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Transcript
Mapping Europe
Download huge wall maps to
help students of all ages to
Toolkit
• explore aspects of Europe and
mapping technologies without computers
• see Europe hands-on, from
new and exciting perspectives
• think like geographers in analyzing
cultural and environmental data and patterns
across this amazing continent
nationalgeographic.com/geography-action
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
i
Credits and Acknowledgements
Published by the National Geographic Society
John M. Fahey Jr., President and Chief Executive Officer
Gilbert M. Grosvenor, Chairman of the Board
National Geographic Society Education and Children’s Programs
Daniel Edelson, Vice President
Kathleen Schwille, Kim Hulse, Anne Pollard Haywood, Kristin Dell,
Sheryl Hasegawa, Caroline Vernon, Jacqueline Karsten
National Geographic Society Maps
Kevin Allen, Vice President, Map Services
Juan J. Valdes, Director, Editorial & Research
Robert E. Pratt, Senior Designer
David Miller, Senior Editor
Geography Action! Materials
Anne Pollard Haywood, Writer/Editor; Kristin Dell, Writer/Researcher; Chelsea
Zillmer, Researcher; Caroline Vernon, Cartographic Researcher; Michal LeVasseur,
Carol Gersmehl, Charlie Fitzpatrick, reviewers; Daniel Banks, Art Director – Project
Design Company; Kerri Sarembock, Designer – Project Design Company
Special thanks to Dr. Kristin Alvarez, Professor of Geography, Keene State College,
and the students of her Geospatial Technologies for Teachers course, who also
reviewed this content.
Teachers are encouraged to copy materials in this toolkit for use in the classroom.
© 2009 National Geographic Society
Mapping Europe
Contents
nationalgeographic.com/geography-action
Nighttime view of
the Colosseum, in
Rome, Italy
Toolkit Overview
2
Why Mapping? 4
Activities
Grades K-1: Language of Location
How do we talk about places?
7
8
Grades 2-3: Europe’s Symbols, Lines, and Direction 10
What does it mean to read a map?
Grades 4-5:
Mapping Mammals and Protected Areas
What are the patterns of mammals and
protected areas across Europe?
12
Grades 6-8: Tourism Across Europe
How are tourism and World Heritage Sites
related in Europe?
14
Grades 9-12: Powerful Causes and Effects
How are energy and environments connected
across Europe?
17
Glossary
20
Websites for Mapping and Data Sets
21
Bibliography
21
Photo Credits
21
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
1
Geography Action!
Mapping Europe
To o lk i t Ov e r v i e w
Download!
National Geographic Education Programs is excited to
present Geography Action! Europe.
Download the GA!
Europe tile map and
support materials:
With this GA! Europe toolkit, for use with the Europe tile map or projection map,
we are providing educators a set of tools to engage K-12 students in
www.nationalgeographic.com/
geography-action
• Unique, large-scale activities that help students see the world in new ways,
while exploring its dynamic environmental and cultural aspects.
Use GA! Europe activities:
• Opportunities to manipulate and analyze a variety of information sets geographically,
building skills in critical thinking, representation of data, and mental mapping.
• As collaborative projects in
social studies class
• Insight into and experience working with key mapping concepts, preparing students
for use of geotechnologies in future academic and career pursuits.
• As events celebrating world
cultures or Geography
Awareness Week
How does Geography Action! work?
• As a hands-on, low-tech
GIS Day activity
• In after-school clubs,
scouting, and other
extracurricular activities
Using the GA! Europe toolkit, students create maps in two ways: either tracing postersized maps using an overhead projector or assembling a very large wall or floor map by
putting together printable pieces of the continent of Europe. Teachers can prepare either
of these maps ahead of time to tailor the resources to class time and students’ needs.
Once the maps are drawn or assembled, students in younger grades attach symbols
and a legend, use cardinal directions, or practice language of place and location.
Fourth graders and older can map layers of Europe’s cultures and environments using
charts and symbols provided in the resources, working with different mapping styles,
charts containing data, and using latitude and longitude.
Creating these new learning tools in small or large groups lets students build on their
curiosity about the world. Displaying and analyzing geographic information on such a
large scale helps students to develop new views of the world, enhancing their mental
mapping and analytical thinking abilities.
2
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
In what settings can students
use Geography Action! Mapping
Europe?
Geography Action! activities are rich and flexible
enough to use in world geography, global studies,
mapping skills, environmental studies, and other
courses that offer students an opportunity to
explore their world. Educators can also select
activities to build into Geography Awareness
Week celebrations and GIS Day events, family
international nights, and after-school
club activities.
Creating the Base Map
Build your Geography Action! Europe
Map using the projector map or tile map
found in the Geography Action! Europe support
materials.
The Projector Map includes outlines of the continents, major islands, and country and
state borders. Print or copy the page as an overhead transparency, then project it
onto a large sheet of poster-sized paper. Use a document camera or a projector
connected to a computer to create the same type of image. Trace the image using
markers or pencil. Once the map is drawn, students can use an atlas to add
geographic details depending on the activity planned: names of countries, compass
rose, latitude, and longitude.
The Tile Map (7.5’ tall x 10’ wide) includes outlines of Europe’s continents, major
islands, and country and state borders, plus major cities, bodies of water, and rivers.
Pale lines labeled on the four sides in degrees indicate longitude and latitude. The
finished product can cover the wall of a classroom, cafeteria, or gymnasium.
To build the map, print the 112 pages (from four grouped 28-page pdfs) to a regular
black and white printer on 8.5”x11” paper. Use a paper cutter to trim the borders for
clean lines, and if possible, laminate the tiles for sturdiness and repeated use.
Tile Map Tip:
Laminate the tile map pieces
to increase durability. Using
wet or dry erase markers for
chloropleth layers and tape or
Post-it notes to add symbol
layers will create a reusable
map that wipes clean at the end
of each activity.
On the floor or on tables have students, depending on their ages and class time
available, assemble groups of contiguous tiles to form small sections of the map.
