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Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Using Information Resources
In this test, you are asked to look at some reference materials and then use the materials to
answer some questions.
Research Topic: Managing Money
Suppose you wanted to write a report about managing money. You want to learn more about
how to manage money effectively. Seven different sources of information about managing
money are given in this section of the test. The information sources are listed below.
Skim all of the resources to become familiar with the information they contain. Remember that
these are reference sources, so you do not need to read every word in each source. Once you
have skimmed the sources, answer the questions that follow.
Use the information sources to help you answer the questions. As you work through the
questions, go back and read the sections that will give you the information you need.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Internet Web Site Information: DollarDuck.com
Glossary from a Book, Knowing the Stock Market
Table of Contents from a Book, The Wild World of Investing
Excerpt from a Book, A Student’s Guide to Budgeting
Chapter from a Book, Let It Grow: Investment Strategies for New Investors
Excerpt from a Magazine Article, "Understanding the New York Stock Exchange
(NYSE)"
Information Shown on a Check, "Checks and Balances"
Model Parenthetical Citations
Model Bibliographic Entries
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
1. Internet Web Site Information: DollarDuck.com
Why checks? Well, maybe you don’t want to carry around X amount and change when
you head off to the electronics warehouse to buy a new computer or scanner or printer
or Web cam or whatever. And landlords and utility companies take a dim view of getting
their money in cash via the postal service.
Whoa, there!
Before you start…
Before you get into the driver’s seat of a car, you must know how to accelerate and
where the brake pedal is.
Before you get those nice little checks in the mail, the ones with Daffy Duck (our
favorites) or rainbows & kittens, make it your business to know what you are getting
into.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Do you know how to:
♦ balance a checking account?
♦ write checks?
♦ fill out a deposit slip?
♦ read a bank statement?
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
1. Internet Web Site Information: DollarDuck.com (continued)
Did you know that banks charge fees for the privilege of holding your stash of cash? Did
you know you can avoid these fees by keeping a certain amount of money in your
account? Or that you can get a low-fee ATM account? Or that a box of those really
flashy checks can cost $30? If you’re not careful, you’ll end up paying through the beak
for your ignorance, so learn as much as you can before you open your checking
account.
Go to a bank and ask for someone who handles new accounts. Pick up every brochure
they offer, and ask about services and fees.
It’s about balance . . . .
Balancing your checking account is like doing the laundry. If you do it regularly, it’s easy
as pie. If not, you can plan on spending the weekend at it.
To keep your balance, use your check register to:
♦ record all your ATM transactions
♦ record every check you write
♦ record every deposit you make to your account
♦ keep a running balance
Don’t rely on your memory! Keep your transaction receipts. Then, once a month, sit
down with your check register, your bank statement, and your receipts. Make popcorn if
you like.
Then take this simple approach to achieving balance:
1. verify checks that have been paid and transactions that have been completed as
of the date on the statement
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
2. add all of the outstanding negative transactions (checks, ATM withdrawals, other
withdrawals) that are not listed on the statement
3. subtract this amount from the ending balance on your statement
4. add all of the outstanding positive transactions (deposits) that are not listed on
the statement
5. add this number to the number you got after performing #3
6. be sure to subtract any monthly bank fees, ATM fees, fees for checks, etc.
7. the number you have after #6 should match the running balance in your check
register
Even if you have trouble reconciling your checkbook, you should be okay as long as you
don’t get in the nasty habit of writing checks for more money than is in your account. If
you knowingly write checks for money you don’t have, you are committing a crime:
check fraud.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
1. Internet Web Site Information: DollarDuck.com (continued)
Bounce!
Not all bad checks are the result of fraud; sometimes you write a check assuming that
your friend Fred will pay you back on Friday like he said he would. When Fred reneges,
the damage to your account is done.
Luckily, merchants are more interested in getting their money than sending you to jail. If
your check bounces back to your bank because of NSF (non-sufficient funds), your
bank will cover it if you have overdraft protection (it goes without saying that your bank
will also charge you a hefty fee for floating you this loan). If you don’t have overdraft
protection, expect an impatient call from the merchant, who is also allowed to charge
you another set of fees to pay for his trouble in tracking you down and getting his
money.
It’s good to be you!
Banks often give good deals to students, so look around. Some banks even offer free
checking accounts to students. Requirements for qualifying for free checking accounts
may vary from bank to bank. Sometimes you have to flash your student ID card (the one
with the great picture) or you may have to show or other proof of current school
registration. There may be an age requirement: generally, independent student
checking accounts are not available to those under the age of eighteen. However, some
banks provide joint accounts with parents of minors, allowing them to open checking
accounts at an earlier age. Go ahead, as long as you’re sure you can trust your parents
not to run off to Tahiti with your life savings!
Send thoughts, suggestions, ideas, questions, and links to [email protected]
To get daily dollarduck news, click here.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
2. Glossary from a Book, Knowing the Stock Market
bankruptcy: term describing the legal process companies must undergo when unable to meet
financial obligations
buy-and-hold: strategy in which the money set aside for stock investments is always invested
buy and sell orders: intent to buy or sell a security
callable bond: bond that can be officially repaid by the issuer prior to its maturity date
capital gain: an increase from the purchase price to the selling price of common stock or any
other capital asset; may also be the profit from sales of investments or other property
capital loss: a decrease from the purchase price to the selling price of common stock or any other
capital asset; as with capital gains, capitol loss may also be a loss from sales of investments or
other property
certificate of deposit (CD): an interest-bearing bank receipt for a specified amount of money in a
certain period of time (CDs usually mature between three months and three years; the interest
rate depends on the amount of money and length of time of the deposit)
depreciation: decrease in value due to wear and tear, decay, decline in price, or other factors—
for example: a new car purchased at $20,000 may depreciate to $5,000 in five years
diversification: process of investing in multiple arenas, e.g., in stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and
CDs, or in purchasing different types of stocks, e.g., from different industries, of varying risk
levels, or from different companies, in order to reduce the loss from a possible company- or
industry-specific loss of business
dividend: a sum of money, determined by a company's directors, paid to shareholders of a
corporation out of the company’s earnings
Dow Jones industrial average (DJIA): an indicator showing the general health of the stock
market; determined by averaging the prices of 30 industrial stocks trading in the New York
Stock Exchange (NYSE)
earnings per share: earnings found by dividing the net income of the company by the number of
shares of stock that are owned
face value: the value printed on the face of a stock, bond, or other financial document.
financial strength: a company's financial condition as seen by analysts (Value Line rates
financial strength on a scale from A++ to C.)
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
3. Table of Contents from a Book, The Wide World of Investing
Contents
vii
Introduction
Part One: The Stock Market
Choosing a Broker
15
Researching the Individual Stock: How to Recognize a
45
Good Deal
When to Buy
63
When to Sell
71
A Note on Timing the Market
77
Day Trading: Are the Risks Worth It?
80
Mutual Funds
83
Cautionary Tales: Troubles You Can Avoid
97
Part Two: Real Estate
Location, Location, Location
109
Maximum Value for Minimum Investment
125
Timing is Everything: Studying the Market Pays Off
135
Conclusion
151
Recommended Reading
157
Index
163
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
4. Excerpt from a Book, A Student's Guide to Budgeting
Why Budget?
The concept of budgeting is simple: by tracking your income and expenditures, you can figure
out how to spend less money than you make or avoid overspending your income. Because many
students have few regular expenses, careful budgeting may not seem important. But a budget can
be a helpful tool for anyone who would like to:
• save more
• spend less
• spend wisely
• stay out of debt
A budget can be a good habit to cultivate; the more money you earn and the more expenses you
accumulate, the more important it is to keep close track of your money.
One of the major incentives to keeping a budget is setting aside money for personal spending.
This includes both short and long-term goals that you might have after you have paid for
necessary expenses, such as food, rent, and bills. Short-term goals may include smaller items that
you would like to purchase, but don’t need, such as particular items of clothing or music CDs.
Since the items that make up your short-term goals don’t cost a lot of money, saving for them is
easier and takes less time. Saving to meet long-term goals takes more commitment and planning,
and money for these purchases is saved over time.
Saving, as well as spending, is a crucial element of a budget. If you have a long-term goal for
your budget, such as buying a car or saving up for college, consider starting small so you don’t
get overwhelmed early on and quit altogether. Saving small amounts of money over a long
period of time can make the purchase of a new car (or any other large goal) seem manageable. If
you are able to put away $100 a month, by the end of a year you will have saved $1200, which is
a big step toward reaching your goal.
Setting Goals
A primary purpose of creating and sticking to a budget is that you want to meet goals that you set
for yourself. If you never spend any money on anything, then you have nothing to worry about
and this book is not for you.
Don’t worry about spending money. Trying not to spend any money is unrealistic. Everyone
must spend some money in order to live. People need food and clothes; they need a place to live.
Frequently we need transportation to school or to work. And then there is recreation. People like
to go to concerts and movies or buy CDs and books. If you want to keep a budget, though, it is
necessary to keep track of how much you spend and what your expenditures are.
When you start setting goals, you can review your expenditures and your income, and figure out
how to meet your goals. Keep in mind that setting unrealistic goals early in the process will
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
4. Excerpt from a Book, A Student's Guide to Budgeting (continued)
hinder, not help, your progress. For example, if you are unemployed, but you want to save
$3,000 by next year in order to buy a car, you need to re-evaluate your budget. You can do this
in two ways:
• change your goal
• obtain income (i.e., get a job)
Moving Out and Moving On
If you are still living at home, then chances are that your parents are taking care of the majority
of the budgeting details around the house. You may not even be aware of all of the expenses you
incur because everything you need simply appears when you need it.
Learning to budget will probably be of greater concern to students who are living independently
or who are planning to do so in the near future. There will be food to buy, clothes to replace, rent
to pay every month, and school expenses, such as books and tuition. The more independent you
become, the more useful you will find budgeting. The ready availability of checking accounts,
check and ATM cards, and credit cards makes it easy to spend more money than you have.
