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Read Naturally Level 8.0
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions
Note: The list of answers for some of the questions may not include all the possibilities.
Sputnik and the Space Race
1. c
2. b
3. a
4. a
5. Possible answers: it made many Americans feel
less technologically inferior and more powerful
than the Soviet Union; it showed that the United
States was also capable of a major feat in space
6. a. 3, b. 5, c. 4, d. 1, e. 2
7. atmosphere, elliptical, communist, subside,
8. Possible answers: it fueled competition between
the United States and the Soviet Union by
making people in the United States feel
technologically inferior and fearful about the use
of weapons
9. Possible answers: they were competing to be
the most powerful nation; they were trying to
outdo each other militarily, politically, and
technologically; they were concerned about the
use of weapons
EA: Milestones may include the following: Sputnik II;
U.S. attempts to launch Vanguard; U.S. launch of
Explorer I; Yuri Gagarin becoming the first
person in space; Neil Armstrong walking on the
moon; Apollo missions to the moon; or Mir
Space Station.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1. b
2. a
3. b
4. c
5. Possible answers: the Soviet Union agreed to
end construction on the missile sites in Cuba
6. a. 2, b. 4, c. 5, d. 1, e. 3
7. 4, 2, 1, 3, 5
8. Possible answers: the Soviet Union could have
fired the missiles on the United States from Cuba,
and nuclear war could have followed; the United
States could have decided to fire missiles at Cuba
or the Soviet Union, and nuclear war could have
9. Possible answers: Castro allowed Soviets to
install missiles in Cuba that could reach the
United States; Soviet Union installed missiles in
Cuba; United States had missiles in Turkey, a
neighboring country to the Soviet Union; United
States ordered Cuba quarantined; United States
had spy planes over the Soviet Union; U.S. spy
plane was shot down over Cuba
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Read Naturally Encore, Version 1.0.1
EA: The Cold War was between the United States and
the Soviet Union; it ended with a United
States/capitalist victory and the collapse of the
Soviet Union.
Mir Space Station
1. a
2. b
3. c
4. a
5. Possible answers: people lived and worked
together in outer space; they had challenging and
rewarding experiences together in outer space
6. a. 2, b. 3, c. 1, d. 5, e. 4
7. witness, research, accommodate, collaborate,
8. Possible answers: they observed the beauty of
Earth from above; they dozed while suspended
upside down; they filmed a commercial; they
flew around on a vacuum cleaner one New Year's
9. Possible answers: they conducted experiments;
they repaired and maintained the space station;
they practiced for future projects; they rearranged
the station's modules; they did research
EA: Similar: both space stations were built for
experiments and research; both were built for
people to live and work in space.
Different: the International Space Station is much
bigger than Mir; International Space Station
involves more countries.
Greenbrier Bunker
1. c
2. b
3. b
4. a
5. Possible answers: the government felt it was
necessary to have continuity of government in
the event of a nuclear war
6. a. 2, b. 3, c. 5, d. 1, e. 4
7. continuity, relocation, fulfilling, exposed,
8. Possible answers: the public would have been
experiencing nuclear war or a nuclear emergency;
many may not have had a safe place to go
9. Possible answers: the bunker had a chamber for
the Senate; it also had a chamber for the House;
there was a hall for joint sessions; radio
communications room enabled contact with
military installations; a television studio allowed
leaders to address the public; the bunker had
facilities to keep members of Congress healthy
Sequenced Level 8.0
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions, Continued
was accused of accepting money from a secret
political fund, so he gave a speech to the public
insisting that the only gift he'd accepted was a
dog named Checkers. The speech was a success
in that the public believed Nixon, and he was still
allowed to run for vice-president.
EA: The Greenbrier is a national historic landmark
that opened in 1778. Many U.S. Presidents and
other famous people have stayed there. It was
used as a military headquarters during the
American Civil War and as an army hospital in
the 1940s. Its golf course was the home course
of the famous golfer Sam Snead.