To save time, teachers can also assemble in advance sections for students to work
with, then students can help to fit the entire map of Europe together in class.
Assign groups to work on different areas of the map. Start with the first layer from the
activity you have chosen, and have each group apply that layer to their part of the map.
After each layer is placed on the map, have students discuss patterns they see and the
effects on these patterns when a new layer is added to the map.
When each group has finished, a “map construction crew” with ladders and
transparent tape can assemble the map on the wall or the floor.
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
3
Why Mapping?
Real World Tools for Display and Analysis
Maps are important tools that help us explore and
expand our understanding of the world.
The mapping activities in this handbook are designed to stimulate student exploration
of Europe’s cultural and environmental characteristics while they learn critical
thinking skills in a geographic context. Students apply different kinds of data to maps,
analyze layers individually and combined, then form conclusions. Geography Action!
Europe activities simulate what professionals using geotechnologies do every day.
World Map
Mercator projection
What do maps tell us?
Every map tells a different story. Maps are representations in miniature of much
larger places. They shrink large areas such as continents onto a sheet of paper.
Symbols represent features such as rivers, famous places, and cities, or topics
such as population and precipitation. Maps are made for a variety of purposes,
and the features on each map support particular purposes. No single map can
show everything.
Eckert Equal-Area
Because mapping Earth projects a spherical body onto a flat surface,
some distortion is inevitable. Mapmakers have created various
projections to reduce distortion of area, direction, or shape. Equal area
projections maintain accurate relative sizes of land areas throughout the
map, but distort shape. The commonly used Mercator projection is not
an equal area projection. It shows the polar regions much larger than
they actually are. It excels, however, at showing direction.
What are the different kinds of maps?
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Copyright © 2009 National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.
35°
C a
s p
i a
Europe Reference Map
Some maps show physical features that are clearly visible on the landscape—for
example, rivers and mountains. Some highlight other kinds of information not so
visible, such as SO2 emissions or the number of tourists visiting a country in a year.
Most maps fall into two general categories:
JO
30°
RD
Istanbul
45°
E
AN
40°
ait City
Kuw AIT
KUW
I
U D
S AA B I A
Tashkent
E
A
Tianjin
E
Baghdad E
Tehran
E
Cairo
Riyadh
ATLANTIC
4
EBogotá
OCEAN
Thematic maps feature a particular topic and show its spatial
distributions or patterns. Common thematic maps are rainfall,
temperature, or population maps. Thematic maps use
shading, color, dots, and different-sized symbols to represent
differences in quantity, such as number of people. They
use shapes or colors to represent differences such as
climate types. One thematic map type commonly used is a
map, where layers of light and dark shading or
A S choropleth
IA
colors
Beijingshow geographic patterns. Population density maps
Seoul
Tokyo
Human Footprint
Osaka maps, where each
are choropleth
color or shade represents
Shanghai
Delhi
a range
of
values
for
the
information
mapped.
Karachi
Dhaka
E
ELahore
Ahmadabad
AFRICA
E
Kolkata
Mumbai
Bengalore
Kinshasa
Wuhan
E
Hong Kong
Hyderabad
E
Chennai
E E
Highest
E
E
Manila
Bangkok E
Ho Chi
Minh City
E
Lagos Toolkit
Geography Action! Mapping Europe
SOUTH
Chongqing
E
INDIAN
Jakarta
PACIFIC
OCEAN
Lowest
Mapping “Layers” of Geographic Information
Geographic tools and technologies enable placement of thematic and reference maps
together for viewing at different scales. Through analysis of two or more map “layers”
together, it’s possible to identify patterns and relationships that might not be apparent
when analyzing layers in isolation. For example, mapping locations of major cities,
industries, pollution levels, and energy use can help in understanding how one factor
might influence—or be influenced by—the other factors. Layering data can help in
analyzing direct and indirect relations visually at different scales all over Earth.
Map layers combined with graphing features enable geographic analysis of complex
visual information. For example, the maps below and on the next page show three
different layers of data related to energy and the environment. Each layer can be
analyzed on its own for patterns across regions. Then as several layers are combined,
students can look for relationships between data sets in different regions of Europe and
across the continent. See pages 17-19 for the full activity using these layered data sets.
Layer 1
Layer 2
In this activity, the first layer applied
is using data for SO2 emissions by
country across Europe. Each color
on choropleth maps like this one
represents a different range of
values, usually with light colors as
low values and darker colors as high
values. Students can apply this layer
by coloring or by using patterns such
as lines of different colors.
For this layer, students apply the pie
charts provided, representing the
ratio of renewable to non-renewable
energy sources for each country.
Students can discuss regional
patterns they see for each layer
separately, as well as correlations
they see.
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
5
Layer 3
The third layer, shown with dots,
features areas most sensitive to
acid rain. Students may ask why
some of the areas with the lowest
emissions and the most renewable energy sources are highly
sensitive to acid rain. These
questions are part of the analysis
process, helping students to
recognize that across Europe,
countries’ environmental issues
are highly interconnected.
Students who map this complex data—through toolkit lessons for grades four and
above—will gain familiarity with patterns across regions of Europe. In addition,
they will build understanding of how the layering of data is used in a geographic
information system, or GIS. Governments, businesses, and the nonprofit sector
around the globe use GIS for display and analysis of characteristics and patterns at
local to global scales.
Challenge students with more mapping of data layers either on paper or using GIS
software or online tools.
One source for GIS education content for K-12 students and teachers is ESRI, Inc.
Go to http://edcommunity.esri.com/ for resources.
6
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
Mapping Europe
Student Activities
The following five sets of activities are designed for hands-on, collaborative projects
for students using either a poster-sized or wall-sized map of Europe. Activities
for young students begin with mapping basics and the language of location, then
progress with fourth grade and up to using data sets to create thematic maps
exploring cultural and environmental characteristics of Europe’s countries and
regions. Activities can be adapted for higher- and lower-grade levels based on
students’ interests and abilities.
