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Gross Brain Structures
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
Spinal Cord
Brainstem
Diencephalon
Cerebral Cortex
Ventricles
CSF
Blood-CSF Barrier
Fall 2012
Spinal Cord
8 Cervical
12 Thoracic
5 Lumbar
5 Sacral
1 Coccygeal
Spinal Cord
Dorsolateral Sulcus
Dorsointermediate Sulcus
Dorsal Median Sulcus
(Dorsal, in situ)
Cervical Segment C8
Dorsal Median Sulcus Dorsointermediate
Sulcus
Dorsolateral Sulcus
Ventrolateral Sulcus
Ventral Median Fissure
Thoracic Segment T10
Dorsal Median Sulcus
Dorsolateral Sulcus
Ventrolateral Sulcus
Ventral Median Fissure
Thoracic (T10)
Dorsal Horn
Lateral
Horn
Ventral Horn
Thoracic Gray Matter (T10)
Lissauer’s Tract
Substantia Gelatinosa
Nucleus Proprius
IML
VH
Clarke’s Nucleus
Cervical Enlargement (C8)
DREZ
FC
LCST
FG
STT
Thoracic (T10)
DREZ
FG
LCST
STT
Medulla
Olive
Pyramid
Ventral Median Fissure
Pyramidal Decussation
Ventral
Medulla
CN IX
CN X
CN XI
CN XII
Olive
Ventrolateral
Pons
Basilar Pons
Basilar Sulcus
Ventral
Pons
CN V
CN VI
CN VII
CN VIII
Ventral
Pons
CN VII
CN V
CN VIII
Ventrolateral
CN VI
Midbrain
Interpeduncular Fossa
CN III
Crus Cerebri
Ventral
Midbrain
CN III
Interpeduncular
Fossa
Ventral
Crus Cerebri
Midbrain
Superior Colliculus
Inferior Colliculus
CN III
Crus Cerebri
Lateral
Midbrain
Superior Colliculus
Inferior Colliculus
CN IV
Dorsal
Diencephalon
Interventricular Foramen
Lamina
Terminalis
Mid-sagittal
Posterior Commissure
3rd Ventricle
Diencephalon
Thalamus
MI
Hypothalamus
Mid-sagittal
Pineal Gland
Diencephalon
Tuber Cinereum Mamillary Body
Optic Chiasm
Infundibulum
Mid-sagittal
Select Cortical Areas
Functional Designation
Brodmann’s
Anatomical Name
Primary Motor Cortex
Area 4
Precentral Gyrus
Premotor Cortex
Area 6 (lateral)
Sup/Mid Frontal Gyri
Frontal Eye Fields
Area 8
Middle Frontal Gyrus
Supplementary Motor Area
Area 6 (medial)
Sup. Frontal Gyrus
Broca’s Area
Areas 44 & 45
Inf. Frontal Gyrus
Primary Somatosensory Cx
Area 3,1,2
Postcentral Gyrus
Unimodal SS Assoc. Cx
Areas 5 & 7
Sup. Parietal Lobule
Multimodal SS Assoc. Cx
Areas 5 & 7
Sup. Parietal Lobule
Primary Visual Cortex
Area 17
Banks Calcarine Sulcus
Primary Auditory Cortex
Areas 41 & 42
Transverse Temp. Gyrus
Wernicke’s Area
Area 22
Surrounds BA41 & 42
Cerebral Hemispheres
Parietal
Lobe
Occipital
Lobe
Temporal
Lobe
Lateral – Right Hemisphere
Frontal
Lobe
Frontal Lobe
Central
Sulcus
Interhemispheric
Fissure
Frontal
Pole
Lateral Fissure
Frontal Lobe
Precentral Gyrus
Superior
Frontal
Gyrus
Middle
Frontal
Gyrus
Inferior
Frontal
Gyrus
Parietal Lobe
Postcentral Gyrus
Superior
Parietal
Lobule
Inferior
Parietal
Lobule
Lateral
Lateral Fissure
Occipital Lobe
ParietoOccipital
Sulcus
Upper bank
Calcarine
Sulcus
Lower bank
Medial
Temporal Lobe
Lateral
Middle
Temporal
Gyrus
Inferior
Temporal
Gyrus
Lateral Fissure
Superior Temporal Gyrus
Temporal Lobe
Superior Temporal Gyrus
Transverse Temporal Gyri
of Heschl
Horizontal cut
Temporal Lobe
Inferior Temporal Gyrus
Occipitotemporal Gyrus
Parahippocampal Gyrus
Inferior
Limbic Lobe
Cingulate Gyrus
Fornix
Medial
Septum
Pellucidum
Uncus
Parahippocampal Gyrus
Limbic Lobe
Uncus
Parahippocampal Gyrus
Occipitotemporal Gyrus
Inferior
Limbic Lobe
Fornix
Hippocampal
Formation
Inferior
Internal Capsule
Anterior Limb
Genu
Horizontal cut
Posterior Limb
Corpus Callosum
B
G
R
S
Commissures
Anterior Commissure
Lamina
Terminalis
Mid-sagittal
Posterior Commissure
3rd Ventricle
Basal Ganglia
Caudate
Putamen
Globus Pallidus
Thalamus
Horizontal cut
Ventricular System
Ependymal Cells
• Ciliated, cuboidal
epithelium
• Lines ventricles of
CNS
• Discontinuous
basal lamina
allows for
movement of
material between
CSF and brain
rather easily
Choroid Plexus
• Specialized ependymal cells
• Produce and secrete CSF into ventricular spaces
of brain
Choroid Plexus
Choroid Plexus Distribution
Choroid Plexus in Body and
Anterior Horn of Lateral Ventricle
Glomus in Atrium
Choroid Plexus in
Third Ventricle
Choroid Plexus in Inferior
Horn of Lateral Ventricle
Choroid Plexus in
Fourth Ventricle
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
• Choroid plexus produces 75% of all CSF
• Rate of 500-700 ml/day (0.3-0.4 ml/hour)
• Total volume replaced 3-4 times/day
• Normal volume is about 140 ml (80-150)
• Ventricles contain about 30 ml
• Remainder in subarachnoid spaces
CSF Composition
•
•
•
•
Clear and colorless
Virtually acellular (0-5 WBC/mm3)
Nearly isotonic with plasma
CSF has minimal protein (15-45 mg/dl), lower
glucose (60-80% of plasma), higher Na+, Cland Mg++ and lower K+ and Ca++ than plasma
• Most resembles aqueous humor of eye
Blood-Brain-Barrier
Nonfenestrated
ca pillary endothelium
Astrocyte f oot processes
Tight junc tion
PLASMA
BM
Choroid plexus epitheliu m
CEREBR OSPINAL FLUID
Spotty tight junc tion
Tight junc tion
ECF
BRAIN TISSUE
BM
BM
Meningeal cell proc ess
La teral
PLASMA
interdigitations
Closed fenestration
Endothelial cell
Blood-CSF-Barrier
Sites Where Blood-BrainBarrier is Lacking
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