Leonardo da Vinci
1. b
2. a
3. c
4. a
5. Possible answers: Leonardo was a genius; he
contributed great things to art and science; he
used innovative techniques; he was a
Renaissance man
6. a. 3, b. 5, c. 1, d. 4, e. 2
7. aptitude, surpassed, disciplines, convey,
8. Possible answers: used his artistic abilities to
make sketches of human anatomy and scientific
inventions; dissected corpses to help him draw
more accurate sketches
9. Possible answers: gifted artist, architect,
engineer, inventor, and scientist; everyone
thought he was a genius; created artistic
masterpieces; made important scientific
discoveries; techniques he introduced became the
basis for modern scientific illustration; his work
has left a lasting impression on the world
EA: Answers will vary but may include her eyes (she
appears to be looking at you regardless of the
angle from which you view her) and her smile
(sometimes it looks like she is smiling, and other
times it does not).
1. c
2. a
3. c
4. b
5. Possible answers: Woodward and Bernstein
may not have had enough information to connect
Watergate and the White House
6. a. 3, b. 1, c. 5, d. 2, e. 4
7. 4, 2, 5, 1, 3
8. Possible answers: so they could record the
conversations that took place in the Democratic
headquarters; they were hoping to spy on the
other party during the Presidential election
9. Possible answers: McCord worked for Nixon's
re-election committee; money from Nixon's reelection committee financed bugging devices;
Nixon had knowledge of the attempt to conceal
the connection between Watergate and the White
EA: When Nixon was running for vice-president, he
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1. a
2. b
3. a
4. c
5. Possible answers: he was surrounded by great
art; he got to observe talented artists at work; art
was commissioned there; he became acquainted
with Lorenzo de Medici, the ruler of Florence
6. a. 2, b. 1, c. 5, d. 3, e. 4
7. 3, 5, 2, 1, 4
8. Possible answers: took Michelangelo under his
wing; introduced him to Italy's most famous
artists; thought Michelangelo had great potential
9. Possible answers: Michelangelo was a talented
sculptor, painter, and architect; Michelangelo
created many important works of art.
EA: David is a biblical character who uses a slingshot
to fight Goliath; Michelangelo's sculpture depicts
David with his slingshot before he encounters
Impeachment in the U.S.
1. b
2. a
3. c
4. c
5. Possible answers: government authorities called
his integrity into question; he was involved in a
scandal; the House of Representatives planned to
impeach him; he resigned
6. a. 4, b. 1, c. 5, d. 3, e. 2
7. 2, 1, 5, 4, 3
8. Possible answers: many steps in process; House
of Representatives must vote against the
President; two-thirds of the Senate must agree to
convict the President
9. Possible answers: the House impeached
Johnson, but the Senate acquitted him; the House
impeached Clinton, but he was found not guilty;
the House planned to impeach Nixon, but he
resigned first
EA: Congress is unique in having the power to assess
and collect taxes; regulate commerce; coin
money; establish post offices; establish courts
inferior to the Supreme Court; declare war; raise
and maintain an army and navy; and propose
amendments to the Constitution.
Sequenced Level 8.0
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions, Continued
Dolly the Cloned Sheep
1. c
2. b
3. a
4. b
5. Possible answers: premature aging; arthritis;
lung disease; short lifespan
6. a. 3, b. 2, c. 5, d. 1, e. 4
7. 1, 4, 2, 5, 3
8. Possible answers: some people were delighted
because they envisioned scientific advancements;
some people were appalled because they feared
misuse of the technology
9. Possible answers: she showed signs of
premature aging; she developed arthritis; she
displayed signs of lung disease; she lived a
shorter life than most sheep
EA: Identical twins develop when a single embryo
splits into two during the very early stages of its
development. Because they come from the same
original cells, identical twins have the same DNA
and physical features.
10 Indira Gandhi
1. a
2. c
3. b
4. b
5. Possible answers: she knew what life was like
without it; she worked for independence with her
parents in her youth; her childhood experiences
taught her the importance of independence; she
did not want to be treated like a second-class
6. a. 1, b. 4, c. 5, d. 3, e. 2
7. 3, 4, 1, 5, 2
8. Possible answers: helped the Congress party;
helped the nationalist movement; probably good
spies because the British didn't think to be
suspicious of children; children worked hard
stuffing envelopes and delivering messages
9. Possible answers: initiated the Monkey Brigade
when she was younger; helped her father when
he was prime minister; was president of the
Congress party; was prime minister of India; said
she'd be proud to die for the service of the nation;
endured prison and a beating to help bring about
her country's independence
EA: Mahatma Gandhi organized peasants and laborers
to protest against land-tax and discrimination;
worked to ease poverty, expand women's rights,
and improve the status of people in the
"untouchable" caste; helped free the Indian
people from British rule through nonviolent
resistance; and worked to increase India's
economic self-reliance.