Activities are designed for students to think geographically, asking and answering
questions such as “Where?” and “Why there?” By looking closely at information
about tourism, energy use, wildlife, and other concepts that relate to places all over
the planet, students can gain a sense that the patterns they are exploring to better
understand Europe can help them see the whole world in new ways.
The Grand Canal
in Venice, Italy
The Eiffel Tower
in Paris, France
A field in the Alps near
Murren, Switzerland
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
7
Language of Location
Activities
K-1
Objective
LESSON TIME
Two to three 45-minute class periods
CONNECTIONS TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY STANDARDS
Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms
Standard 1: How to Use Maps and Other
Geographic Representations, Tools, and
Technologies to Acquire, Process, and Report
Information From a Spatial Perspective
Students use the language of key geographic
concepts of place and location in relation to
classroom objects and themselves, then apply
language to learn the relationship between
continents, countries, and cities.
Guiding Question
• How do we talk about maps?
KEY VOCABULARY
city, country, continent, landmark, map
Preparing the Map
MATERIALS
Europe Support Materials from
nationalgeographic.com/geography-action
> A base map (projector or tile)
External Materials
Colored pencils, markers, crayons,
or dry erase markers
Transparent tape
Scissors
Globe or world map
>
>
>
>
These activities are designed for use with the Tile Map
of Europe, but can be adapted for use on the projector
or smaller map.
For young students assembling the tile map may be
challenging, so consider (1) putting together sections for
the students, and then, together as a class, you can help
them more quickly assemble the map using these larger,
puzzle-like pieces; or (2) consider having them work in small
groups with 4-6 pieces of the map, assembling them into
a rectangle using the numbers on the pages and the lines
on each piece. Students can work with the concepts below
on their section of the larger map. Then the teacher can
assemble the pieces to display the larger map.
Directions
Activity 1: What is a Map?
1. Help students understand the concept of a model of something real by showing
miniature items representing things from their daily lives, such as a doll house or toy
car. Then show students a map of their town or neighborhood, explaining that maps
are miniature versions of places on the Earth. Some students might be able
to explain that globes are miniature models of planet Earth. Have they seen their
parents or grandparents use maps? Tell about it.
Activity 2: Practicing Geographic Language in the Classroom
2. Practice geographic language by having students stand in a circle, arm’s length
apart. Ask students to look to the students on either side of them. Have them describe
their location as “next to” their neighbor. Then help them practice concepts of near
and far, by describing their neighbor as “near,” and the children across the circle as
“far.” Next, pick two children who are not standing next to one another, and ask who is
“between” them. Continue practicing this language using objects in the room, too. Tell
students they are talking about the “location” of people and things in their classroom.
8
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
3. Explain to students that they are “inside” of the classroom. Ask: What else is
inside of the classroom? (Desks, chairs, teacher, books, etc.) Sketch a simple map
of the classroom on the board and some of the things that are in it. The classroom
is inside of what? (The school) What else is inside of the school? (The cafeteria, the
bathroom, the principal’s office, etc.) If possible, add to the map of the classroom
by sketching the school and some of the places students list as inside it. Trace the
boundaries—the walls—of the classroom, asking students, “How do we know we are
inside the classroom?” Then ask questions using “next to,” “between,” “near,” and
“far” with the sketched map.
Activity 3: Europe the Continent
4. Using a globe or world map, help students repeat after you where they live
starting with town/city, then country, then continent. Together, name and point to the
seven continents. Point out the oceans. Help students to see the relationship between
the globe or world map and the map of Europe they will be using.
5. Tell them they will be taking a very large look at one continent: Europe. Ask: Where
is Europe? What lies between the Europe and their own continent? (Possible answer:
Atlantic Ocean.)
6. On the tile map, point to parts of two other continents that are near Europe: Asia
and Africa. Point out that Asia is next to, near, or east of Europe. Point to Africa, which
is next to, near, or south of Europe. Ask: Which continent is between Asia and Africa?
(Europe) Have students repeat after you to practice geographic language:
Next to — Africa is next to Europe. Asia is next to Europe.
Near — Africa is near Europe. Asia is near Europe.
Between — Europe is in between Asia and Africa.
Far From — The Atlantic Ocean is far from Asia.
Activity 4: Countries are Inside Continents
7. Prepare cut-outs of countries by printing out specific tiles and pasting them
together. Consider colored paper for the cut-outs so that the country shapes stand
out on the map. Suggested countries with their corresponding tiles are below, but feel
free to choose any country as an example.
8. Explain that countries are inside of the continent of Europe. Show students the
prepared country cut-outs, and help them place them on the map, as if they are pieces
of a puzzle. Trace the border of one of the countries with a finger, then have students
go to the map one at a time and outline a country with their finger. To reinforce that
countries are inside of continents, have students repeat after you “____ is inside of
Europe.” If students ask questions about the island countries that are “inside” Europe,
remind them that the continents stretch around the island countries, too.
9. You can also teach “larger than” and “smaller than,” but remember that country
size is measured in population as well as land size. To be clear, have students state
that a country has more land or less land than another country.
Country suggestions — Italy (tiles 75-76, 89-91, 104-105);
France (tiles 59- 61, 73-75); Spain (tiles 71-74, 85-88);
Lithuania (tile 50)
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
9
Europe’s Symbols,
Lines, and Direction
Activities
2-3
Objective
LESSON TIME
Two to three 45-minute class periods
CONNECTIONS TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY STANDARDS
Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms
Standard 1: How to Use Maps and Other
Geographic Representations, Tools, and
Technologies to Acquire, Process, and Report
Information From a Spatial Perspective
Students will label parts of a map with symbols
and build a map legend. Extensions give students
opportunities to use cardinal directions, a
compass rose, and latitude and longitude.