Overspending has its downside: debts incurred in your student days can come back to haunt you
on your credit record, with garnished paychecks, or as unpleasant, threatening letters and
telephone calls from a collection agency.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
5. Chapter from a Book, Let It Grow: Investment Strategies for New Investors
Chapter One: The Basics
What is investing?
Every day, we invest time, money, and energy into a variety of endeavors and hope that
eventually we will be repaid with more than we put in.
If we are talking about financial investing, this is a process in which we put our money to use in
a way that will enable our money to grow in value. The means of growth may be interest,
returns, dividends, or a variety of other ways in which we, the investors, make a profit—and
come out ahead.
Investment Methods
Because temperaments vary from sanguine to highly excitable, it’s a good thing that there are as
many different ways to invest money as there are human temperaments.
There are seven basic types of investments, each with its own advantages and disadvantages:
• bank savings accounts
• bonds
• stocks
• real estate
• commodities
• collectibles
• mutual funds
To help you understand your options as a potential investor, here is a brief description of each
investment:
Bank Savings Accounts
Considered a safe investment, savings accounts are very secure, but the amount of money you
can earn on the interest is limited and may not be enough to compensate for inflation. Money
invested in savings accounts may occasionally decrease in value if interest rates do not keep pace
with inflation.
Bonds
Bonds are basically loans. You lend a certain amount of money, which buys you a bond with a
given ‘face value.’ In a given number of years, you will be paid back the face value of the bond
you bought, along with any accrued interest. The interest rate on the bond is fixed at the time of
purchase. Bonds may be good investments for the long term. However, if you find you need your
money, you will suffer a loss by selling the bond before it matures to face value. Bonds may also
carry risk; in the worst-case scenario, the issuer of the bond could face bankruptcy, in which case
you might not be able to recoup your original investment, let alone receive interest. The latter is
less likely to occur if you purchase only reliable bonds.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
5. Chapter from a Book, Let It Grow: Investment Strategies for New Investors
(continued)
Stocks
Stocks are an excellent long-term investment and have a high growth potential. Buying stock
means that you are actually purchasing ownership of part of the company. Stocks are purchased
in units, or shares. The price of the share fluctuates, depending on the company’s financial
success and other factors. When the price of the share increases, you make money. When the
price of the share decreases, you lose money.
The motto of investing in the stock market is “Buy low, sell high.” When you are fortunate
enough to sell your shares at a higher share price than you paid for the stock, you would make
money.
Some companies also pay dividends. Dividends are a percentage of the company’s profit.
Generally speaking, it is best to view the stock market with an eye to the future. Holding stocks
for a long period of time will usually pay off. However, there are no guarantees in the stock
market, and loss is always possible, even when you are investing in solid companies. Investing in
stocks is a wise strategy for long-term investors who can bear a certain amount of risk and who
take advantage of other investment methods in addition to stocks (this is also known as
diversification).
Real Estate
Investing in real estate means purchasing a house or other residential building or land. Many
investors are drawn to real estate because land will always have value, making real estate a lowrisk proposition. The disadvantage is that real estate is frequently expensive and so may be out of
reach for the novice investor.
Commodities
A commodity is a thing. Investors purchase commodities, such as gold, silver, oil, farm products,
or currency from another part of the world. As with stocks, the motto is to “Buy low and sell
high.” What makes following this motto difficult is that the prices of commodities fluctuate
according to supply and demand. Because predicting these fluctuations is difficult, making
money from commodities may be beyond the skills of the novice investor.
Collectibles
Collectibles may be baseball cards, dolls, antiques, or anything else that appreciates in value.
Although your hope as an investor is that your collectibles will increase in value over time, it is
wise to buy only collectibles that you enjoy regardless of their investment potential.
Mutual Funds
Investors may pool their money in order to make larger investments than would be possible for
the vast majority of individual investors. A mutual fund is a pool of money, put together by
investors and managed by a professional money manager who is in charge of handling that fund.
Mutual funds may be invested in multiple investment types. The growth potential of a mutual
fund depends a great deal on the experience, knowledge, and skill of the fund managers.
While these are the seven basic investment methods, each method will be covered in its own
chapter in order to describe more fully the risks and benefits, as well as the different categories
of each method.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
6. Excerpt from a Magazine Article, "Understanding the New York Stock Exchange
(NYSE)"
Understanding the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE)
You may already know how to buy and sell stock as an individual: look up prices, buy stock
from a company when the price is low, and sell stock when the price is high. It is a simple
process for the individual; simply call up a stockbroker and make the buy or sell order, and wait
for a return phone call with the costs and profit. But what actually goes on from the time you
request a transaction to a call from your broker?
The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is one of several stock exchanges in the country, larger
than both the National Association of Security Dealers Automated Quotes (NASDAQ) and the
American Stock Exchange (AMEX). The NYSE is the most famous of the three exchanges. Any
time you have viewed scenes, in a movie or on the news of a huge floor with thousands of people
yelling to trade stocks, you’ve witnessed the daily grind at the New York Stock Exchange. From
a distance, this process seems so chaotic that it is hard to believe anything ever gets done, but the
process is much more organized than its appearance would lead you to believe.
Stock prices are based on supply and demand. The trading floor of the NYSE mimics these
trends. The trading floor spans 36,000 square feet and houses 20 trading posts. At each post are
specialists who deal with the trading of specific stocks. Each specialist may be in charge of a
variety of different stocks. However, if a specialist is in charge of one very active stock, then he
or she may also be in charge of only one other (very inactive) stock. Trading at the NYSE is
limited to these posts. There are also 15,000 trading booths along the perimeter of the trading
floor. Booths are where orders to buy and sell are received by floor brokers. When a floor broker,
who represents individual traders and/or brokerage firms, gets an order to buy or sell a stock, the
floor broker runs to the trading booth where that particular stock is traded.
A lot goes on at these trading booths. Above the booths are listed the current market prices of the
stocks being traded. The market price is determined by supply and demand; there are offers to
buy and sell, and when these offers coincide at one price, that price becomes the market price. If
supply does not meet demand, resulting in low trading traffic, then the specialist dealing with
that stock will trade against the market. If there is too much stock getting sold, the specialist will
buy some stock, and if there is too much purchased but not sold, the specialist will sell. In this
way the specialist helps maintain a balanced market, one in which the prices increase and
decrease, but do not jump around erratically. These trades are financed by the company that
employs the specialist, and make up about 10% of daily trades.
The specialist also acts as an auctioneer to help catalyze trading. Yelling out current market
prices, the specialist tries to encourage trading. When brokers buy and sell, they do so by yelling
out what they have to trade, how many shares, and at what price. If a broker wishes to take an
offer, the broker shouts, “Take it!”
The chaos of the floor of the NYSE results in part from all the yelling and shouting offers of all
kinds simultaneously. While it seems frenzied and disorderly, this wild trading is the essence of
supply and demand.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
7. Information Shown on a Check
Checks and Balances
You can record all transactions with your checking account in a check register. This allows you to keep an
accurate running balance of your checking account. The transaction records provide important verification when
you review your bank statement and balance your checkbook each month.
A.
C.
B.
E.
F.
G.
I.
H.
D.
Checks are used to pay for items in place of cash. The money is drawn from a checking account.7
A.
Name of account holder. This is the person who opened the checking account and who is authorized
to write checks on the account. You may open a joint checking account, in which case there are two
account holders, and both account holders are authorized to make transactions on the joint checking
account.
B.
Driver’s license number, used by retailers to verify account holder’s identity.
C.
Unique check number, used by both the bank and the account holder. The account holder uses the
check number to keep track of checks written on the account. When the account holder receives the
monthly bank statement, the account holder can refer to the check number to make sure the correct
amount of money was charged to the account.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
7. Information Shown on a Check (continued)
D.
Unique checking account number for Claudine Devereaux’s checking account.
E.
When the owner of Marianne’s Bakery presents the check to the bank, the owner receives the amount
indicated on the check.
F.
Amount of money to be paid to the owner of Marianne’s Bakery from Claudine Devereaux’s checking
account.
G.
Written amount serves as verification of the amount of money to be charged to the checking account.
H.
Account holder’s signature. Checks must be signed. The signature provides additional verification that
the person who is writing the check is the account holder.
I.
Memo line allows the account holder to note the purpose, category, or type of the expenditure, or
any other note to serve as a reminder when it is time to balance the checkbook.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Model Parenthetical Citations
The following samples are based on formats from the MLA (Modern Language
Association) Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. They show acceptable formats
for parenthetical citations of both quoted and paraphrased information.
Parenthetical Citations for Paraphrased Information
A Work by a Single Author
The point of the argument is that quality is more important than quantity (Keller 6567).
A Work with Two or More Authors
The point of the argument is that quality is more important than quantity (Keller and
Leer 65-67).
Two or More Works by the Same Author with Author’s Name in Text
The point of Keller’s argument is that quality is more important than quantity
(Business Facts 65-67).
A Work by a Corporate Author
The point of the argument is that quality is more important than quantity (North
American Business Group 65-67).
A Work from a Web Site with a Known Author
The point of the argument is that quality is more important than quantity
(Doe, screen 1).
Parenthetical Citations for Directly Quoted Information
A Work by a Single Author
“Quality is more important than quantity” (Keller 65-67).
A Work with Two or More Authors
“Quality is more important than quantity” (Keller and Leer 65-67).
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Model Bibliographic Entries
The following sample bibliographic entries are adapted from the MLA (Modern
Language Association) Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. They show
some acceptable formats for bibliographic entries.
A Book by a Single Author
Harris, Celia. Interesting Habitats. Chicago: Grayson, 2002.
(Author)
(Title of work)
(City)
(Publisher)
(Year)
A Book by More Than One Author
Baraty, Joseph, and Rosa Garcia. Marsh Birds. New York: Wenday, 2006.
(Authors)
(Title of work)
(City)
(Publisher)
(Year)
An Encyclopedia Entry
“Dwarfed Trees.” Encyclopedia Americana. 1999.
(Title of article)
(Name of encyclopedia)
(Year)
A Magazine Article
Chen, David. “Floating Down the River.” Our Wildlife 9 July 2006: 120–25.