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The Cloning Controversy
1. c
2. a
3. a
4. b
5. Possible answers: cloning members of an
endangered species would increase the
population of that species
6. a. 2, b. 5, c. 4, d. 1, e. 3
7. asexually, grafting, genetic, controversy,
8. Possible answers: people could choose to make
all people alike by making certain traits very
common and trying to get rid of other traits; we
could end up making a trait common that actually
lessens our chances of survival; we could end up
eliminating a trait that gave us an advantage for
9. Possible answers: Some people think cloning
could be beneficial, but others think it could
cause problems.
EA: Answers will vary.
Golda Meir
1. b
2. a
3. b
4. c
5. Possible answer: she was in the public eye and
never let her suffering be known; she
accomplished a great deal even though she was
struggling with a serious illness; she was prime
minister while she struggled with a fatal disease
6. a. 4, b. 1, c. 3, d. 5, e. 2
7. 3, 1, 5, 2, 4
8. Possible answers: she remembered the terror of
her childhood and did not want other Jews to
have to experience something similar; she
believed Jews would risk being victims again if
they could not be masters of their own fates, and
she believed having a sovereign nation would
enable them to accomplish this goal
9. Possible answers: she initiated the American
Young Sisters Society to help raise money for
students' school-books; she ran away from home
to avoid marriage and continue her education; she
raised money, recruited people to live in
Palestine, and moved to Palestine herself; she
served in the government in many roles; she
came out of retirement to lead the government of
EA: By the 1800s, Hebrew had long ago fallen out of
use as a spoken language. Jews had been
scattered around the world for centuries and
generally spoke the languages of their countries
of residence. Eliezer Ben Yehuda believed that
reviving Hebrew as a spoken language could help
unite Jews around the world. He emigrated from
Sequenced Level 8.0
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions, Continued
Europe to Palestine in 1881. There he wrote the
first modern Hebrew dictionary and helped found
the Academy of the Hebrew Language. As a
result of his efforts, Hebrew became a spoken
language once more, and it is the national
language of Israel.
6. a. 1, b. 3, c. 5, d. 2, e. 4
7. despair, philosophy, stabilize, improvise, assured
8. Possible answers: they were reassuring to the
public in a time of crisis; they helped Americans
regain their hope for the future; when people
were more hopeful, they were likely to try harder
to make the changes work; it made people ready
to try something else if a change was not
successful; when people felt reassured, they were
more willing to take part in the economy by
spending, trading, and hiring workers, which
helped the economy recover
9. Possible answers: he helped stabilize the
economy; helped create jobs; improved working
conditions and wages; managed the food supply;
reassured the public; provided strong and
optimistic leadership during the war; worked with
the British prime minister to develop a plan for
world peace
EA: Answers will vary but may include the following:
Social Security Act established pensions,
benefits, and insurance for both employed and
unemployed groups; Works Project
Administration put unemployed workers back to
work on public projects; Civilian Conservation
Corps was an environmental program that put
people to work maintaining and restoring forests,
beaches, and parks.
13 The Great Depression
1. a
2. b
3. c
4. b
5. Possible answers: had gotten used to economic
prosperity; had experienced years of widespread
success; were used to rapidly increasing stock
values; felt confident in their investments;
preferred to remain optimistic
6. a. 2, b. 4, c. 5, d. 3, e. 1
7. 4, 3, 5, 2, 1
8. Possible answers: when the stocks crashed,
there was a chain reaction of unpaid debts;
businesses failed, and workers lost their jobs;
without jobs, people didn't have money to spend,
so companies lost business; people lost their
money when banks closed
9. Possible answers: unemployment numbers crept
upward; consumers spent less money; stocks
were overvalued; the market experienced
significant dips
EA: Fraud is less likely now since the creation of the
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in
1934. The Federal Reserve now regulates
requirements. Congress now plays a role in
Federal Reserve Board's management of money
and the economy, and banks are now federally
14 Dumb Laws
1. c
2. b
3. b
4. c
5. Possible answers: it would be difficult to prove
that the burp was intentional and not accidental
6. a. 5, b. 3, c. 4, d. 1, e. 2
7. recurring, legislation, legitimate, apparent, breach
8. Possible answers: most are outdated; many have
no rhyme or reason
9. Possible answers: Even though dumb laws exist,
people do not always abide by them.