Guiding Question
KEY VOCABULARY
• How do people use maps to learn about places such as the
continent of Europe?
legend, symbol, latitude, longitude,
compass rose
Preparing the Map
MATERIALS
Europe Support Materials from
nationalgeographic.com/geography-action
> A base map (projector or tile)
> Cardinal Directions Worksheet
> Longitude and Latitude Worksheet
External Materials
>M
ap of town or neighborhood
> Globe
> C olored pencils, markers, crayons,
>
>
>
>
>
>
or dry erase markers
Transparent tape
Scissors
Blue yarn
Gold star stickers
Glue
Construction paper
These activities are designed for use with the Tile Map of
Europe, but can be adapted for use on the projector or a
smaller map. For complete instructions for each map, see
pages 2-3.
With this activity designed for young students, assembling the
tile map may be challenging or time-consuming, so consider
putting together smaller sections for the students in advance.
Then, together as a class, you can help them assemble the
map from the larger pieces. A second option is giving small
groups of students four to six contiguous pieces of the map
to assemble. Groups can then do the activities below on only
their section of the larger map. Then the class can assemble
the pieces to form the complete Europe map.
Directions
Activity 1: What Can We Do With Maps?
1. Show students a globe, and describe it as a model of
Earth. Compare it to other models they might be familiar
with, such as a doll or toy truck. Help students find their
home country or state on the globe, then show them a map of
their town or neighborhood to help them see that maps are
miniature representations of places on Earth. Have them name places on the map,
such as streets, buildings, or parks. Talk about how maps are not the real place, but
they help us to know about real places. Ask:
• Have you seen your family members use maps? Tell about it.
2. Draw a map of the playground or classroom on the board or large paper. Ask:
• What things are in the playground or classroom that you might show on the map?
Attach small rectangles to the map as students’ desks on the map, or alternatively
shapes of swing sets or other playground features. Talk about how these are symbols.
10
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
EXTENDING THE LESSON 1
Cardinal Directions
Point to a symbol on the map and have a student go to that place in the room or
playground. Ask students to point to symbols for the places on the map where they
like to play or learn. Talk about how maps help us to show our ideas about places.
3. Look at a world map or globe and identify the town/city, country, and continent
where the students live. Review how a town or city is inside of a country, and in
some countries inside of a state; then review how countries are inside of continents.
You might have students review the seven continents on maps or globes, then have
students name a country inside of each continent. Find Europe, then tell students they
will learn more about using maps with a very large map of the continent of Europe.
Ask:
• What do you know about Europe? What would you like to know about Europe?
• Where is Europe in relation to where we live?
Activity 2: Symbols and Legend
4. Explain to students how a symbol can represent places such as cities, mountains,
or rivers, and that we can use a map legend to show these symbols. The map legend
helps in reading the map. Create a large map legend on a piece of paper, with
“Legend” written at the top. Glue a piece of blue string below the legend name at top
left, labeling “rivers” to the right. You will attach this legend to the tile or projector
map later. Find one of Europe’s rivers on a map section, then glue blue string to it.
Have students continue to glue the blue string to rivers on their assigned sections.
Show students the compass
rose. Then, as a class, label the
map’s margins with cards labeled
“north,” “south,” “east,” and
“west.” Practice describing places
on the map using these words.
Students can work in groups or on
their own to complete the Cardinal
Directions Worksheet using the
tile map as a reference.
EXTENDING THE LESSON 2
Have students compare the United
States and Europe using latitude
and longitude. Which countries in
Europe are north of 50 degrees?
Is any part of the United States
north of 50 degrees?
5. Show students another symbol, a gold star, and ask:
• How could this be used on the map? (Stars are usually map symbols for
capital cities.)
Place one in the legend and write capital city next to it, then have students
place gold stars on the capital cities of each country. Ask:
• How could we use small black circles as symbols on the map? (They could
be cities.)
Draw and label in the legend a black circle to represent cities, or have students create
their own symbol to place in the legend and on the non-capital major cities. Ask:
• What does the map show you about cities and capital cities in Europe? (Possible
answers: Each country has one capital city. The map helps us to know where cities
are inside of their countries. Some cities are by rivers.)
6. Choose other features on the map to have students label. Students can again
design their own symbols. For example, students can cut out triangles for mountains.
Activity 3: Using Latitude and Longitude or Grid Systems to Identify Locations
7. Have students trace over the latitude (horizontal) and longitude (vertical, but
curved) lines with colored markers, circling each of the numbers for degrees on
the sides of the map. Choose several cities or other symbols on the map and have
students tell which lines of latitude and longitude are closest. Students can complete
the Longitude and Latitude Worksheet using the tile map as a reference. Ask:
• How can lines of longitude and latitude help us to “read” and use maps?
Main rivers of Europe
Danube
Rhine
Dneiper
Rhone
Douro
Seine
Ebro
Tagus
Elbe
Thames
Loire
Vistula
Oder
Volga
Po
West Dvina
Note: Using degrees of longitude and latitude may be too advanced for some students.
As an alternative, cover the lat/long numbers along the map’s margins horizontally
with letters starting with A, and vertically with numbers starting with 1. Then have
students use this grid to identify locations on the map.
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
11
Mapping Mammals
and Protected Areas
4-5
Objective
LESSON TIME
Two to three 45-minute class periods
CONNECTIONS TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY STANDARDS
Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms
Standard 3: How to Analyze the Spatial
Organization of People, Places, and
Environments on Earth’s Surface
Essential Element 3: Physical Systems
Standard 8: The Characteristics and Spatial
Distribution of Ecosystems on Earth’s Surface
KEY VOCABULARY
mammal, protected marine area, protected
land area, range, endangered, threatened
MATERIALS
Europe Support Materials from
nationalgeographic.com/geography-action
> A base map (projector or tile)
> Protected Marine Areas data chart & Key
> Protected Land Areas data chart & Key
> Marine Mammals of Europe Chart
> Land Mammals of Europe Chart
External Materials
Colored pencils, markers, crayons,
or dry erase markers
Transparent tape
Scissors
Colored paper
>
>
>
>
Activities
Students will use a variety of mapping techniques
to explore the distribution of land and marine
mammals across Europe and the relationships
with protected marine and land areas.
