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Transcript
For use in service manual
form SB4099E
SB4112E00
Sep. 2003
SERVICE MANUAL CONTENTS
NOTICE
This form lists the contents of the complete Service Manual for this product.
The items listed with form numbers are available and included in the manual.
If form numbers listed with mark (*) are, they are not available for the initial
release of the manual. When items are updated, or supplements added, they
will be announced in preview and should be ordered as they become available.
TITLE
Service Manual Contents
Safety
Torque Specifications
FORM NUMBER
SB4112E00
SB2003E00
SB2004E00
DRIVE & CONTROL SYSTEM
MicroController Control Systems(36V)
MicroController Control Systems(48V)
SB2077E04
SB4101E00
POWER TRAIN
Power Train
SB4100E00
VEHICLE SYSTEMS
Vehicle Systems
Vehicle Systems D & A
Hydraulic System Schematic
Electric Systems Schematic
Mast Systems
SB4113E00
SB4114E00
SB4115E00
SB4116E00
SB2143E02
OPERATION & MAINTENANC E
Operation & Maintenance Manual
Models ; B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V, 48V)
SB2315E02
SB2003E00
O c t. 1 9 9 6
WARNING
SAFETY
WARNING
WARNING
Do not operate this machine unless you have
read and understand the instructions in the
OPERATOR'S GUIDE. Improper machine
operation is dangerous and could result in
injury or death.
The proper and safe lubrication and maintenance
for this machine, recommended by DAEWOO, are
outlined in the OPERATION & MAINTENANCE
GUIDE for this machine.
Improper performance of lubrication or
maintenance procedures is dangerous and could
result in injury or death. Read and understand the
OPERATION & MAINTENANCE GUIDE before
performing any lubrication or maintenance.
5. Use steps and grab handles (if applicable) when
mounting or dismounting a machine. Clean any mud or
debris from steps, walkways or work platforms before
using. Always face machine when using steps, ladders
and walkways. When it is not possible to use the
designed access system, provide ladders, scaffolds, or
work platforms to perform safe repair operations.
The serviceman or mechanic may be unfamiliar with many
of the systems on this machine. This makes it important
to use caution when performing service work. A
knowledge of the system and/or components is
important before the removal or disassembly of any
component.
6. To avoid back injury, use a hoist when lifting
components which weigh 23 kg (50 lb.) or more. Make
sure all chains, hooks, slings, etc., are in good
condition and are of the correct capacity. Be sure
hooks are positioned correctly. Lifting eyes are not to
be side loaded during a lifting operation.
Because of the size of some of the machine
components, the serviceman or mechanic should check
the weights noted in this Manual, Use proper lifting
procedures when removing any components.
7. To avoid burns, be alert for hot parts on machines
which have just been stopped and hot fluids in lines,
tubes and compartments.
Following is a list of basic precautions that should always
be observed.
8. Be careful when removing cover plates. Gradually
back off the last two bolts or nuts located at opposite
ends of the cover or device and pry cover loose to
relieve any spring or other pressure, before removing
the last two bolts or nuts completely.
1. Read and understand all Warning plates and decals on
the machine before operating, lubricating or repairing
the product.
2. Always wear protective glasses and protective shoes
when working around machines. In particular, wear
protective glasses when pounding on any part of the
machine or its attachments with a hammer or sledge.
Use welders gloves, hood/goggles, apron and other
protective clothing appropriate to the welding job
being performed. Do not wear loose-fitting or torn
clothing. Remove all rings from fingers when working
on machinery.
9. Be careful when removing filler caps, breathers and
plugs on the machine. Hold a rag over the cap or plug
to prevent being sprayed or splashed by liquids under
pressure. The danger is even greater if the machine
has just been stopped because fluids can be hot.
10. Always use tools that are in good condition and be
sure you understand how to use them before
performing any service work.
3. Do not work on any machine that is supported only by
lift jacks or a hoist. Always use blocks or jack stands
to support the machine before performing any
disassembly.
11. Reinstall all fasteners with same part number. Do not
use a lesser quality fastener if replacements are
necessary. Do not mix metric fasteners with
standard nuts and bolts.
4. Lower the forks or other implements to the ground
before performing any work on the machine. If this
cannot be done, make sure the forks or other
implements are blocked correctly to prevent them
from dropping unexpectedly.
12. If possible, make all repairs with the machine parked
on a level, hard surface. Block machine so it does
not roll while working on or under machine.