EA: Answers will vary.
15 Franklin Delano Roosevelt
1. c
2. c
3. b
4. a
5. Possible answers: he initiated substantial
changes in America; not everything he tried
worked, but he continued to improvise and make
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The Making of a U.S. Law
1. a
2. c
3. c
4. b
5. Possible answers: to make sure the bill is
feasible; to make sure the bill is in the best
interests of constituents; to know the associated
costs; to make informed decisions on whether to
release, revise, or table it
6. a. 2, b. 4, c. 1, d. 3, e. 5
7. constituents, feasible, table, drafts, veto
8. Possible answers: a super-majority (two-thirds
of the Senate and two-thirds of the House) can
vote in favor of it
9. Possible answers: lawmakers research bills;
they debate bills; they negotiate modifications to
bills; they vote on bills; bills go through a
detailed procedure in both the Senate and the
House; many people and steps are involved
EA: Article I of the United States Constitution states
that every act of law must be signed by the
President. It gives the President the authority to
approve bills, or veto them by sending them back
to Congress.
Sequenced Level 8.0
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions, Continued
terror," which included a U.S. attack on
17 Polio
1. b
2. a
3. c
4. c
5. Possible answers: polio can paralyze the limbs
and make it hard to breathe, so it is amazing that
a polio survivor was strong enough to win a gold
6. a. 3, b. 5, c. 1, d. 4, e. 2
7. contracted, symptoms, warrant, vaccine,
8. Possible answers: serious illness; highly
contagious; could cause paralysis and even death;
incidence was random; most common in
children; spread throughout the world; no vaccine
9. Possible answers: polio usually results in a
fever, nausea, and muscle pains, but in some
cases it attacks the central nervous system; some
polio victims do not even realize they're sick, but
in other cases the disease results in paralysis or
death; sometimes polio paralyzes the limbs, and
other times it paralyzes the muscles that control
EA: Answers will vary but may include the following:
FDR was a great U.S. President who suffered
from polio; Joni Mitchell, a famous singer,
survived polio and post-polio syndrome; Jack
Nicklaus, a famous golfer, had a mild case of
polio; Wilma Rudolph was an Olympic track star
who was once unable to walk unassisted because
of polio.
20 The Dawn of the Atomic Age
18 Attack on Pearl Harbor
1. c
2. b
3. c
4. a
5. Possible answers: they would have inflicted
more damage; both countries would probably
have endured more losses; U.S. soldiers might
have been able to fight back more than they did
during the initial attack
6. a. 4, b. 1, c. 5, d. 3, e. 2
7. 1, 5, 4, 3, 2
8. Possible answers: The Japanese attacked Pearl
Harbor to eliminate the U.S. Navy from the
Pacific so that the United States couldn't interfere
with Japan's efforts to claim more land and
access to natural resources.
9. Possible answers: intercepted messages;
sightings of unidentified submarines; appearance
of unidentified aircraft on radar screen
EA: September 11, 2001, was the date on which
terrorists attacked the United States by hijacking
planes and crashing into the World Trade Center
and the Pentagon; these events led to the "war on
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The Iron Lung
1. c
2. a
3. c
4. a
5. Possible answers: severe polio paralyzes the
breathing muscles, so the iron lung helped these
people stay alive by helping them breathe
6. a. 3, b. 1, c. 4, d. 5, e. 2
7. device, air pressure, ventilated, adapted, essential
8. Possible answers: the polio vaccine prevented
people from getting polio, which in turn reduced
the number of people who needed iron lungs to
9. Possible answers: doctors used iron lungs to
treat polio patients; people's lives depended on
iron lungs; artificial respiration has remained
essential to medical technology; within a few
years of its invention, the iron lung was in use in
hospitals worldwide
EA: CPR stands for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation.