Guiding Question
• What connections are there between protected marine/
land areas and the ranges in which Europe’s mammal
species live?
Preparing the Map
These activities are designed for use with the tile map of
Europe, but can be adapted for use on the projector map.
For students, assembling the tile map may be challenging
or time-consuming, so consider putting together sections
in advance. Then, together as a class, they quickly assemble
the pieces to make the base map.
Directions
Activity 1/Map Layers 1 and 2: Protected Marine
and Land Area
1. Once their tile or projector map is ready, show students
the Protected Land Area Key and Protected Marine Area
Key documents. Choose colored markers to represent the
different ranges on the key. For the protected land area, draw
diagonal lines of different colors in each of the rectangles
on the key. For the marine areas, color each line next to the
ranges a different color.
2. Divide students into two groups and assign one the data
chart for Protected Land Area and the other group the data
chart for the Protected Marine Areas. Students can then
follow the keys and take turns drawing the lines on the countries for the Protected
Land Areas, and coloring the coastlines to represent the Protected Marine Areas.
Adult gray seals on rocks along
the coast of the United Kingdom
12
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
Assign small groups of students
one mammal from the chart that
they can research, then have
students create several symbols
for their animal, including one for
the map key.
3. Once the data is applied, have students examine it. Ask:
• Which countries have the largest number of protected marine areas?
Which countries have the smallest number?
• Which countries have the largest number of protected land areas?
Which have the fewest?
Activity 2/ Map Layer 3: Mammals
4. Using the Europe map, review with students the four cardinal directions, labeling
or attaching cards saying north, south, east, and west in large letters in the map’s
margins if needed.
5. Tell students that they are going to map the areas where different mammals live
in and around Europe. Assign each student or pairs of students one of the land or
marine animals to learn more about. Give students colored paper to create ten shapes
for their animal to be used as map symbols. Some students may need to cut more
later. Make map keys on paper to attach to the left side of the map, labeling them
“Land Mammals of Europe” and “Marine Mammals of Europe.” Have students attach
one animal symbol to the appropriate key and label it.
6. Give students a two-sided copy of the Land Mammals/Marine Mammals of Europe
data charts. Have students find the column for their mammal. Discuss the meaning
of endangered and threatened species with students. Looking at their charts, is
their mammal labeled endangered or threatened? Have students mark symbols for
endangered mammals with and “E” and threatened mammals with a “T.” Also, mark
the symbols that have been placed on the keys with these letters where applicable.
7. Have students look down the column for their mammal to find the groups of
countries or bodies of water where it may be found. Students can mark the chart
with the information that they need. Then have students go the map and locate
each area, attaching a symbol to the countries or groups of countries where the
mammals may be found.
8. Once all students have attached their mammal symbols, ask questions and see
what observations students have about the patterns of the different mammals.
• Which marine and land mammals have the most symbols on the map?
Which have the least?
• How many of the mammals are endangered or threatened?
• Which marine mammals’ ranges are to the north? To the south? To the west of
Europe? Have students name the bodies of water where their mammal lives.
• Which land mammals’ ranges live in the northern parts of Europe? In the
southern part? Are there some that only live in the east or west?
• Is there a pattern or relation between the countries that have a lot of protected
areas and the number of mammals—including endangered and threatened—
that can be found there?
• Why do you think these countries are protecting these land and
marine areas?
EXTENDING THE LESSON
Have students research
the mammals that they are
mapping to learn more about
them and also to find images
for each that they can use to
show the class. Student teams
can be assigned their mammal
to research as a homework
assignment. Before placing
the symbols on the map, each
group can describe their
mammal’s characteristics
and habits.
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
13
Tourism Across Europe
LESSON TIME
Two to three 45-minute class periods
CONNECTIONS TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY STANDARDS
Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms
Standard 1: How to Use Maps and Other
Geographic Representations, Tools, and
Technologies to Acquire, Process, and Report
Information From a Spatial Perspective
Essential Element 2: Places and Regions
Standard 4: the Physical and Human
Characteristics of Places
KEY VOCABULARY
tourism, World Heritage Site, region,
chloropleth map, graduated symbol
MATERIALS
Europe Support Materials from
nationalgeographic.com/geography-action
> A base map (projector or tile)
> European Tourism Data Sheet
> Graduated Symbols/Euros
> G raduated Symbols/World Heritage Sites
> Total Number of Tourists Key
> Tourism Income Key
> World Heritage Sites Key
External Materials
> C olored pencils, markers, crayons,
>
>
14
or dry erase markers
Transparent tape and glue
Scissors
Activities
6-8
Objective
Students will practice different techniques to
map information about tourism in Europe, then
will use the map to explore characteristics of
countries and regions that relate to tourism.
Guiding Question
• What are the patterns of tourism and World Heritage Sites
across Europe’s countries and regions?
Preparing the Map
These activities are designed for use with the Tile Map
of Europe, but can be adapted for use on the smaller
projector map.
In using the tile map for this lesson, consider having groups
of students first assemble four to six contiguous pieces of the
map, then have them combine the pieces to create the large
map. If preferred, students can map data for small sections,
looking at geographic patterns in smaller regions of Europe.
Once the entire map is assembled, the whole class can
analyze patterns across thve continent.
Directions
Activity 1/Map Layer 1: Total Number of Tourists
1. Once the tile or projector map is ready to use, tell students they are going to build
a choropleth map—where colors or symbols represent statistical information—of
Europe’s tourist visitors. (See pages 4-6 for more on choropleth mapping.) Students
will then map additional layers of information and analyze patterns related to Europe’s
tourism. Ask:
• Where have you been a tourist? Would you like to visit any countries in Europe?
What would you like to see or do?
• Why do tourists matter to Europe? (Tourists are good for the economy, helping to
support jobs; people come to Europe to see famous sites, explore their roots.)