(Author)
(Title of article)
(Name of publication) (Date of issue)
(Page numbers)
A Book Issued by an Organization Identifying No Author
National Wildlife Group. Swamp Life. Washington: National Wildlife Group, 2005.
(Name of organization)
(Title of work)
(City)
(Publisher)
Louisiana Department of Education
(Year)
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 1
Using Information Resources: Managing Money
1.
2.
If an investor wanted to invest a large sum of money, which source would be the most
helpful?
A.
Let It Grow: Investment Strategies for New Investors
B.
“Checks and Balances”
C.
DollarDuck.com
D.
Glossary from Knowing the Stock Market
What is the purpose of the source “Checks and Balances”?
A.
to explain how to invest money
B.
to prove how easy it is to save money
C.
to show how to write a check and record checking information
D.
to give checking information about someone who has saved money
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 2
Using Information Resources: Managing Money
1.
2.
Which source gives information about the special banking opportunities for students?
A.
Let It Grow: Investment Strategies for New Investors
B.
“Checks and Balances”
C.
DollarDuck.com
D.
Glossary from Knowing the Stock Market
Which two sources explain the meaning of “diversification”?
A.
A Student’s Guide to Budgeting and DollarDuck.com
B.
Let it Grow: Investment Strategies for New Investors and “Checks and Balances”
C.
DollarDuck.com and What Money Means
D.
Knowing the Stock Market and Let it Grow: Investment Strategies for New
Investors
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 3
Using Information Resources: Managing Money
1.
2.
In The Wide World of Investing, what page would you look under to find information
about investing a small amount of money?
A.
Page 45
B.
Page 77
C.
Page 97
D.
Page 125
If your research paper was titled “A Day in the Life of a Stock Broker,” which source
would you use the most?
A.
Let It Grow: Investment Strategies for New Investors
B.
“Checks and Balances”
C.
DollarDuck.com
D.
“Understanding the New York Stock Exchange”
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 4
Using Information Resources: Managing Money
1.
2.
Which source gives the most information about how to use an ATM machine?
A.
A Student’s Guide to Budgeting
B.
DollarDuck.com
C.
“Checks and Balances”
D.
The Wide World of Investing
If you used Let It Grow: Investment Strategies for New Investors as your major source,
which would be the most logical thesis statement of your research paper?
A.
Financial investing provides people with a variety of ways to make money.
B.
Stocks and bonds are the best way to invest your money.
C.
There are many simple ways to invest money.
D.
Look into the different ways of investing, including stocks, bonds, and mutual
funds.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 5
Using Information Resources: Managing Money
1.
2.
In the DollarDuck.com Web site, which heading should you click on first if you wanted
to find information about financial institutions?
A.
Home
B.
Newz
C.
Budget
D.
Links
According to the Model Parenthetical Citations, which is the correct way to paraphrase
information from DollarDuck.com?
A.
According to The DollarDuck.com Web site, “Banks often give good deals to
students”(Jones).
B.
Banks often give good deals to students (Jones, Screen 1).
C.
The DollarDuck.com Web site states that “Banks often give good deals to
students.” (www.dollarDuck.com)
D.
In 1911, according to The DollarDuck.com Web site, Banks often give good deals
to students” (The DollarDuck.com Web site).
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 6
Using Information Resources: Managing Money
1.
Using information from Let It Grow: Investment Strategies for New Investors, explain the
difference between bonds, stocks and commodities.
2.
If your research paper focused on student banking, what are three major areas of focus
that you would develop in your paper? Base your response on the sources.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 6 (continued)
Using Information Resources: Managing Money
3.
Using the bibliographical models provided, write a bibliographical entry for
DollarDuck.com.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Using Information Resources
In this test, you are asked to look at some reference materials and then use the materials to
answer some questions.
Research Topic: Planning a Trip
Suppose you wanted to write a report about aspects of planning a trip. You want to learn more
about how to effectively plan a trip. Seven different sources of information about planning a trip
are given in this section of the test. The information sources are listed below.
Skim all of the resources to become familiar with the information they contain. Remember that
these are reference sources, so you do not need to read every word in each source. Once you
have skimmed the sources, answer the questions that follow.
Use the information sources to help you answer the questions. As you work through the
questions, go back and read the sections that will give you the information you need.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Library Catalog Search Results
Worksheet from a Book, Ready, Set, Go!
Table of Contents from a Book, Getting There: How to Have the Best Vacation
Ever
Appendix from a Book, Getting There: How to Have the Best Vacation Ever
Excerpt from a Louisiana Travel Guide
Excerpt from a Travel Agent's Brochure
Web Site for Travelers
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
1. Library Catalog Search Results
City of Williams Public Library
Your search for the keyword “travel” yielded 7,718 results.
You may view results, browse titles, refine your search, or start a new search.
If you would like to view all results, click here: View All
If you would like to view batched results, click one:
View results in batches of: 6
12
Click on the type of records you would like to view:
Complete
Condensed
If you would like to browse titles only, click on the BROWSE button: [insert
“BROWSE” button]
If you would like to refine your search, type in additional keywords and click on the
SEARCH button:
SEARCH
Start a new search—You can start a new search by subject, author, title, keyword,
or by a combination of these categories. Type in the subject, author, title, or
keyword and press ENTER or click on the SUBMIT button.
Author
Title
Keyword
SUBMIT
Need help with your search?
HELP
www.williamscitylibrary.org
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
2. Worksheet from a Book, Ready, Set, Go!
The amount of planning needed for a trip will vary, depending on the length of the trip, how far
you are traveling, the number of travelers in your party, whether you will stay with friends, go
camping, or choose to stay at a hotel, and so on. Likewise, your budget may depend on similar
variables.
Budgeting for your trip is important because a budget will help you determine how much you
want to spend on your vacation. A vacation budget will also help you figure out what your
priorities are so that you can make sure you get to do exactly what you want to do while
traveling.
In order to help you create a budget for your trip, here is a worksheet that includes common
vacation expenses. You may list any additional expenses on the spaces provided at the end of the
worksheet.
Budget
Write the amount of money you have set aside for your trip:
$
Expenses
The expenses are broken down by category—transportation, meals, leisure, etc. Once you have
done your pre-planning research, you’ll know how much each item costs. Write the costs in the
spaces provided.
Transportation
Roundtrip Transportation
1. Write the cost of your air or railroad tickets to & from your destination:
Other Transportation (cab fare, subways, trains, buses, rental car):
What is your estimated cost per day for transportation while on vacation?
2. Write the cost per day of getting around your destination:
$
$
$
$
3. Write the number of days you will need transportation:
4. Multiply the cost per day by the # of days and write the resulting number here:
$
5. Add your roundtrip transportation cost, if any, to the number in line 4 and write the sum here:
$
This is your total transportation cost:
Accommodations
6. Write the # of nights for which you will need accommodations:
Louisiana Department of Education
$
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
2. Worksheet from a Book, Ready, Set, Go! (continued)
7. Write the cost per night (including any taxes or surcharges) for the accommodations:
$
8. Multiply the # of nights by the cost per night and write the resulting number here. This is your
total accommodations cost:
$
Meals
You can determine an average meal cost by looking at the restaurant sections of travel
guidebooks for your destination.
$
9. Write the average meal cost:
10. Write the number of meals you will need to include:
11. Multiply the average meal cost by the number of meals and write the resulting number here.
$
This is your total meals cost:
$
Leisure
Sightseeing (museums, monuments, parks, etc.)
12. Write the sightseeing tours you plan to take, or the museums, monuments, or other places
you plan to visit, along with any admission fees. Add all of the sightseeing costs for your total
sightseeing cost.
Sightseeing tour or destination
Cost
$
$
$
$
$
Total sightseeing cost:
Sports (snorkeling, scuba, hang-gliding, parasailing, skiing, etc.)
13. Write the sports and other activities you plan to do, such as scuba diving, snorkeling,
snowboarding, horseback-riding, etc.), along with the costs, including the price of lessons and/or
equipment rentals. Add all of the sports costs for your total sports cost.
Sport or activity
Cost (including lessons or equipment
rental)
$
$
$
$
Total sports cost:
14. Add your total sightseeing cost and your total sports cost. $
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
2. Worksheet from a Book, Ready, Set, Go (continued)
This is your total leisure cost:
$
Miscellaneous Expenses
These are expenses that may or may not apply to your trip. Add any additional expenses to the
spaces provided below.
Souvenirs/gifts
15. Write the amount you plan to spend on souvenirs or gifts:
$
Telephone
16. Write the amount you will most likely spend on telephone charges:
$
Postage/shipping
17. Frequently travelers ship gifts, souvenirs, and other purchases home in order to avoid
transporting extra baggage. Write the amount you will most likely spend on shipping or any
other postage costs:
$
Additional Expenses
18. Here you can list any other expenses that you know you will undertake on your vacation.
Additional Expenses
Cost
$
$
$
$
Total additional expenses:
$
19. Now add the costs for souvenirs/gifts, telephone charges, postage/shipping, and additional
expenses. This is your total miscellaneous cost:
$
Total Cost of Trip
Now add the total costs for transportation (line 5), accommodations (line 8), meals (line 11),
leisure (line 14), and miscellaneous expenses (line 19).
This is your estimated total cost of your trip:
Louisiana Department of Education
$
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
3.
Table of Contents from a Book, Getting There: How to Have the Best Vacation Ever
CONTENTS
viiii
Introduction
Your Travel Personality—Which Trip Is Right for You?
13
Choosing a Vacation Destination
27
Trip or Trap? Avoiding Travel Scams
41
Planes, Trains, and Automobiles: How to Get There and
45
Back
The Good Guest: Staying with Friends and Relatives
73
The Paying Guest: Finding Good Accommodations
79
The Clever Guest: Finding Bargain and Alternative
81
Accommodations
Seeing the Sights: How to Be an Exemplary Tourist
87
Notes on International Travel
95
Avoiding Trouble in Any Culture
109
Notes on Domestic Travel
121
Regional Attractions
135
Student Specials—Making the Most of Your Student Travel
149
Experience
Conclusion
161
Appendix I: Popular Tourist Trips
173
Appendix II: Tips for Airline Travel
181
Appendix III: Packing Dos and Don’ts
185
Appendix IV: The Classic American Road Trip
199
Appendix V: Additional Resources
211
Index
217
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
4.