1 of 2
WARNING
21. Do not operate a machine if any rotating part is
damaged or contacts any other part during
operation. Any high speed rotating component that
has been damaged or altered should be checked
for balance before reusing.
13. Disconnect battery and discharge any capacitors
(electric trucks) before starting to work on machine.
Hang "Do Not Operate" tag in the Operator's
Compartment.
14. Repairs, which require welding, should be
performed only with the benefit of the appropriate
reference information and by personnel adequately
trained and knowledgeable in welding procedures.
Determine type of metal being welded and select
correct welding procedure and electrodes, rods or
wire to provide a weld metal strength equivalent at
least to that of parent metal.
22. On LP equipped lift trucks, be sure to close the
valve on the LP tank before service work is
performed. Always close the valve on the LP tank
when the lift truck is being stored. Do not check for
LP leaks with an open flame.
23. Caution should be used to avoid breathing dust that
may be generated when handling components
containing asbestos fibers. If this dust is inhaled, it
can be hazardous to your health. Components in
DAEWOO products that may contain asbestos
fibers are brake pads, brake band and lining
assemblies, clutch plates and some gaskets. The
asbestos used in these components is usually
bound in a resin or sealed in some way. Normal
handling is not hazardous as long as airborne dust
which contains asbestos is not generated.
15. Do not damage wiring during removal operations.
Reinstall the wiring so it is not damaged nor will it
be damaged in operation by contacting sharp
corners, or by rubbing against some object or hot
surface. Do not connect wiring to a line containing
fluid.
16. Be sure all protective devices including guards and
shields are properly installed and functioning
correctly before starting a repair. If a guard or shield
must be removed to perform the repair work, use
extra caution.
If dust which may contain asbestos is present, there are
several common sense guidelines that should be
followed.
17. Always support the mast and carriage to keep
carriage or attachments raised when maintenance
or repair work is performed, which requires the
mast in the raised position.
a. Never use compressed air for cleaning.
b. Avoid brushing or grinding of asbestos containing
materials.
18. Loose or damaged fuel, lubricant and hydraulic
lines, tubes and hoses can cause fires. Do not
bend or strike high pressure lines or install ones
which have been bent or damaged. Inspect lines,
tubes and hoses carefully. Do not check for leaks
with your hands. Pin hole (very small) leaks can
result in a high velocity oil stream that will be
invisible close to the hose. This oil can penetrate
the skin and cause personal injury. Use cardboard
or paper to locate pin hole leaks.
c. For clean up, use wet methods or a vacuum
equipped with a high efficiency particulate air
(HEPA) filter.
d. Use exhaust ventilation on permanent machining
jobs.
e. Wear an approved respirator if there is no other way
to control the dust.
f. Comply with applicable rules and regulations for the
work place (for example in the U.S.A., OSHA
requirements as set forth in 29 CFR 1910. 1001).
19. Tighten connections to the correct torque. Make
sure that all heat shields, clamps and guards are
installed correctly to avoid excessive heat, vibration
or rubbing against other parts during operation.
Shields that protect against oil spray onto hot
exhaust components in event of a line, tube or seal
failure must be installed correctly.
g. Follow environmental rules and regulations for
disposal of asbestos.
h. Avoid areas where asbestos particles may be in the
air.
20. Relieve all pressure in air, oil or water systems
before any lines, fittings or related items are
disconnected or removed. Always make sure all
raised components are blocked correctly and be
alert for possible pressure when disconnecting any
device from a system that utilizes pressure.
2 of 2
SB2004E00
Dec. 1998
Specifications
TORQUE
SPECIFICATIONS
STANDARD TORQUE FOR METRIC FASTENERS
NOTE : Take care to avoid mixing metric and inch dimensioned fasteners.
Mismatched or incorrect fasteners can result in vehicle damage or malfunction, or
possible injury. Exceptions to these torques are given in the Service Manual where
needed.
NOTE : Prior to installation of any hardware, be sure components are in near new
condition. Bolt and nut threads must not be worn or damaged. Hardware must be
free of rust and corrosion. Clean hardware with a non-corrosive cleaner and apply
engine oil to threads and bearing face. If thread lock or other compounds are to be
applied, do not apply engine oil.