• What countries/places do you think people might want to visit in Europe?
(Possible answers: famous sites such as the Eiffel Tower in Paris, art museums,
cathedrals, Rome, London.)
The
answers
provided are examples of
student answers, but these do
not represent the only acceptable
answers. Let students know that
any answer is acceptable if it is
supported with evidence such as
the data provided or other
information found.
2. Add colors or patterns of lines to the boxes on the Total Number of Tourists Key,
so that students will know which colors to use for the different values in their data
chart. Attach the legend to the map below the title, or give out copies of the key if
working in groups.
3. Using the key and copies of the data chart, have students apply the appropriate
pattern for different countries, creating the choropleth map. Ask students about the
patterns they see.
• Which countries have the highest number of tourists? Which have the lowest?
• Are there groups of countries that have similar patterns of tourism? (Countries
in the western part of Europe, including Germany, Austria, and Italy, have similar
numbers of tourists. Countries to the east, such as Poland, Czech Republic, and
Croatia—often called Eastern Europe—have fewer tourists. The countries to the
north, including Sweden, Norway, Finland—called Scandinavia—also have similar
numbers of tourists.) Tell students that groups of countries close together with
similar characteristics are often called regions.
• Are there any countries that do not seem to fit the patterns of their region? Why
might this be? (Greece and Russia have higher numbers of tourists than other
countries in the eastern region of Europe. List students’ ideas for why this might be.)
• Why do you think tourism seems more popular in some areas than others?
(Help students draw conclusions on their own throughout the activities. Possible
ideas might be that tourists often want to vacation in warm places with beaches, so
countries along the Mediterranean Sea have high numbers of tourists. Countries
without coastlines seem to have fewer tourists. Countries such as France, Italy,
Spain, and the U.K. have famous landmarks and many visitors.)
Activity 2/Map Layer 2: Money Received From Tourism
4. Have students predict how the money received through tourism might compare
with patterns for numbers of tourists.
• What might tourism income include? (Income from hotels, restaurants,
transportation)
top: Saint Basil’s Cathedral in
Red Square in Moscow Russia
bottom: Jotunheimen, one of
Norway’s national parks
opposite: Travelers visit the
Parthenon in Athens, Greece
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
15
Extending the Lesson 1
Students can use the CIA Factbook
online or other resources to
investigate findings or new
questions based on the data
explored. For example, students
wondering why Belarus’ travel
numbers are low may find that in
Belarus, “Government restrictions
on freedom of speech and the
press, peaceful assembly, and
religion remain in place” (https://
www.cia.gov/library/publications/
the-world-factbook/geos/
bo.html). Students might conclude
that without basic freedoms
visitors might not feel safe there,
or there may be restrictions on
visits by non-citizens.
Extending the Lesson 2
A key mapping skill is determining
how to group data in choropleth
maps and with graduated
symbols. Students can use the
data charts but determine their
own divisions for the data. Also,
selecting colors or patterns
on the map will give different
results. Have groups of students
determine their own data
groupings as well as mapping
styles. Students can view each
other’s displays and discuss why
they chose to display the data the
way they did. How does analysis
of the data change with different
mapping styles?
16
• In which countries would you expect high income from tourism? In which
countries would you expect money received from tourism to be low?
5. Add the Tourism Income Key to the map. Have students look at the ranges for the
symbols on the Key and use the data sheet to determine which of the graduated euro
symbols should be attached to each country. Graduated symbols provide another way
of looking at data, where the size of the symbols represents different ranges of value.
• What relationship do students see between the number of tourists and the
money received from tourism in different countries? In different regions? (The
most tourism money received is in the countries of western Europe and southern
Europe. Russia has a high number of tourists, but not the highest level of money
received from tourism.)
• Looking at the two layers, are there any countries that stand out as different
than their surrounding countries?
Activity 3/Map layer 3: Total Number of World Heritage Sites
6. Explain that there are nearly 900 sites of cultural or natural significance around
the world named by the United Nations as “World Heritage Sites,” and nearly 400 of
them are in Europe. Examples include:
• Palaces, castles, cathedrals built centuries ago
• Ruins from the Roman and Greek empires, thousands
of years old
• Entire cities, including Italy’s Venice and Vatican City
• Cave systems, mountains, national parks
7. Have students make predictions about the third layer, thinking about
what they have learned from the previous two layers.
• Which countries do you think have the most World Heritage Sites? Which regions?
• Which do you expect will have the fewest?
8. Attach the Number of World Heritage Sites Key to the map. Using the data sheet
and the ranges on the key, have students apply the World Heritage Sites graduated
symbols for each country.
9. Have students examine any patterns they see within the Number
of World Heritage Sites layer. Ask:
• Which countries and regions have the most World Heritage Sites? (The western
region of Europe has more World Heritage Sites, as well as Russia, Greece, and
Hungary; this may explain why Greece and Russia have many tourists).
• Which countries or regions have the fewest number of World Heritage Sites?
(The eastern and northern regions of Europe have fewer World Heritage Sites than
western Europe.)
• Are there countries in Europe that have a high number of World Heritage Sites
and a low amount of tourism income? Which countries have a low number of
World Heritage Sites and a high amount of tourism income? Ireland, Switzerland,
Austria. Why might this be? (These countries may be popular destinations because
of reasons beyond the World Heritage Sites: their landforms and natural beauty,
intriguing culture and lifestyle.)
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
Activities
Powerful Causes
& Effects
Objective
Students will map and analyze layers of energy
use statistics, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions,
and acid rain patterns to explore environmental
issues across Europe.
Guiding Question
• What are the patterns of relationships between energy
sources and energy consumption in Europe?
Preparing the Map
These activities are designed for use with the Tile Map
of Europe, but can be adapted for use on the smaller
projector map.
For the Tile Map, divide the tiles into regions so that each
group of three students works with roughly four to six tiles of
land. Some groups can assemble the extra tiles to complete
the surrounding ocean and continents, or you can arrange
those non-Europe tiles in advance to speed the map assembly.