Appendix from a Book, Getting There: How to Have the Best Vacation Ever
US Airways
www.usairways.com
800 428-4322
Airlines
Alaska Airlines, Inc.
www.alaskaair.com
800 252-7522
United Airlines
www.united.com
800 241-6522
America West Airlines
www.americawest.com
800 235-9292
American Airlines-American Eagle
www.aa.com
800 433-7300
Dollar Rent a Car
800 800-4000
Continental Airlines
www.continental.com
800 523-3273
Enterprise Rent a Car
800 736-8222
Delta Airlines
www.delta.com
800 221-1212
Hertz
800 654-3131
Frontier Airlines
www.frontierairlines.com
800 432-1359
Lufthansa
www.lufthansa-usa.com
800 645-3880
Northwest Airlines-KLM
www.nwa.com
800 225-2525
Southwest Airlines
www.southwest.com
Greyhound Bus Lines
800 231-2222
Travel Agencies
AAA Travel
800 922-8228
Mexicana Airlines
800 531-7921
Qantas Airlines
800 227-4500
National Car Rental
800 227-7368
Other Transportation
Amtrak
800 872-7245
Horizon Air
800 547-9308
Philippine Airlines
800 435-9725
Car Rentals
Avis Rent a Car
800 831-2847
Hawaii Travel Service
800 833-4565
Mexico Travel Service
800 833-4565
Suntrips A Destination
800 825-3287
Trav-L-Aire
800 764-8747
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
5.
Excerpt from a Louisiana Travel Guide
Here is an excerpt from a Louisiana travel guide:
Steeped in history and lore, Louisiana has many landmarks you won’t want to miss. After the
party in New Orleans, turn your eyes toward Bayou Country, where you’ll find museums,
restored plantations, beautiful churches and buildings dating back to the 1700s and more.
Thibodaux
Bayou Country Tour
Laurel Valley Village-Museum
(504) 446-1187
2 miles south of Thibodaux on Route 308
Napoleonville
Madewood
(504) 369-7151
Route 308
Morgan City
Turn of the Century House
715 Second Street
(504) 385-6159
Franklin
Grevemberg House
(318) 828-2092
Sterling Road
Jeanerette
Chitimacha Tribe of Louisiana
Preservation Museum
(318) 828-0434
Irish Bend Road
LeJune’s Bakery
1510 West Main Street
Jeanerette Opera House
1334 West Main Street
Jeanerette Museum
(318) 276-4293
500 East Main Street
New Iberia
Tabasco factory
(318) 365-8173
Avery Island
Broussard House
(318) 364-7242
1400 East Main Street
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
5.
Excerpt from a Louisiana Travel Guide (continued)
Shadows-on-the-Teche
(318) 369-6446
317 East Main Street
Saint Martinville
Longfellow-Evangeline State
Commemorative Area
(318) 394-3754
1200 North Main Street
Lafayette
Lafayette Museum
(318) 234-2208
1122 Lafayette Street
Charles Mouton House
(318) 233-7816
338 North Sterling Street
Acadian Village
(318) 981-2364
south of Route 342
Grand Coteau
Academy of the Sacred Heart
(318) 622-5275
1821 Academy Road
Opelousas
Jim Bowie Museum
(318) 948-6263
Route 190
Estorge House
(318) 948-4592
427 Market Street
Washington
Washington Museum and Tourist Center
(318) 826-3626
Main and Dejean Streets
Arlington House
(318) 826-3298
Route 103
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
6. Excerpt from a Travel Agent's Brochure
At Polite Travel, we know how
to get you where you want to
go. For help with all of your
travel needs, call Polite Travel!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Domestic and
international travel
Tour groups
Vacations
Business travel
Weddings abroad
Hawaiian weddings
Sunshine trips
Holiday cruises
Adventure trips
Family and group plans
Special rates for:
•
students (with student
ID)
•
seniors (age 55 and
over)
•
honeymooners
•
groups of ten or more
•
families of four or more
Experience customer service
the way it should be at Polite
Travel. At Polite Travel, your
comfort is our priority.
We provide:
• 24-hour emergency travel
assistance
• assistance with lost
luggage
• rebooking for missed or
canceled flights
Toll-free customer services hotline:
1-800-555-1342
International customer services
hotline: 1-800-555-1671
Polite Travel is online at
www.politetravel.com
Book your own flights with our
interactive site and save!
Check the weather of any
destination in the world at the
Polite Travel Weather Station!
Check for current news about
your destination!
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
7. Web Site for Travelers
Trip Planner
Big Red’s 6 easy steps to planning a trip:
1. Decide where to go.
2. Do your research.
3. Create an itinerary.
4. Make your arrangements.
5. Go!
Where in the world
First, read about possible vacation destinations and decide exactly where you want to go. Here
are some questions to help you narrow the possibilities:
• Do you want adventure or do you need to rest?
• How important is sightseeing?
• Do you want to visit historical sites? Museums? Attend cultural events?
• Do you want to experience the hustle and bustle of a big city, or do you want to get back
to nature?
• Are you planning to travel with a tour guide, a travel buddy, or are you going solo?
You can click on the locations below to find out more about different destinations:
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
7. Web Site for Travelers (continued)
Europe
Asia/Pacific Rim
Africa
Australia/New Zealand
Middle East
North America
South America
FactFinder
Research can make the difference between a dream vacation and a nightmare! Don’t plan a trip
to Jamaica during hurricane season! Also, if you’d like to save money, plan your trip off-season
and get special deals and rates. Hawaii in January can be twice as expensive as Hawaii in June.
Here are some facts you’ll want to check while planning your vacation:
• What will the weather be like during the time of your trip?
• What is the local exchange rate (if traveling out of your home country)?
• When is tourist season?
• What cultural events, festivals, fairs, exhibits, etc. will take place around the time of your
trip?
• What activities or sports can you participate in?
• What transportation methods are available to get there?
• Once at your destination, what transportation methods will you use?
• What are the options for accommodations?
• Will you need vaccinations?
• Will you need a passport (if traveling out of your home country)?
• What kinds of tour packages are available and are any of them right for you?
Make it easy to come home!
Before you leave for a long trip, make sure to:
• stop your mail or arrange to have it picked up.
• lock doors and windows.
• unplug electrical appliances.
• turn off the gas and water.
• put lights on timers.
• arrange for someone to mow and water the lawn.
• get a pet sitter or take the cat to the kitty hotel.
• take out the garbage!
Express yourself to [email protected]
Who are you? Big Red would like to know. Fill out our survey and enter to win a trip to Maui!
If you’d like to get a cheerful, personalized email from Big Red each morning, reminding you to plan your next
vacation and including information about special discounts and travel packages, click here to complete our survey.
© 2000 BRS, Inc. All rights reserved.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 7
Using Information Resources: Planning a Trip
1.
2.
Which source offers information about Louisiana attractions?
A.
the travel guide excerpt
B.
the Williams library results
C.
the travel planning worksheet
D.
the Web site for travelers
On which page of Getting There: How to Have the Best Vacation Ever would you find
information on traveling inexpensively?
A.
Page 27
B.
Page 45
C.
Page 81
D.
Page 95
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 8
Using Information Resources: Planning a Trip
1.
2.
The appendix of Getting There: How to Have the Best Vacation Ever is primarily focused
on
A.
airlines.
B.
bus lines.
C.
train lines.
D.
travel agencies.
Under which heading of the Web page will you find tips for keeping your house safe
while you travel?
A. Big Red Suitcase’s 6 easy steps to planning a trip
B. Where in the world
C. FactFinder
D. Make it easy to come home!
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 9
Using Information Resources: Planning a Trip
1.
Which is the best example of the use of persuasive language in the travel brochure?
A. “For help with all of your travel needs, call Polite Travel.”
B. “At Polite Travel, your comfort is our priority.”
C. “Polite Travel is online at www.politetravel.com.”
D. “Check for current news about your destination!”
2.
Based on the travel planning worksheet, which expense could most easily be avoided?
A.
shipping
B.
transportation
C.
sightseeing
D.
meals
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 10
Using Information Resources: Planning a Trip
1.
2.
Which appendix in Getting There: How to Have the Best Vacation Ever offers practical
advice for before you travel?
A.
Appendix I
B.
Appendix II
C.
Appendix III
D.
Appendix IV
The excerpt from the Louisiana travel guide would be most useful to students writing a
research paper on
A.
most frequently visited spots.
B.
historical places.
C.
state and federal buildings.
D.
Southern architecture.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 11
Using Information Resources: Planning a Trip
1.
According to bigredsuitcase.com Web page, which two links would you click on if you
could not spend much money and liked unusual places?
2.
Which source offers information on international customs?
3.
In what city is Shadows-on-the-Teche located?
________________________________________________________________________
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Using Information Resources
In this test, you are asked to look at some reference materials and then use the materials to
answer some questions.
Research Topic: The Brain
Suppose you wanted to write a report about the brain. You want to learn more about the brain
and how it functions. Six different sources of information about the brain are given in this
section of the test. The information sources are listed below.
Skim all of the resources to become familiar with the information they contain. Remember that
these are reference sources, so you do not need to read every word in each source. Once you
have skimmed the sources, answer the questions that follow.
Use the information sources to help you answer the questions. As you work through the
questions, go back and read the sections that will give you the information you need.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Book Chapter, "Memory: The Long and Short of It"
Index from Book, Mindworks: The Workings of the Human Brain
Appendix from Book, Mindworks: The Workings of the Human Brain
Diagram of Human Brain
Magazine Article, "One Brain, Two Hemispheres"
Web Page from Mountain Research Institute
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
1.
Book Chapter, "Memory: The Long and Short of It"
--------------------------------Chapter
11--------------------------------
Memory: The Long and the Short of It
What if you had to re-learn how to tie your shoes every day? Or if you never could
remember how much money you need for bus fare? Some information is so
automatic and so much a part of your day-to-day life, you probably don’t even think
of it as information that you need to remember. Your long-term memory holds all of
that information that you take for granted—and more. In fact, scientists
hypothesize that humans have an unlimited capacity for information storage. Your
brain is not like a filing cabinet that only has four drawers, with only a certain
number of filing folders that can hold only a certain number of documents. Your
brain can hold as much information as you are willing to learn.