METRIC NUTS AND BOLTS
THREAD
SIZE
(mm)
STANDARD TORQUE
(N i m)
(lb i ft)
M6
12
9
M8
28
M10
55
M12
100
M14
160
M16
240
M20
460
M24
800
M30
1600
M36
2700
±3
±7
± 10
± 20
± 30
± 40
± 60
± 100
± 200
± 300
20
40
75
120
175
340
600
1200
2000
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
2
5
7
15
22
30
44
75
150
225
METRIC TAPERLOCK STUDS
THREAD
SIZE
(mm)
STANDARD TORQUE
(N i m)
M6
8
M8
17
M10
35
M12
65
M16
110
M20
170
M24
400
M30
650
M36
870
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
(lb i ft)
3
6
5
13
5
26
10
48
20
80
30
125
60
300
80
480
100
640
1 of 7
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
2
4
4
7
15
22
45
60
75
STANDARD TORQUE FOR INCH FASTENERS
Exceptions to these torques are given in the Service
Manual where needed.
INCH NUTS AND BOLTS
THREAD
SIZE
inch
STANDARD TORQUE
(N i m)
1/4
12
5/16
25
3/8
47
7/16
70
1/2
105
9/16
160
5/8
215
3/4
370
7/8
620
1
900
1-1/8
1300
1-1/4
1800
1-3/8
2400
1-1/2
3100
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
(lb i ft)
3
9
6
18.0
9
35
15
50
20
75
30
120
40
160
50
275
80
460
100
660
150
950
200
1325
300
1800
350
2300
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
2
4.5
7
11
15
20
30
35
60
75
100
150
225
250
INCH TAPERLOCK STUDS
THREAD
SIZE
inch
STANDARD TORQUE
(N i m)
1/4
8
5/16
17
3/8
35
7/16
45
1/2
65
5/8
110
3/4
170
7/8
260
1
400
1-1/8
500
1-1/4
650
1-3/8
750
1-1/2
870
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
(lb i ft)
3
6
5
13
5
26
10
33
10
48
20
80
30
125
40
190
60
300
70
370
80
480
90
550
100
640
2 of 7
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
2
4
4
7
7
15
22
30
45
50
60
65
75
O-RING FACE SEAL FITTINGS
O-RING FACE SEAL FITTING
O-RING GROOVE
O-RING FACE SEAL NUT
STRAIGHT THREAD O-RING
PORT FITTING END
O-RING
IDAS001B
STRAIGHT THREAD O-RING
FITTING (FOR O-RING FACE
SEAL FITTING ONLY)
THREAD
SIZE
inch
STANDARD TORQUE
(lb i ft)
(N i m)
5/16-24
5.0
3/8-24
12
7/16-20
20
1/2-20
30
9/16-18
40
3/4-16
100
7/8-14
135
1 1/16-12
200
1 3/16-12
250
1 5/16-12
300
1 5/8-12
300
1 7/8-12
300
2 1/2-12
300
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
1.5
2
45±15 lb i in
110±20 lb i in
4
15
5
22
5
30
15
75
15
100
25
150
25
185
40
225
40
225
40
225
40
225
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
3
4
4
10
10
20
20
30
30
30
30
O-RING FACE SEAL FITTING NUT
THREAD
SIZE
inch
STANDARD TORQUE
(N i m)
9/16-18
16
11/16-16
30
13/16-16
50
1-14
90
1 3/16-12
120
1 7/16-12
160
1 11/16-12
190
2-12
215
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
(lb i ft)
3
12
4
22
7
37
10
65
15
90
20
120
20
140
25
160
3 of 7
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
2
3
5
7
10
15
15
20
FITTING INSTALLATION
1. Put locknut (3), backup washer (4) and O-ring seal
(5) as far back on fitting body (2) as possible. Hold
these components in this position. Turn the fitting
into the part it is used on until backup washer (4) just
makes contact with the face of the part it is used on.
HYDRAULIC LINE INSTALLATION
1. For a metal tube to hose installation, install the tube
and tighten all bolts finger tight.
2. Tighten the bolts at the rigid end.
2.To put the fitting assembly in its correct position, turn
the fitting body (2) out (counterclockwise) a
maximum of 359û. Tighten locknut (3) to the torque
shown in the correct chart for the fitting used.
3. Install the hose and tighten all bolts finger tight.
4. Put the hose in a position so that it does not make
contact with the machine or another hose.
NOTE: If the fitting is a connector (straight fitting), the
hex on the body takes the place of the locknut. To
install this type fitting, tighten the hex against the face
of the part it goes into.
5. Tighten the bolts on both connections.
6. Start the engine.
7. Move the implement control levers to all positions.
8. Look at the hose during movement of the
implement. Make sure hose is not in contact with
the machine or other hoses.