9-12
LESSON TIME
Two to three 45-minute class periods
CONNECTIONS TO NATIONAL GEOGRAPHY STANDARDS
Essential Element 1: The World in Spatial Terms
Standard 1: How to Use Maps and Other
Geographic Representations, Tools, and
Technologies to Acquire, Process, and Report
Information From a Spatial Perspective
Essential Element 5: Environment and Society
Standard 14: How human actions modify the
physical environment
KEY VOCABULARY
acid rain, choropleth map, region, per capita,
SO2 emissions, non-renewable energy source,
renewable energy source
MATERIALS
Europe Support Materials from
nationalgeographic.com/geography-action
Give each group the tiles for their sections, providing the
map key if needed, and transparent tape. Students begin
by carefully taping their pieces together to form part of the
larger map. In the activities below, students work with the
data on their map tiles first, then the class can further
discuss the patterns across the continent after assembling
the whole map.
> Base map (desk, projector, or tile)
> E nergy Consumption by Source pie chart
Directions
> C olored pencils, markers, crayons,
Activity 1/Map layer 1: Total SO2 Emissions Per Capita
1. Explain to students that chemical reactions in the
atmosphere cause sulfur dioxide emissions to contribute to
acid rain. Acid rain, which falls in rain or snow, is harmful
to plants and animals. One cause of SO2 emissions is the
burning of non-renewable resources. Review with students as
needed the difference between renewable and non-renewable
resources, especially as it relates to energy resources.
>
>
>
symbols
Graduated symbols sheet
Total SO2 Emissions per capita data sheet
Map of Areas Most Sensitive to Acid Rain
External Materials
or dry erase markers
Transparent tape
Scissors
Glue (removable works well)
>
>
>
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
17
2. Discuss why data is often presented per capita. Ask:
The
answers
provided are examples
of student answers, and
do not represent the only
acceptable answer. There are
no wrong answers as long
as students can back up
their statements with
evidence.
• H
ow does this help in comparing and contrasting data for different countries?
(Per capita data helps in comparing and contrasting data for different countries
because it puts each country in a standard of units per person. For example, a
country may have more total SO2 emissions because it has a larger population,
but when comparing the SO2 emissions per person, it could have far less than a
smaller country.)
• Ask students to list the countries they think will have the lowest and highest SO2
emissions per capita.
3. Have students apply data layer 1 from the data sheet as a choropleth map to their
section (see pages 4-6 for more on choropleth mapping). Where countries are split
between groups, have the group that has the name of the country on their section, or
the first part of the name on their section, apply the data. Discuss:
• Which of their countries mapped have high SO2 emissions per capita compared
to neighboring countries?
Activity 2/Map layer 2: Energy Consumption by Source
4. Next, have students place the pre-constructed pie charts that show resource
consumption on their countries. Discuss:
• Which of their countries have a high percentage of non-renewable energy
sources?
• Which have a high percentage of renewable energy sources?
5. Discuss the possible relationships between the data layers.
• Does there seem to be a relationship between SO2 emissions and energy
consumption by source? Are there any surprises?
6. At the end of the first class period or beginning of second—time permitting—have
the class assemble the whole map using tape. Add the sample pie chart with labels to
the map key.
Activity 3: Analyzing Data for All of Europe
7. Once assembled, have students analyze the data for all of Europe. Ask:
hich countries of Europe have the highest SO2 emissions per capita? The
•W
lowest? (Czech Republic, Estonia, Lithuania, and Bulgaria have higher SO2
emissions; and Spain, Italy, France, Croatia, and others have lower SO2 emissions.)
• What patterns do they see in different regions of Europe? (Countries along the
Mediterranean Sea generally have lower SO2 emissions, and countries in the
eastern part of Europe generally have higher SO2 emissions.)
8. Next, discuss renewable and non-renewable energy sources, and their impact on
SO2 emissions. Discuss the pros and cons of visualizing data in this way. Ask:
18
• In what ways does placing the pie charts on a map help in analyzing this data?
Why do you think the pie charts were used in this exercise? (Pie charts enable
layering over the choropleth data on the base layer.)
•W
hich countries and/or regions use the highest levels of renewable energy?
The least? (Scandinavian countries use the highest percentage of renewable energy
compared with non-renewables; the U.K., Ireland, Czech Republic, and the Ukraine
use the lowest levels of renewable energy.)
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
EXTENDING THE LESSON 1
9. Have students examine the relationship between the “SO2 Emissions per Capita”
layer and the “Energy Consumption by Source” layer. Ask:
• What correlations do you see between energy consumption and SO2 emissions?
(In general, countries with lower SO2 emissions are those that use higher levels of
renewable resources.)
• Are there any surprises/exceptions to this pattern? (Norway, Finland, Estonia, and
Latvia have high SO2 emissions and high renewable resource use. Note: Burning
renewable resources such as wood can contribute to SO2 emissions, so may be a
factor in high SO2 levels for these countries.)
10.Review how chemical reactions in the atmosphere cause sulfur dioxide emissions
to contribute to acid rain problems. Ask:
• Which areas of Europe do you think are most sensitive to acid rain? (Students
may predict that countries that produce the most SO2 emissions are most likely
to be sensitive to acid rain. In the next activity they will see that this is not always
the case.)
Activity 4/Map Layer 3: Areas Most Sensitive to Acid Rain
11.There are multiple ways of placing this layer on the map. Use tinted cellophane
or a string to outline the areas; be sure to use a material that will allow the choropleth
layer to be seen underneath the acid rain layer. Discuss:
•W
hat areas of acid rain sensitivity are most surprising? Why might this be?
(In some countries there is high acid rain sensitivity even though SO2 emissions
are low. One reason for high acid rain sensitivity where SO2 emissions are low is
that wind patterns in the atmosphere carry the SO2 from other areas before the
acid rain precipitation. Another factor was discussed in Activity 2, that burning
renewable resources such as wood can contribute to SO2 emissions, so may
affect high SO2 levels for some countries.)
