
→ Beginning of the Big Mac’s journey
→ Tongue and teeth inside the mouth
→ Tongue tastes food and helps you swallow
→ Teeth break up food into smaller pieces =
mechanical digestion/mastication
→ 3 pairs of salivary glands that produce
saliva:
→ Water, slippery mucin and enzymes
(lysozyme
and salivary amylase)
→ Helps to form bolus and lubricate it for
swallowing
Structure: Teeth
4 types:
→ Incisors
→ canines
→ premolars
→ Molars
Humans
→ 2:1:2:3
2:1:2:3
Textbook Pg 123 &
131
Passed the pharynx, through the
oesophagus
Pharynx (throat):
→ Muscular part at the
back of mouth
→ Opens to trachea (to the
lungs) and oesophagus
(to the stomach)
Oesophagus:
→ Narrow muscular tube
→ Bolus moves down
Textbook Pg 133
through contraction and
relaxation of muscles in
process called =
PERISTALSIS
Into the stomach
Large ‘bag’ that receives and holds
food.
→ At each end of the stomach there are
valves called sphincters that control the
movement of food;
→
→
Cardiac sphincter at the top end
pyloric sphincter at the bottom end
Cells lining the stomach secrete
gastric juice.
→ Hydrochloric acid (HCl), low pH
→ Mucus, high pH
→ Proteases, (pepsinogen)
Alcohol, Vit B12 and aspirin are
absorbed.
Food leaves the stomach as chyme.
Into the not so… small intestine
Soupy chyme enters small intestine.
→ Folded tube (5 -7m long)
→ Lined with columnar epithelial cells
→ 3 parts:
→ Duodenum
→ Jejunum
→ Ileum
→ Duodenum has Brunner’s glands which secrete
alkaline rich mucus;
→ Neutralise Chyme
→ Provide right pH for enzymes
→ Lubrication
Digestion of food is completed so that
simple soluble nutrients can be absorbed.
→ Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are digested
→ Most digested food absorbed
Large intestine
Large intestine/colon stretches like a frame
around the small intestine.
Main functions:
→
→
Absorb water, dissolved minerals and vitamins
Helped by over 700 species of bacteria (gut
flora)
Caecum and appendix are two structures
where small intestine joins large intestine;
No digestive function but contain tissue from the
immune system
→ Very large in organisms that digest cellulose
→
Rectum is short tube at end of large intestine;
→
Stores indigestible remains for short time before
being expelled
At the opening end of rectum is anus;
→
Surrounded by sphincter muscles to help control
movement of faeces
Associated glands: Salivary Glands
and Pancreas
3 salivary glands that secrete saliva.
Pancreas that secretes pancreatic juice.
→ Travels down duct into duodenum (exocrine gland)
→ Contains enzymes for breaking down food
→ Carbohydrases:
→ Proteases:
→ Lipases:
starch
proteins
lipids
maltose
amino acids
fatty acids and glycerol
→ Contains alkaline salts for neutralising
acidic chyme
Pancreas controls blood sugar levels by secreting
hormones insulin and glucagon (endocrine gland).
Associated glands: Liver
Largest gland and solid organ in the body.
Liver has many functions:
→
Secretes bile which is stored in gall bladder.
→ Bile neutralises acidic chyme
→ Emulsifies fats into small droplets
Controls release of glucose in blood by converting
glucose
glycogen.
→ Controls excessive amino acid concentrations in the body through
deamination.
→
→ Process where amine group is removed
carbohydrate and urea.
from amino acid producing a
Transports both glucose and amino acids if necessary via hepatic
vein (vessel from liver to heart) to the heart and then to cells of
the body.
→ Store vitamins and minerals (if not needed pass out through urine).
→ Alcohol and drugs are transported via hepatic portal vein (vessel
from small intestine or stomach to the liver) to be metabolised.
→
Get on with Part 1…
Part 1: Structure and Function
Textbook page 125
Other possible human nutrition tasks
Food diary http://www.myfit
nesspal.com/
Analyse nutritional
information
packaging
Dietary
supplements for
sport analysis
Cultural and socio-economic
influences on diet
Italy: The Manzo
family of Sicily
R 1976 per week
Germany: The
Melander family of
Bargteheide
R 3712 per week
United States: The
Revis family of North
Carolina.
R 2538 per week
Mexico: The Casales
family of Cuernavaca
R 1403 per week
Poland: The
Sobczynscy family of
Konstancin-Jeziorna
R 1123 per week
R 507 per week
Egypt: The Ahmed
family of Cairo
Ecuador: The Ayme
family of Tingo
R 234 per week
Bhutan: The Namgay
family of Shingkhey
Village
R 37 per week
Chad: The Aboubakar
family of Breidjing
Camp
R 9.13 per week
Thank you
[email protected]