It is used when someone's breathing and heart
have stopped working. A person who is giving
CPR presses up and down on the victim's chest to
squeeze the victim's heart so that it pumps blood
through the body, and may also blow air into the
person's lungs through mouth-to-mouth
1. a
2. b
3. c
4. b
5. Possible answers: first nuclear weapon ever
used; took a huge human toll; demonstrated how
much more deadly weapons had become; caused
the Allied forces to win World War II
6. a. 3, b. 2, c. 5, d. 4, e. 1
7. initiated, ultimatum, confront, inflicted, rubble
8. Possible answers: the destruction that the
atomic bomb could inflict
9. Possible answers: experts disagreed about what
was best; war could have lasted another year,
resulting in the loss of many lives; war could
have ended more quickly, with fewer lives lost;
an atomic bomb had never been used before; use
of the bomb would cause devastation and kill
countless Japanese citizens
EA: J. Robert Oppenheimer directed the Manhattan
Project. It was led by the United States and had
support from the United Kingdom and Canada.
Sequenced Level 8.0
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions, Continued
6. a. 4, b. 3, c. 1, d. 2, e. 5
7. engaged, conflict, unprecedented, ultimately,
8. Possible answers: by that time, more people
knew about the virus, its odd tendencies, and how
deadly it was; the virus was contagious and
spreading around the world
9. Possible answers: it afflicted people in nearly
every country; it killed more people than the war
did; it seemed to prefer healthy adults with strong
immune systems; it killed 20 to 40 million people
EA: Answers will vary but may include the following:
HIV was an epidemic that arose in the late 20th
century; the first cases in North America
appeared in 1980 and 1981; HIV can lead to a
terminal illness called AIDS; this virus is still
present around the world today.
21 A 14th-Century Disaster
1. b
2. a
3. b
4. c
5. Possible answers: antibiotics have diminished
the danger; we know more now about the plague
and its origin
6. a. 2, b. 5, c. 1, d. 4, e. 3
7. documented, bacterium, transmit, lymph glands,
8. Possible answers: improved the standard of
living and social structure; surplus of goods
reduced prices; feudal lords lost power; peasants
had greater selection of jobs at higher wages
9. Possible answers: people lived in constant fear
of the plague; people thought it was a punishment
from God; people produced morose art and
literature; the plague changed the standard of
living and social structure
EA: Answers will vary.
24 Stephen Hawking
1. c
2. c
3. a
4. b
5. Possible answers: he did not let the disease
prevent him from living his life; he lived much
longer than his doctors predicted; he learned to
communicate with the help of technology; he
remained curious about the origins and mysteries
of the universe; he taught; he made important
contributions to science; he had a family; he was
a best-selling author; he became one of the
world's most renowned physicists
6. a. 4, b. 5, c. 2, d. 1, e. 3
7. affliction, synthesizer, chair, contributions,
8. Possible answers: Hawking and Galileo were
both renowned for their contributions to science;
both were curious about the mysteries of the
universe; both studied stars
9. Possible answers: he taught at Cambridge; he
became a renowned physicist; he made
discoveries about black holes; he wrote books; he
spoke to many people about his studies, theories,
and hopes
EA: Lou Gehrig was a great baseball player who was
the Yankees' first baseman for years before his
ALS finally prevented him from playing; like
Hawking, he was an inspiration to others.
22 Albert Einstein
1. a
2. c
3. b
4. a
5. Possible answers: the Manhattan Project dealt
with creating the first atomic bomb; the use of
such a bomb went against Einstein's pacifist
6. a. 5, b. 3, c. 2, d. 1, e. 4
7. genius, theories, refining, eclipse, colleagues
8. Possible answers: accomplished violinist;
pacifist and supporter of Jewish state; Israel
offered him presidency; his letter to Roosevelt
influenced the President to initiate the Manhattan
9. Possible answers: he discovered the theory of
relativity; he won the Nobel Prize for his paper
on the photoelectric effect; his thinking was not
limited by conventional postulates; he came up
with many important theories; he was influential
in areas beyond science
EA: Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was the first person to
win the Nobel Prize in Physics. The prize was
awarded to him in 1901 for his discovery of Xrays.
23 The Pandemic of 1918–1919
1. b
2. b
3. b
4. c
5. Possible answer: the world was already
concerned with the hazards of war and probably
saw the war as a bigger threat; people had seen
influenza in the past and might not have expected
at first that this new influenza virus was going to
be as bad as it was
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Read Naturally Encore, Version 1.0.1
Sequenced Level 8.0
Answer Key for Comprehension Questions