•H
ow might this affect energy policy discussions among European countries?
Map a fourth layer for wind
patterns in Europe, having
students add wind pattern arrows
to the map. This will emphasize
the relationship between SO2
emissions and acid rain sensitivity.
EXTENDING THE LESSON 2
Hold a debate. Possible topics:
Should countries that produce a
lot of SO2 be held responsible for
the acid rain that falls outside of
their borders? Should countries
that already use renewable energy
work as hard to reduce their SO2
emissions as those who are using
more nonrenewable resources?
EXTENDING THE LESSON 3
Have students further explore the
types of renewable energy sources
being used by different countries.
Is the ability to use that type of
energy related to the location
or physical environment, for
example, use of wind power in
Denmark? What other areas of
Europe might have the location
and/or physical environment to
use these types of resources?
Wind turbines provide renewable energy for the
residents of Samso Island, Denmark.
Europe’s energy sources include non-renewables
such as oil from refineries like this one in Scotland.
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
19
Glossary
acid rain – precipitation containing acid droplets
resulting from the mixture of moisture in the air with
carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, and
hydrocarbons released by factories and motor vehicles
choropleth map – a map that shows differences
between areas using colors or shading to represent
distinct categories of qualities (such as vegetation
type) or quantities (such as population density or
income)
city – a large concentrations of people and buildings
compass rose – a symbol on a map that indicates the
map’s orientation in relationship to the four cardinal
directions
continent – one of the seven main land masses on
Earth’s surface
country – a territory whose government is the highest
legal authority over the land and people within its
borders
endangered – an animal species in immediate risk of
becoming extinct
geographic information system (GIS) – computerized
system for storing, analyzing, and displaying data
about places. It allows the user to control the look of
the map using different layers of data represented in
different ways, and use the power of the computer to
answer questions.
graduated symbol – images of different sizes on
a map that illustrate ranges of quantities (such as
population size or income)
landmark – a geographic feature, natural or man
made, that is easily recognized and can be used to
help navigate in an area
latitude – distance in degrees north and south of the
Equator, which is 0° latitude
legend/map key – a key to symbols used on a map
longitude – distance in degrees east and west of the
Prime Meridian, which is 0° longitude
mammal – a warm-blooded animal that is relatively
covered in hair and gives birth to live young
map – a geographic representation of Earth, or a
portion of it, that is usually drawn to scale on a flat
surface
20
Geography Action! Mapping Europe Toolkit
non-renewable energy source – energy from
resources that form in extremely slow geological
processes (e.g., petroleum and minerals)
ocean – the large body of salt water that surrounds
the continents and covers more than two-thirds of
Earth’s surface
per capita – an average amount of a commodity per
person in a specific population
protected land area – any area of land that has been
reserved by government regulations to provide lasting
protection to the region
protected marine area – any area of marine
environment that has been reserved by governmental
regulations to provide lasting protection to the region
range – the area within which an animal species lives
and moves
region – an area of Earth that is grouped together
because of similarities in physical or human
characteristics that set it apart from other areas
renewable energy source – energy resources that
are replenished naturally, but the supply of which can
be endangered by overuse or subject to weather (e.g.,
timber, solar, wind)
SO2 emissions – the release of sulfur dioxide into the
air from various sources, including but not limited to
car and factory exhaust
symbol – a shape or small image on a map that
represents a geographic feature such as a mountain,
city, habitat
thematic map – a map representing a specific spatial
distribution, theme, or topic (e.g., population density,
cattle production, or climates of the world)
threatened – an animal species at risk of becoming
endangered and extinct
tourism – the activity of travel for pleasure and the
industry based on such travel
World Heritage Site – a natural or cultural area or
structure designated by United Nations Educational,
Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as
being of global significance. Each site is under strict
protection by its respective government.
Additional Resources
Websites for Mapping and Data Sets
www.nationalgeographic.com/earthpulse
http://earthtrends.wri.org/
http://prb.org/DataFinder.aspx
http://www.worldmapper.org/
http://www.loc.gov/rr/geogmap/
Bibliography
Geography Action! Mapping the Americas, National Geographic Society, 2008.
www.nationalgeographic.com/geography-action
National Geographic World Atlas for Young Explorers, 3rd Ed., Washington, D.C.:
National Geographic, 2007
National Geographic Society, 1996-2009. www.nationalgeographic.com/animals
UNESCO World Heritage Centre, 1992-2009. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list
World Resources Institute. 2007. EarthTrends: Environmental Information.
Available at http://earthtrends.wri.org. Washington DC: World Resources Institute.
Photo Credits
Cover, Mark Thiessen/National Geographic Photographer; p. 1, Walter Meayers Edwards/National Geographic
Stock; p. 2, Mark Thiessen/National Geographic Photographer; p. 3, Mark Thiessen/National Geographic
Photographer; p. 6, Mark Thiessen/National Geographic Photographer; p. 7, (top left) James L. Stanfield/National
Geographic Stock, (bottom left) Franc & Jean Shor, (right) W. Robert Moore/National Geographic Stock; p. 9,
Bonnie J., istockphoto.com, Mark Thiessen/National Geographic Photographer; p. 11, Mark Thiessen/National
Geographic Photographer; p. 12, Bates Littlehales/National Geographic Stock; p. 14, Mark Thiessen/National
Geographic Photographer; p. 15, Jodi Cobb/ National Geographic Stock, Dan Westergren/ National Geographic
Stock; p. 17, Mark Thiessen/National Geographic Photographer; p. 19, Dick Durrance II/National Geographic Stock,
Andrew Henderson/National Geographic Stock
Map Credits
Tile map, projector map, cover, page 4, and back cover: Copyright 2009 National Geographic Maps.
All rights reserved.
Inside front cover and page 4: Reprinted with permission of National Geographic Books from the World Atlas
for Young Explorers. Copyright 2007 National Geographic.
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