The reason your brain has this seemingly miraculous storage capacity is that
memories are not documents or objects. Memory is a process, and memories are
actually events of neural activity. Something that you see stimulates neurons in
your visual cortex to fire up, communicating with neurons in your associative
cortex. Triggering memories, or retrieving information that is stored in your longterm memory, is like turning on a string of lights.
Your short-term memory and long-term memory not only work together to help you
learn new skills, ideas, and information, but also to help you function in your life.
Short-term memory lasts about half a minute. Short-term memory can hold only
limited amounts of information, up to 7 or so discrete units—which is why
telephone numbers are only 7 digits long. If you want to remember that telephone
number, you’re going to have to repeat it to yourself until your brain files the
information in your long-term memory.
Emotions and Memory
What triggers memories? Emotions can play a significant role in what you
remember. If you experience a truly inspiring or tragic event, that event will become
what is called a flashbulb memory and will remain very clearly in your memory. An
interesting note about flashbulb memories is that the person who experiences the
event will not necessarily have an accurate memory of what happened. The
flashbulb memory version is the memory of the person’s perception of the event,
rather than a factual record. In addition, if the event is one that is simultaneously
experienced by others, or one that is widely reported in the news and on television,
your memory will begin to supplement your own memories with those of others and
the information you receive from the news, until your memory becomes a collage,
with news facts, details from others’ experiences, and your own memories of your
perceived experience all mixed up together.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
1.
Book Chapter, "Memory: The Long and Short of It" (continued)
Strong emotions may also have a negative effect on the memory. Have you ever had
a very emotional conversation with someone, positive or negative? Chances are that
you probably remember few specific details of the conversation, even though you
recall the main points and one or two highlights (or lowlights, as the case may be).
The miracle of photographic memory is not so rare—approximately ten out of a
hundred people are born with this capacity, but, unfortunately, most seem to lose
the capacity as they mature, so fewer adults have photographic memory than
children.
Improving Your Memory
There are a variety of methods that may be used to help improve memory, including
practice, changing environmental cues, levels of participation, organization
strategies, and even nutritional supplements.
It should come as no surprise that, with memory, as with most skills, practice
makes perfect. The more you use your memory, the better your memory will be. Any
kind of memorization that you may undertake just for fun, such as memorizing a
poem or the lyrics to your favorite song, or even memorizing sports trivia, will
improve your ability to retrieve information when you need it.
To understand how your environment affects your memory, you need to understand
how memory works. Your brain processes information and stores memories
differently, depending on your emotional state and the input your brain receives
from your surroundings, or your consciousness of your surroundings, a phenomenon
known as “state-dependent learning.”
Where you are, how you feel, and what you sense from your environment will affect
your ability to retrieve the information later. If you learn a fact while you are riding
in a car, you’ll remember that fact best later when you are in a car. If you like to
study late at night while listening to loud music, it may be more difficult to
remember what you studied when you are in a quiet classroom in the early
morning. The conclusion? If you need information for a specific purpose, such as for
a test, you want to create a learning environment that matches the environment in
which the test will occur. Use environmental cues to help you retrieve the
information you need when you need it.
How actively you participate in the learning process will also influence your ability
to remember the material. If you actively participate in class discussions, you will
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
remember more than if you sit back and listen passively. Taking notes helps you
become active in the process, too.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
1.
Book Chapter, "Memory: The Long and Short of It" (continued)
Creating an environment that will help you retrieve information is important, but
just as important is the way you organize the information. Remember, long-term
memory is like an immense library of information that is constantly interacting. If
you can organize the information you receive, you will find it easier to remember.
There are many organization strategies, or mnemonic devices, and you can select
the strategy that best meets your need or purpose. Some of these strategies are
listed below:
•
Acrostics—you can make an acrostic by taking the first letter of each word in
a series in order to create a memorable sentence. If you are a musician, you
probably know this sentence: “Every good boy deserves fun.” This acrostic helps you
remember the musical notes EGBDF that fall on the lines of the treble clef.
Acrostics can also be poems, like this one:
Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November.
All the rest have thirty-one,
Save February,
But in leap year, twenty-nine.
•
Acronyms—an acronym is similar to an acrostic, but shorter. An acronym is a
made-up word that holds the information you want to remember. ROY G. BIV is an
acronym for the colors in the visual spectrum: red, orange, yellow, green, blue,
indigo, violet.
•
Rhymes—Rhymes tend to stick with us, like this one:
I before E
except after C
and except as in A,
like neighbor or weigh.
You can also use rhymes as mnemonic devices to remember names: Christy lives
where it is misty or Mark likes to walk in the park.
•
Visual Imagery— You can remember names by associating funny or
otherwise memorable visual pictures with the names. For example, when you meet
someone named Margaret, visualize Margaret with a large magnet attached to her
back.
Let’s say that you want to take your memory capacity even further. You can try
nutritional supplements. No nutritional supplement will ever completely eliminate
the need to study. But there is some evidence that nutritional supplements, such as
gingko biloba and ginseng, can help improve memory. Although ginseng is
achieving a new wave of popularity as a memory-booster, ginseng was traditionally
used as a nutritional supplement to enhance memory in ancient China.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
2.
Index from Book, Mindworks: The Workings of the Human Brain
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Index
Gage, Phineas, 287
ganglion cells:
vision, 80
genetic engineering, 300
genetics. See inheritance
gestures, 50
gingko biloba:
effects on improving memory, 251
ginseng:
effects on improving memory, 251
gray cells, 15
habits. See reflexive memory
hearing:
brain development, 100
hemoglobin, 16
hindbrain, 31, 38, 40
hippocampus:
aging and, 169-171
functions of, 30, 31
memory, 243-245
Hippocrates, 21
hypnotism, 319 See also mind/body connection
hormones:
biological clock, 180-182
brain function and, 25, 26
stress, 190
homunculus, 25
hypothalamus, 93
imagination, 201
immune system, 81
inheritance. See also DNA
environment and, 160-167
experience and, 154
vision, 91
intelligence:
measures of, 221
childhood, 14
language, 21, 39, 58-60
and cerebellum, 67
learned fear, 51
left brain, 138,
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
and right brain, 139
light, See also photon
biological clock, 180
perception of, 91
photon, 90
limbic system, 125
long-term memory, 250-255
and emotion, 251
triggered by trauma, 250
lucid dreaming, 15, 387
lying, 11
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 330
mapping. See brain mapping
membranes. See cell membranes
memory:
and amnesia, 246
brain and, 245-247
early, 244
hippocampus, 243
improving, 251
long-term, 255
loss, 249
photographic, 254
for names, 253
retrieval, 256
short-term, 257
for skills, 258
storage, 250, 258
vision and, 251
working, 247
mnemonic devices, 256
mind/body connection, 319
brain and, 319-321
contemporary research on, 321-322
historical ideas about, 323-325
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
3.
Appendix from Book, Mindworks: The Workings of the Human Brain
The following list is provided for readers who would like more information about the brain, its
development and functions, and how it works.
Suggested Further Reading
Ackerman, Sandra. Discovering the Brain. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press,
1992.
Alkon, Daniel L. Memory’s Voice: Deciphering the Brain-Mind Code. New York:
HarperCollins Publishers, 1992.
Brown, A. G. Nerve Cells and Nervous Systems. London: Springer-Verlag, 1991.
Czerner, Thomas B., M.D. What Makes You Tick? The Brain in Plain English. New
York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001
Chopra, Deepak. Perfect Health. New York: Harmony Books, 1991.
Crick, Francis. The Astonishing Hypothesis. New York: Touchstone Books, 1994.
Frazer, A. Biological Bases of Brain Function. New York: Raven Press, 1994.
Funston, Sylvia, and Ingram, Jay. It’s All in Your Brain. New York: Grosset & Dunlap,
1994.
Gopnik, A. The Scientist in the Crib, Minds, Brains, and How Children Learn. New
York: William Morrow, 1999.
Hubel, David H. Eye, Brain, and Vision. New York: W.H. Freeman & Co., 1995.
Kotulak, R. Inside the Brain. Kansas City, MO: Andrews McNeel Publishing, 1996.
Penfield, W. The Cerebral Cortex of Man. New York: Macmillan, 1950.
Powledge, Tabitha M. Your Brain: How You Got It and How It Works. New York:
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Macmillan, 1994.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
4.
Diagram of Human Brain
cerebral cortex
hippocampus
cerebellum
spinal cord
medulla oblongata
pons
pituitary
amygdale
thalamus
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
5.
Magazine Article, "One Brain, Two Hemispheres"
by A.D. MacNeill
The two hemispheres of your brain, separated only by a cable called the corpus callosum, are two
different worlds. One is a word of practicalities and logic; the other, a world of fanciful flights of
fantasy.
In the left hemisphere, the side of the brain that is dominant in the majority of folk (even people
who are left-handed), everything is orderly, precise, and repetitive. The left hemisphere may be
considered the domain of details. Left-brainers are good at math and science, making lists and
schedules, and getting places on time.
On the other side of the brain, things get a little fuzzier, because the right side of the brain is
oriented toward possibilities and random events, rather than orderly sequences and reality. Rightbrainers love to wrestle with abstract concepts. The right side of the brain is more interested in
overall impressions and the big picture, and is much less concerned about petty details.
Although numbers come readily to the left side of the brain, the left side also plays an important
role in language for over 90% of humans. (A minority uses the right brain for speech and
language, usually as a result of an early childhood injury to the left hemisphere that forced the
right hemisphere to take on the extra work of controlling language.) In the majority of people,
reading, writing, and speaking abilities are all affected when there is damage to the left
hemisphere of the brain. This appears to be true for sign language as well. In most people, the
only task of the right hemisphere when it comes to language is to color it with emotion, or to
recognize and interpret emotion when others are speaking.
Here’s an example that shows the differences between how your left brain and right brain work:
You have just completed a large jigsaw puzzle. The left side of your brain lets you figure out
how many pieces are in the puzzle, while the right side of your brain allows you to see how the
pieces fit together to create a scene.
As tempting as it is to identify ourselves as “left-brain” or “right-brain” in our orientation toward
life, how we use our brains just isn’t always that simple 1 . All of us use many different parts of
our brains at any given moment, and both hemispheres are constantly working together.
However, it does appear that people do tend to be drawn toward using one hemisphere more than
the other, or at least experience a preference between the two hemispheres 2 . Roger Sperry, the
1981 Nobel Prize winner, suggested that schools (and indeed, our culture) tend to place a greater
1
To see which side of your brain really is dominant, you can take an online quiz, the
“Hemisperic Dominance Inventory” on the Middle Tennessee State University website:
http://www.mtsu.edu/~devstud/advisor/hemispheric_dominance.html
2
Or you can take this online quiz of ten questions, located at the website sponsored by the
University of Lincoln:
http://www.achieversinexcellence.org.uk/effective%20learning/hemispheres/rightbrain_leftbrain
_quiz.htm
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
5.
Magazine Article, "One Brain, Two Hemispheres" (continued)
emphasis and value on left-brain skills. As a result, children enter kindergarten full of
imagination (and may even be accompanied by imaginary friends), but exit high school with
minds more concerned with logic and practicalities than creativity and intuition.
If you feel that your left brain could use a rest and your right brain could use a workout, there are
plenty of things you can do in order to practice your right-brain skills. (You might want to check
out Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain by Betty Edwards.) One way to exercise your right
brain is to shut off the sensory intake. Lie down in a quiet room, dim the lights, close your eyes,
and try to empty your mind. (Warning: this is much more difficult than it sounds!) Deprived of
input, the left brain may surrender the floor to the right brain, and you can let your imagination
soar.
LEFT BRAIN
RIGHT BRAIN
logical, analytical, detail-oriented
controls the right side of the body
emotional, intuitive, global
controls the left side of the body
Left-brain skills include:
Right-brain skills include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
intentional, skilled movements,
especially those requiring repetition
compiling detailing
computation
figuring out math problems
performing science experiments
figuring out sequences, order, and
patterns
planning strategies
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
recognizing some kinds of sounds,
including music
grasping the big picture or overall
concept
interpreting emotional content of
language
interpreting and expressing nonverbal communication and emotion
in facial expressions
interpreting concepts beyond literal
meaning
imagining and daydreaming
spatial perception
artistic endeavors
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
6. Web Page from the Mountain Research Institute
Mountain Research Institute
Home
Archives
Journal
Studies
Departments
Directory
SEARCH
[insert
captureresponse
box]
Sleep → Stages of Sleep → Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep
continued
1
2
3
When does rapid eye movement sleep occur?
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep occurs in the fifth phase of sleep,
the last phase in the sleep cycle. The sleep cycle is repeated
FIND
approximately 5-7 times each sleeping period, with each cycle lasting
[format as
up to 90 minutes.
search
What happens during REM sleep?
button]
The first characteristic of REM sleep is, not surprisingly, the movement
of the eyes under closed lids. The sleeper is in a very deep sleep state
and is unaware of the surroundings. During REM sleep, most dreaming
takes place. Brain activity levels are similar to those experienced in a
ADVANCED waking state, albeit with more irregular brain waves. The heart rate and
breathing increase, but become irregular, and the blood pressure and
SEARCH
temperature are higher than in the other four stages of sleep. The only
[format as
active muscles during REM sleep are the eye muscles and the muscles
search
of the middle ear.
button]
What is “sleep paralysis”?
During REM sleep, the muscles of the body are unable to move,
possibly in order to protect sleepers from harming themselves when
attempting to “act out” dream scenarios.
Some people are afflicted with REM behavior disorder, which is
sometimes the result of an injury to the brain stem. People with REM
behavior disorder do not experience sleep paralysis during REM sleep,
so they may attempt to act out dreams while in the REM sleep stage.
People with REM behavior disorder frequently become violent toward
themselves and others during the REM phase of the sleep cycle. This
disorder is quite rare, and may be controlled with medication.
REM behavior disorder is not to be confused with common
sleepwalking, in which sleepers may get out of bed and move around
without a conscious awareness of their surroundings. Sleepwalking
occurs in the third and fourth stages of sleep.
Is REM sleep necessary?
Yes. When sleepers are prevented from achieving the REM stage
during a sleeping session, they will remain in REM sleep longer the
next sleeping session, which indicates a biological necessity for REM
sleep.
end
1
2
3
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
6. Web Page
from the Mountain Research Institute (continued)
For REM-related articles, click here.
Click on one of the links below for information about these related topics.
Function of dreams
Lucid dreaming
Stages of sleep
Sleep disorders
Sleep patterns in children
Sleep patterns in adults
NEW SEARCH
FIND
Home
Mountain Research Institute
P.O. BOX 7612
Denver, Colorado 80203
Telephone: 803.555.8765
Fax: 803.555.0942
© 2003 Mountain Research Institute. All rights reserved.
All material presented on the website of the Mountain Research Institute is the property of the Mountain
Research Institute. No part of this website may be reproduced, stored in an electronic retrieval system, or
transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, audio or visual recording,
scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior
written permission of the Mountain Research Institute or its agents. For reprint permission or for more
information, contact the Mountain Research Institute. [email protected]
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 12
1.
2.
According to the index, if you wanted to find information on how accidents can affect
long-term memory, on which page should you look?
A.
243–245
B.
250
C.
257
D.
319–321
If your research paper relied mostly on the resource “Memory: The Long and the Short of
It,” which is the best thesis statement?
A.
Long and Short Term Memory
B.
Long and Short Term Memory Are Important to Everyone
C.
Although many people are born with photographic memory, most people lose it as
they get older.
D.
Although emotions can affect memory, there are many easy ways to improve
memory.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 13
1.
2.
Which resource would most likely be found in a high-school science textbook?
A.
the illustration
B.
Mountain Research Institute Web page
C.
the excerpt “Memory: The Long and Short of It”
D.
the index from Mindworks: The Workings of the Human Brain
The illustration is most helpful in showing
A.
the left and right hemispheres.
B.
how the brain functions.
C.
where the parts of the brain are.
D.
the parts of the cerebellum.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 14
1.
2.
Which resource gives the most information about sleep disorders?
A.
Mountain Research Institute Web page
B.
the excerpt “Memory: The Long and Short of It”
C.
the article “One Brain, Two Hemispheres”
D.
“Suggested Further Reading” from Mindworks: The Workings of the Human
Brain
According to the resources, which is an example of using the right side of the brain?
A.
writing a sentence
B.
reading a book
C.
mediating in a quiet place
D.
counting pieces of a puzzle
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 15
1.
2.
On the “Mountain Research Institute” Web page, which link would you click (go to) if
you wanted more information about REM sleep?
A.
Function of dreams
B.
Lucid dreaming
C.
Stages of sleep
D.
Sleep disorders
The “Suggested Further Reading” from Mindworks: The Workings of the Human Brain
would be the most helpful if you were writing a report on
A.
brain development and functions.
B.
memory, emotions, and the brain.
C.
stages of sleep in children.
D.
sleep disorders.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 16
1.
2.
If you were looking for information about why some children are afraid of the dark, on
which page of Mindworks: The Workings of the Human Brain should you look?
A.
15
B.
31
C.
51
D.
200
An example of short-term memory is a person remembering
A.
an old address.
B.
a new telephone number.
C.
a tragic event.
D.
a flashbulb memory version.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 17
1.
Which two resources would most likely have the most detailed information about the
different parts of the brain and their functions
2.
Which hemisphere of the brain do most people use the most when learning to read?
3.
Which resource would be most helpful for finding names of other scientists who study
the brain?
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Using Information Resources
In this test, you are asked to look at some reference materials and then use the materials to
answer some questions.
Research Topic: Propaganda
Suppose you wanted to write a report about propaganda. You want to learn more about this issue
and how it affects our lives. Six different sources of information about propaganda are given in
this section of the test. The information sources are listed below.
Skim all of the resources to become familiar with the information they contain. Remember that
these are reference sources, so you do not need to read every word in each source. Once you
have skimmed the sources, answer the questions that follow.
Use the information sources to help you answer the questions. As you work through the
questions, go back and read the sections that will give you the information you need.
Click on the links below to review each resource first. You will need to scroll from left to right
and up and down in order to see all of each resource.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Article from a Magazine, "Beyond Adspeak: Looking for the Real Message in
Advertisements and Commercials"
Bibliography from a Book, Selling and the Art of Persuasion
Newsletter Article, "Use the Freedom of Information Act to See through
Propaganda"
Quotations from Quotations Past and Present: A Dictionary of Quotations and
Proverbs
Advertisement for NutriGold from a Magazine
Web Page for Academy Annex
Louisiana Department of Education
1.
Article from aGrade
Magazine,
"Beyond
Adspeak:
Looking
for the Real Message
10 English
Language
Arts: PASS
on Paper
in Advertisements and Commercials"
As the magicians of the marketplace, marketers employ a bulging bag of tricks in order to dazzle
consumers and gain consumer trust. Glossy magazine ads promise youth and beauty. Television
and radio commercials trade on hopes and dreams. The ultimate goal of a marketer is, of course,
to persuade consumers to part with their cash. There is nothing wrong or underhanded about this
system, which relies on free speech, supply and demand, and competition. People have basic
needs, and companies have sprung up to offer products to meet those needs. We all need to buy
food and clothes, at the minimum, and there is a wide variety of other products that we all need
and use every day, such as soap and toothpaste, dish detergent and floor polish. When we run out
of these products, we need to buy more. There are also many products that we don’t need, but
that we want to have because they make us (or our homes or our pets) look better or feel better,
because they are fun, or just because we like them. So we go to the store to buy what we need (or
want) and we are faced with aisles and aisles filled with a seemingly endless array of products.
How can we make a selection? What makes one brand of film better than another? This is where
marketing comes in.
