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Jessica Brown, New England Biolabs
Foundation, and IUCN-WCPA Protected
Landscapes Task Force
- with contributions from Grazia BorriniFeyerabend and Ashish Kothari
Rice Terraces of the
Philippines Cordilleras
Why stewardship?
•  Worldwide, conservation strategies are
becoming increasingly bio-regional.
•  New approaches to protected areas—based
on inclusive approaches, partnerships, and
•  Growing understanding of the link between
nature and culture—landscapes shaped by
human culture as well as the forces of nature.
Protected Area
An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to the
protection and maintenance of biological diversity,
and of natural and associated cultural resources, and
managed through legal or other effective means.
Indigenous Peoples’ and Community
Conserved Areas and Territories -- ICCAs
“…natural and modified ecosystems including significant
biodiversity values, ecological services and cultural values
voluntarily conserved by indigenous peoples & local
communities through customary laws or other effective
three defining
characteristics of ICCAs
•  Specific indigenous
peoples or local
(sedentary or mobile)
are closely “concerned”
about an area (related
to it culturally and/or
because of livelihoods)
•  Such communities hold
power de facto -- if not
also de jure -- in
deciding, implementing
& enforcing
management decisions
The voluntary management decisions and efforts of such
communities achieve conservation results— although their
main intention may not be necessarily related to conservation.
Sacred crocodile pond, Mali
Chizire sacred forest,
Forole sacred
Borana/ Gabbra
Ethiopia/ Kenya
Sacred lake, Indian Himalaya
site in Inuit
Alto Fragua Indi-wasi National Park, Colombia
Paruku Indigenous PA, Western Australia
Wetlands in Qashqai mobile peoples’ territory, Iran
Local marine
Lubuk Larangan river, Mandailing, Sumatra, Indonesia
Temporarily and/
or permanently
forbidden sites
reserve , Guinea
Coron Island ancestral domain, The Philippines
Community forests, Thailand / Malaysia
Qanats, Central Asia
Community forests,
India and Nepal
Parc Jurassien Vaudois, Switzerland
Jardhargaon forest, Indian Himalaya
Natural Community Reserves & Pastoral Units
of Ferlo, Sénégal
Kheechan village, Rajasthan, India
El parque de la papa
(“Potato Park”)
Southern Peruvian Andes
“meeting points” of conservation,
livelihood security and empowerment/
rights of indigenous peoples and local
communities… in unique ways for
unique contexts…
  ICCAs conserve a huge range of
ecosystems, habitats and species,
maintain ecosystem services, and
provide biodiversity connectivity in the
landscape/ seascape
 ICCAs are the basis of livelihoods
for millions of people, securing
resources and income
  ICCAs can play a crucial role in
securing the rights of Indigenous
Peoples & local communities to their
land & natural resources through local
resilience in the
face of global
  ICCAs are the foundation of
cultural identity for countless
indigenous peoples and local
communities throughout the world
  ICCAs are based on rules and
institutions “tailored to the
context”, (bio-cultural diversity),
usually skilled at adaptive
management and capable of
flexible, culture-related responses
  ICCAs are often built on
sophisticated collective ecological
knowledge and capacities,
including sustainable use of wild
resources and maintenance of
agrobiodiversity, which have
stood the test of time
  ICCAs are typically designed to
maintain crucial livelihood
resources for times of stress and
need, such as during severe
climate events, war and natural
threats &
  ‘Development’ -- mining and fossil fuel extraction,
logging, tree plantation, industrial fishing, sea
dredging, large-scale grazing, agriculture, water
diversions and drainage, urbanisation, major
infrastructure (roads, ports, airports, mass
  Expropriation of community land (nationalisation,
privatisation, state-governed protected areas…)
  Land encroachment and unauthorised resource
extractions (poaching, stealing…)
  Active acculturation of ICCA communities (formal
education, evangelisation, publicity …)
  War, violent conflicts and movements of refugees
  Inappropriate recognition by governments
  Taxes and other unbearable fiscal burdens
  Divisions and conflicts created by political parties &
  Air and water pollution and invasive species.
  Climate change (natural disasters, sea level rise…)
The Consortium
Indigenous Peoples organisations (IPOs) & local
community organisations and NGOs
core members
•  Asia Indigenous Peoples Pact Foundation (IPO, Asia)
•  Centre for Sustainable Development & Environment (NGO, Iran)
•  Corporacion Ecozoica (NGO, Colombia)
•  Forest Peoples Programme (NGO, UK)
•  Fundación para la Promoción del Conocimiento Indígena (IPO Central
•  Fundacion Urundei (NGO, South America)
•  Global Diversity Foundation (NGO, UK)
•  Indigenous Peoples of Africa Coordinating Committee (IPO, Africa)
•  Kalpavriksh (NGO, India)
•  Newen Mapu (IPO, South America)
•  Philippine Association For Intercultural Development (NGO)
•  Quebec-Labrador Foundation (network of NGOs, USA and Canada)
•  Sand County Foundation (NGO, USA)
•  World Alliance of Mobile Indigenous Peoples (IPO, global)
(+ Friends of Nature (NGO, China)– possibly to join...)
programme goal and objectives/ activities
recognition and appropriate
support of ICCAs, at national and international levels
To promote the
analyse status, threats, needs
and opportunities of ICCAs in
specific regions and countries
facilitate exchange of
information and experiences
on ICCAs and their values
enhance capacity of IPs and
communities to deal with
challenges, meet local needs
promote appropriate forms of
recognition of and support for
ICCAs, through full
implementation of CBD,
UNDRIP, IUCN Guidelines, etc.
on a country-by-country basis
5.  facilitate engagement of IPs and
local communities from ICCAs at
main policy events (e.g. regional
and international forums);
6.  develop global guidance (e.g.
IUCN Guidelines for Protected
Areas Legislation) on the base of
concrete ICCA experience and
7.  develop processes & protocols
for inclusion of ICCAs in the
WCMC/UNEP Global Database of
Protected Areas;
8. explore the relationship between
ICCAs and climate change
mitigation and adaptation,
including the potentialities and
threats posed by relevant financial
mechanisms (e.g. REDD); support
appropriate relevant action
Please consult: