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Transcript
The Integrating Factor Method
for a
Linear Differential Equation
y 0 + p(x)y = r(x)
Contents
• Superposition y = yh + yp
• Variation of Parameters
• Integrating Factor Identity
• The Integrating Factor Method
• Example xy 0 + y = x2.
Superposition
Consider the homogeneous equation
(1)
y 0 + p(x)y = 0
and the non-homogeneous equation
(2)
y 0 + p(x)y = r(x)
where p and r are continuous in an interval J .
Theorem 1 (Superposition)
The general solution of the non-homogeneous equation (2) is given by
y = yh + yp
where yh is the general solution of homogeneous equation (1) and yp is a particular
solution of non-homogeneous equation (2).
Variation of Parameters
The initial value problem
(3)
y 0 + p(x)y = r(x),
y(x0) = 0,
where p and r are continuous in an interval containing x = x0 , has a particular solution
Z x
Rt
Rx
− x p(s)ds
(4)
r(t)e x0 p(s)ds dt.
y(x) = e 0
x0
Formula (4) is called variation of parameters, for historical reasons.
The formula determines a particular solution yp which can be used in the superposition
identity y = yh + yp .
While (4) has some appeal, applications use the integrating factor method, which is developed with indefinite integrals for computational efficiency. No one memorizes (4); they
remember and study the method.
Integrating Factor Identity
The technique called the integrating factor method uses the replacement rule
(5)
Fraction
(Y W )
W
0
0
R
replaces Y + p(x)Y, where W = e
p(x)dx
R
.
The factor W = e p(x)dx in (5) is called an integrating factor.
Details
R
Let W = e p(x)dx . Then W 0 =R pW , by the rule (ex )0 = ex , the chain rule and the
fundamental theorem of calculus ( p(x)dx)0 = p(x).
Let’s prove (W Y )0 /W = Y 0 + pY . The derivative product rule implies
(Y W )0 = Y 0W + Y W 0
= Y 0W + Y pW
= (Y 0 + pY )W.
The proof is complete.
The Integrating Factor Method
Standard
Form
Find W
Prepare for
Quadrature
Method of
Quadrature
Rewrite y 0 = f (x, y) in the form y 0 + p(x)y = r(x) where
p, r are continuous. The method applies only in case this is
possible.
R
Find
a simplified formula for W = e p(x)dx . The antiderivative
R
p(x)dx can be chosen conveniently.
Obtain the new equation
(yW )0
W
= r by replacing the left side
of y 0 + p(x)y = r(x) by equivalence (5).
0
Clear fractions to obtain (yW
R ) = rW . Apply the method of
quadrature to get yW = r(x)W (x)dx + C . Divide by W
to isolate the explicit solution y(x).
Equation (5) is central to the method, because it collapses the two terms y 0 + py into a
single term (yW )0 /W ; the method of quadrature applies to (yW )0 = rW . Literature
calls the exponential factor W an integrating factor and equivalence (5) a factorization
of Y 0 + p(x)Y .
Integrating Factor Example
Example. Solve the linear differential equation xy 0 + y = x2 .
Solution: The standard form of the linear equation is
y0 +
1
x
Let
W =e
y = x.
R
1
dx
x
=x
and replace the LHS of the differential equation by (yW )0 /W to obtain the quadrature
equation
(yW )0 = xW.
Apply quadrature to this equation, then divide by W , to give the answer
y=
x2
3
+
C
x
.