The purpose of marketing is to allow companies to advertise their wares so that consumers are
aware of what is available for purchase in the marketplace. In order to distinguish themselves
from the competition, companies provide consumers with information about their products,
including what makes their products superior to the competing brands. Advertising allows
consumers to make informed decisions about what to purchase.
However, consumers must remember that companies are not simply providing information;
companies are actually providing propaganda, which means that the information is provided in a
certain way in order to influence consumers’ shopping behavior. The responsibility for
evaluating marketing messages falls upon the consumer. All consumers should recall
Shakespeare’s immortal warning reminding us that just because something glitters does not mean
it is made of gold. In other words, it behooves the consumer to learn to read between the lines
before believing an advertiser’s claims. Don’t believe everything you read, especially when the
writer wants to sell you something.
Here are some examples of common marketing strategies and suggestions about how to read and
evaluate the advertisements and commercials that use them.
More! Better! Faster! New and Improved!—Comparisons
Marketing wizards rely on comparisons to impress consumers and gain their trust. However, the
comparisons in commercials and ads may not tell you anything you need to know. Whenever you
read comparison words, consider the basis for the comparison. An ad for a car might read “Better
gas mileage!” and a commercial for a detergent might claim “More cleaning power!” Better than
what? More than what? Comparisons like these are meaningless.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
1.
Article from a Magazine, "Beyond Adspeak: Looking for the Real Message
in Advertisements and Commercials" (continued)
If the car ad reported that the new Geneva sports coupe traveled 30 miles on a gallon of gas,
while an equivalent model from a competing manufacturer only traveled 20 miles on the same
amount of gas in a test of the two cars under similar road conditions and carrying the same
amount of weight—well, then you have some useful information.
3 out of 4 Dentists Agree—Meaningless Statistics
We’ve all seen or heard commercials or advertisements that use statistics to win over the
consumer. For statistics to mean anything, you must know how the data were gathered. What
was the basis of the study? Was there a control group? Under which conditions were tests
conducted? If the information comes from a poll, it’s helpful to know how many people were
included in the sample, what kinds of questions were asked, how many questions were asked,
and the format of the questions. Here is an example of a meaningless statistic: 98% of Clean-All
laundry detergent users prefer Clean-All to other brands. Your first response should be
skepticism—of course Clean-All buyers prefer Clean-All! They are the people who buy this
detergent, so they probably have some brand loyalty. However, if the advertisements showed that
98% of Clean-All users had switched to Clean-All because they found that the other brands did
not clean as well, you might be more convinced.
Ask Your Doctor—Appeals to Authorities
Actually, the slogan “3 out of 4 dentists agree” could fall into this category as well. When in
doubt, appeal to a greater authority, one whom we respect and trust to give us reliable
information. The recommendations of authorities go a long way, which is why advertisers
frequently refer to doctors, dentists, parents, teachers, and other authority figures. When
authorities appear in advertisements and commercials, feel free to question their validity. One
important question is whether the authority is paid for the recommendation—wouldn’t you be
more likely to have a positive opinion about a company that gives you a big check or sends you
on a cruise to the Bahamas?
If It’s Good Enough for the Queen of England, It’s Good Enough for You—Testimonials
Athletes smile at us from cereal boxes. Actresses confess that they use different products to color
their hair. If a person is famous, chances are you’ll see that famous face as a representative of
one product or another. Companies approach celebrities to sell all kinds of goods, from cars to
soda. Does one soda taste better just because a famous basketball player drinks it? No. Will you
be a better basketball player if you drink that soda, too? No. But companies know that the
famous basketball player already has a fan base, and that those fans will go to great lengths to be
like their hero. Would those fans spend less than a dollar for a soda touted by their favorite sports
star? Yes, of course. They might even shell out more than a hundred dollars for shoes.
Everyone’s Buying It—Peer Pressure
Peer pressure never dies. It’s natural that people want to conform to a certain degree to the
people who make up their community. Companies use this tendency to conformity in order to
sell. Whenever you see or hear the word “everyone” in a marketing context, stop and consider
the possibility of the claim. Is “everyone” really talking about the latest cell phone gimmick? No,
of course not. But if the latest gimmick is a technology that you really like or a
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
1.
Article from a Magazine, "Beyond Adspeak: Looking for the Real Message
in Advertisements and Commercials" (continued)
feature that you would love to try, go ahead and buy it. Just be aware of what you are doing. In
other words, stop to think about why you have the impulse to buy an item. Make sure that you
are not just yielding to an artificial impulse created by an advertisement that preys on your desire
for conformity.
Making Informed Decisions at the Cash Register
What other techniques and ploys do you see in the marketplace? When you go shopping, make
an effort to evaluate the messages before you buy. Or you can ignore the marketing materials and
go straight to the product to get your information from direct experience. Examine the product
yourself. Get samples to try before you buy. Ask your friends or other people you trust for
recommendations. Read product evaluations by consumer groups and other non-profit
organizations. The more you know, the more enjoyable your shopping experience will be and the
more likely you are to be satisfied with your purchasing decisions.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
2.
Bibliography from a Book, Selling and the Art of Persuasion
Annotated Bibliography from Selling and the Art of Persuasion
Delwiche, Aaron. Propaganda. The Propaganda Critic. 2002. 9 May 2003.
<http://www.propagandacritic.com/>.
A lecturer at the University of Washington, Dr. Aaron Delwiche defines, describes, and
analyzes propaganda and its purposes, techniques, and uses on this website. The website
includes an introduction, a list of propaganda techniques identified by the Institute for
Propaganda Analysis, an explanation of wartime propaganda, and examples of different
uses propaganda. Special features of the website include illustrations, references, a book
list, a detailed description and history of the Institute for Propaganda Analysis and its
purpose, and an author biography.
Gourley, Catherine. Media Wizards: A Behind-the-Scenes Look at Media Manipulations.
Brookfield, Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books, 1999.
Gourley describes the behind-the-scenes world of advertising and media, showing how
the media works to influence viewers’ perceptions. Gourley provides information about
how companies target different sections of the population by using demographic data.
She also exposes the tactics and methods used by the media and advertisers to influence
viewers. She provides examples of how the media has influenced people over the years
and explores the effects of media influences. Special features include sidebars, reprints of
advertisements, black and white photographs and other illustrations, a bibliography, and
an index.
Del Vecchio, Gene. Creating Ever-Cool: A Marketer’s Guide to a Kid’s Heart. Gretna,
Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Company, 1997.
Del Vecchio uses data from polls and studies to support his proposition that companies
that sell children’s products must tailor marketing efforts to reach children, partly
because children have a great deal of influence on family purchasing habits. According to
Del Vecchio, children may be reached through marketing that focuses on their hopes,
dreams, and perceived needs, which are not necessarily similar to those of adults.
Additional features include tables, charts, humorous illustrations, and an appendix.
McClung Lee, Alfred, and Briant Lee, Elizabeth, eds. The Fine Art of Propaganda: A
Study of Father Coughlin’s Speeches. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company,
1939.
Sociologists Alfred and Elizabeth Lee examine the speeches of Father Coughlin,
identifying and analyzing propaganda techniques and their effects in order to expose the
underlying messages of the speeches. An appendix is included.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
2.
Bibliography from a Book, Selling and the Art of Persuasion (continued)
Streissguth, Thomas. Communications: Sending the Message. Minneapolis: The Olive
Press, Inc., 1997.
Streissguth provides a comprehensive history of communications technology, from the
invention of the printing press, the telegraph, and the telephone, to the Internet and the
Information Superhighway. He speculates about future innovations in communications
technology, and how these innovations may ultimately transform human
communications. Special features include illustrations, diagrams, black and white
photographs, definitions of technical terms, a glossary, an index, and a bibliography.
Underhill, Paco. Why We Buy: The Science of Shopping. New York: Simon & Schuster,
1999.
Underhill, credited as a “retail anthropologist” and the “founder of the science of
shopping,” uses his studies about and observations of shoppers’ behavior, along with
observations about merchants and research about psychology and human behavior, to
explore the world of shopping. Underhill compares and contrasts male and female
consumer needs and shopping behavior, and proposes methods that retailers may use to
influence male and female shoppers. Underhill also offers solutions for retailers to
overcome shoppers’ reluctance to purchase different items. A bibliography is included.
Ventura, Piero. Communication: Means and Technologies for Exchanging Information.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994.
Ventura provides a history of human communications, from cave drawings and
hieroglyphics, to television, satellites, and e-mail. Ventura explores written and spoken
communications, and how each innovation in communications technology led to greater
social, political, and economic advances. Special features include diagrams, drawings and
other illustrations, and a glossary.
Wegner, Daniel M. The Illusion of Conscious Will. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT
Press, 2002.
Focusing on the paradox of conscious will—that is, if conscious will originates in the
biological functions of the brain, do humans really have free will?—Wegner explores the
illusion of free will: what it is, why it is an illusion, and why the illusion is important to
the development of individual responsibility. To support his ideas, Wegner relies on
psychological research and studies. Special features include a comprehensive
bibliography, an author index and a subject index, tables, figures, and illustrations,
including photographs.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
3.
Newsletter Article, "Use the Freedom of Information Act to See through
Propaganda"
Use the Freedom of Information Act to See through Propaganda
The simplest definition of propaganda is that propaganda is the use of language to influence
someone else. Propaganda does seem simple until you look at how propaganda is used in the
world. Propaganda may be used in campaign elections, in marketing materials, and even in the
news. When is news propaganda? News reports are supposed to be objective and factual.
However, a news reporter may emphasize certain words or pronounce a phrase in a certain way
in order to express an opinion or to call that information into question. An article in the
newspaper may leave out key facts and thus not tell the whole story.
News becomes even more complicated when you understand that the agencies that report the
news are operating for a profit. They have obligations to their sponsors, the companies that buy
advertising time during the news program. Will news agencies be objective in reporting news
about their sponsors? What happens when the agencies that report the news are owned by large
companies? Will these agencies publish positive stories about their companies and suppress
negative ones?
Even our government uses propaganda. Wartime propaganda is common: governments drop
leaflets and brochures encouraging opposing forces to surrender, for example. But there is plenty
of propaganda in times of peace. Lobbyists are paid to use propaganda in order to persuade
congressmen and congresswomen to vote for or against different laws and propositions. Even the
White House uses propaganda. All presidential press secretaries are charged with the
responsibility of presenting information in a manner that will make the president appear in the
best light possible. Politicians routinely give speeches in which they use language to persuade
Americans to support different causes or candidates.
Faced with so much propaganda, how can you find the truth? One tool the government has made
available to the public is the Freedom of Information Act, which was passed in 1966. The
Freedom of Information Act allows the public, including news reporters, to examine government
records. The Freedom of Information Act provides standards for the government in deciding
which records must be made available to the public upon request and which records must remain
sealed for government security or other reasons. The Freedom of Information Act applies to
requests for information from all branches of government, including your local government.
Here is an example of how you might use the Freedom of Information Act. You read a story in
the newspaper about your city council’s vote on new development in your community, which
makes you wonder whether any of the city council members may reap a financial gain from the
new shopping mall. Wouldn’t you like to know that one city council member who votes in favor
of the shopping mall owns a parcel of land that would be purchased by the land developers?
To learn more about the Freedom of Information Act and how you may use it to request
information from local, state, or federal government agencies, you may write to the address
below to request a copy of a booklet entitled “A Citizen’s Guide on Using the Freedom of
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
3.
Newsletter Article, "Use the Freedom of Information Act to See through
Propaganda" (continued)
Information Act and the Privacy Act of 1974 to Request Government Records,” which was
written by the House of Representatives Committee of Government Operations and printed by
the Government Printing Office.
Superintendent of Documents
Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
4.
Quotations from Quotations Past and Present: A Dictionary of Quotations and
Proverbs
A companion's words of persuasion are effective.
Homer (approximately 850 BC– ?), ancient Greek poet
A lie told often enough becomes the truth.
Nikolai Lenin (1870–1924), Russian Communist leader
A lie can travel halfway around the world while the truth is putting on its
shoes.
Mark Twain (1835–1910), American humorist and novelist
Hence it is clear how much more cruel the pen is than the sword.
Robert Burton (1577–1640), English author and clergyman
I would rather try to persuade a man to go along, because once I have
persuaded him he will stick. If I scare him, he will stay just as long as he is
scared, and then he is gone.
Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890–1969), 34th president of the
United States
If you would persuade, you must appeal to interest rather than intellect.
Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), American scientist, statesman, and
philosopher
It makes a great difference in the force of a sentence whether a man be behind
it or no.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882), American essayist
and poet
No sword bites so fiercely as an evil tongue.
Sir Philip Sidney (1554–1586), English poet, statesman,
and soldier
Persuasion is often more effectual than force.
Aesop (620 BC–560 BC), Greek writer of fables
The pen is mightier than the sword.
Edward Bulwer-Lytton (1803–1873), English novelist and
playwright
The public will believe anything, so long as it is not founded on truth.
Edith Sitwell (1887–1964), English poet, critic, and novelist
The sword the body wounds, sharp words the mind.
Menander (343 BC– 291 BC), Athenian writer of comedies
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
4.
Quotations from Quotations Past and Present: A Dictionary of Quotations and
Proverbs (continued)
The truth is more important than the facts.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1869–1959), American architect
Use soft words and hard arguments.
Proverb
We are generally the better persuaded by the reasons we discover ourselves
than by those given to us by others.
Blaise Pascal (1623–1662), French scientist and philosopher
With words we govern men.
Benjamin Disraeli (1804–1881), English Prime Minister
Words cut more than swords.
13th century proverb
Words should be employed as the means, not the end; language is the
instrument, conviction is the work.
Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723–1792), English painter
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
5.
Advertisement for NutriGold from a Magazine
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and minerals you need for extra energy—one tablespoon is all it takes to exceed
the Daily Values recommendations!
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American diet lags behind in nutritional value—NutriGold 4000 can help you make
sure your body gets the vitamins and minerals it needs.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
6.
New games posted daily!
Click here to see specials!
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Search terms “persuasive” and “essay” found one result:
The Persuasive Essay
A persuasive essay is an essay in which you take a position and then build a case for
your position, using persuasive language and supporting details, facts, and examples to
persuade the reader to think or feel as you do.
A persuasive essay will need to contain an explicit statement that makes your position
clear to the reader, as well as reasons that you feel the way you do, and facts, details,
or examples to support your position.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
If a topic has been provided for you, you may want to jot down some notes in order to
help you plan your essay. To jump-start the process, here are some questions you may
want to ask yourself before you begin writing:
• What do I think or feel about this issue?
• What reasons do I have for taking this position?
• What do I want the reader to think or feel?
• What facts, examples, or details can I use to support my position?
Are you starting to feel overwhelmed? Don’t worry! You have persuasive abilities that
have been fine-tuned by years of experience. Just think, every day you persuade at
least one person to do something. On any given day, you might:
•
persuade your little brother to help you wash the dishes
•
persuade your teacher to accept a late assignment
6. Web Page for Academy Annex (continued)
•
persuade your parents to let you stay out later than usual
You see? Admit it: You’re an expert at persuasion. Now all you need to do is take that
skill and put it in writing. To do this, you will need to use persuasive language.
Here are some common persuasive techniques that you will probably recognize.
Review this list and read the definitions.
Persuasive Techniques
Bandwagon
The bandwagon approach is all about peer pressure. The idea is that “everyone” is
doing something, so you should do it, too.
Card-stacking
There are two sides (or more) to every story, but card stacking is the art of presenting
only one side of the story.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Elitism
The art of elitism is associating an idea, product, or candidate with a higher social or
economic status. If a product makes people feel as if they belong to a higher class, they
will buy it.
Glittering generalities
Using glittering generalities is to emphasize or even exaggerate the positive qualities
without mentioning any negative qualities. The glittering generalities approach may
entail using statements that sound impressive, but lack evidence or support.
Name-calling
When in doubt, resort to mud-slinging. That describes the motto of the name-calling
approach, in which you may simply deride the opposition so that you, your product, your
candidate, or your position looks better in comparison.
Plain folk
Unlike elitism, the plain folks approach attempts to appeal to the masses by
communicating a message that we (the product manufacturer or the candidates) are
just like you, the average person off the street. The plain folk technique may be used in
advertising or in political campaigns. A candidate relying on the plain folk technique may
say that her opponent is an educated snob (thus utilizing name-calling and using the
other candidate’s elitism as a weapon against her), while he is just a regular guy, just
like you.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
6. Web Page for Academy Index (continued)
Repetition
If it’s nice, say it twice! Repetition is the technique of simply repeating an idea over and
over until people “get” it. You may never realize that the only reason you buy a certain
brand of toothpaste is that the name of the brand is repeated twenty times in one
commercial, and so it sounds more familiar to you than the names of the competing
brands.
Testimonial
Testimonials are statements from people who believe in the candidate or who have
used the product to good effect. Testimonials may be from celebrities or from just plain
folk, regular people like you and me.
Transfer
The transfer technique relies on a symbol to carry the message. Have you ever noticed
that political candidates are frequently presented while standing in front of the American
flag? They are using the symbol of the flag to support their candidacy and to appeal to
the voters’ loyalty to their country. Campaign ads also frequently show politicians
surrounded by their families in order to appeal to Americans’ strong positive feelings
about families and family values. (This approach may also contain elements of the
“plain folk” technique.)
For a list of persuasive essay topics, click here.
To read a sample persuasive essay, click here.
To write your own persuasive essay, click here.
To find information about other kinds of essays, click here.
To start a new search, enter the keywords in the search box below and click FIND IT!
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
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Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 18
1.
2.
What is the main purpose of the bold letters in the NutriGold advertisement?
A.
to inform about the study
B.
to capture the reader's attention
C.
to suggest the product works
D.
to make the reader interested in exercise
Which resource would you use if you want to find practical information about writing a
persuasive essay?
A.
the article "Beyond Adspeak: Looking for the Real Message"
B.
the bibliography from Selling and the Art of Persuasion
C.
the article "Use the Freedom of Information Act to See through Propaganda"
D.
Academy Annex Web page
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 19
1.
According to the Academy Annex Web page, what are persuasive techniques?
E. categories of essays
F. support for arguments
G. types of arguments
H. approaches for writing
2.
In the Academy Annex Web page, the section Persuasive Techniques is included to
A.
make the reader laugh.
B.
show the reader what to avoid.
C.
instruct the reader on essay writing.
D.
illustrate ways to prove a point.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 20
1.
If you were writing a research paper on propaganda, in which section of your paper
would you most likely use part of Quotations Past and Present?
E. preface
F. thesis
G. support
H. conclusion
2.
According to the article, the Freedom of Information Act
E.
prevents the widespread use of propaganda.
F.
allows people to look at government documents.
G.
enables the government to monitor propaganda.
H.
discourages the use of false advertising.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 21
1.
2.
Which resource would offer the best information about the everyday influences of
advertisements on people?
A.
the advertisement for NutriGold from a magazine
B.
the article "Use the Freedom of Information Act to See through Propaganda"
C.
the article "Beyond Adspeak: Looking for the Real Message"
D.
Academy Annex Web page
Which resource would give the most information about classroom activities and lessons?
A.
the article "Beyond Adspeak: Looking for the Real Message"
B.
the bibliography from Selling and the Art of Persuasion
C.
the article "Use the Freedom of Information Act to See through Propaganda"
D.
Academy Annex Web page
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 22
1.
2.
According to “Use of Freedom of Information Act to See Through Propaganda,” if you
want to request information from a local agency, you should
A.
order a booklet from the Government Printing office.
B.
write to your state senator’s office.
C.
go to the Government Printing Office Web site.
D.
read the Freedom of Information Act.
The resource Quotations Past and Present most clearly shows the
A.
effects of propaganda.
B.
power of language.
C.
persuasive techniques for essay writing.
D.
need for the Freedom of Information Act.
Louisiana Department of Education
Grade 10 English Language Arts: PASS on Paper
Lesson 23
1.
Which two resources would you use if your research paper focused on marketing?
2.
Which two resources give information about peer pressure?
Louisiana Department of Education