TORQUES FOR FLARED AND O-RING FITTINGS
The torques shown in the charts that follow are to be
used on the nut part of 37û Flared, 45û Flared and
Inverted Flared fittings (when used with steel tubing),
O-ring plugs, O-ring fittings and swivel nuts when
used in applications to 3000 psi (20 700 kPa).
9. Shut off the engine.
10. If necessary, put the hose in a new position where it
will not make contact when the implement is moved.
ASSEMBLY OF FITTINGS WITH STRAIGHT
THREADS AND O-RING SEALS
HOSE CLAMP-BAND TYPE
This type of fitting is used in many applications. The tube
end of the fitting will be different in design so that it can
be used in many different applications. However, the
installation procedure of the fitting is the same. If the tube
end of the fitting body is the same as in the illustration
(either an elbow or a straight body) it will be necessary to
assemble the sleeve on the tube before connecting the
tube to the end.
2
1
IDAS003B
4
CLAMP
WIDTH
7.9 mm
(.312 in)
13.5 mm
(.531 in)
15.9 mm
(.625 in)
3
5
6
IDAS002B
ELBOW BODY ASSEMBLY
(1) End of fitting body (connects to tube). (2) Fitting body.
(3) Lock-nut. (4) Backup washer. (5) O-ring seal. (6) End of fitting
that goes into other part.
4 of 7
TORQUE ON
NEW HOSE
0.9 ± 0.2 N i m
8 ± 2 lb i in
4.5
40
7.5
65
±
±
±
±
0.5 N i m
5 lb i in
0.5 N i m
5 lb i in
RETIGHTENING
TORQUE
0.7 ± 0.2 N i m
6 ± 2 lb i in
3.0
25
4.5
40
±
±
±
±
0.5 N i m
5 lb i in
0.5 N i m
5 lb i in
37û FLARED AND STRAIGHT THREAD O-RING FITTINGS
37û FLARED
O-RING
FITTING-PLUG
SWIVEL NUTS
IDAS004B
37û FLARED AND STRAIGHT THREAD O-RING FITTINGS
(EXCEPT O-RING FACE SEAL FITTINGS)
METRIC
INCH
THREAD
SIZE
inch
3.18
.125
5/16
4.76
.188
3/8
6.35
.250
7/16
7.94
.312
1/2
9.52
.375
9/16
9.52
.375
5/8
12.70
.500
3/4
15.88
.625
7/8
19.05
.750
1-1/16
22.22
.875
1-3/16
25.40
1.000
1-5/16
31.75
1.250
1-5/8
38.10
1.500
1-7/8
50.80
2.000
2-1/2
NOMINAL TUBE O.D.
STANDARD TORQUE
(N i m)
± 1.5
11.0 ± 1.5
16 ± 2
20 ± 5
25 ± 5
35 ± 5
50 ± 7
65 ± 7
100 ± 10
120 ± 10
135 ± 15
180 ± 15
225 ± 15
320 ± 30
5.0
TIGHTENING OTHER FITTINGS
Hi Duty (Shear sleeve) Tube Fittings
After tube has been put through the nut and makes
contact against the tube shoulder in the fitting body,
turn the nut with a wrench until a small decrease in
torque is felt. This is an indication that the sleeve has
been broken off the nut. Hold the tube to prevent
turning and tighten the nut 1-1/2 turns.
IDAS005B
Hi Seal Fittings
Put nut and sleeve over the tubing with the short
heavy end of the sleeve facing the end of tubing. Put
the tube end against the counterbore in the body of
the fitting and tighten until nut is over the last thread
on the body. The remainder of space is used
whenever the fitting is removed and installed again.
IDAS006B
5 of 7
(lb i ft)
4
8
12
15
18
26
37
48
75
90
100
135
165
240
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
1
1
1
4
4
4
5
5
7
7
11
11
11
22
45û FLARED AND 45û INVERTED FLARE FITTINGS
INVERTED
45û FLARED
45û FLARED
IDAS007B
45û FLARED AND 45û INVERTED FLARE FITTINGS
METRIC
INCH
THREAD
SIZE
inch
3.18
.125
5/16
5.0
4.76
.188
3/8
8.0
6.35
.250
7/16
11
7.94
.312
1/2
17
9.52
.375
5/8
30
11.11
.438
11/16
30
12.70
.500
3/4
38
15.88
.625
7/8
50
19.05
.750
1-1/16
90
22.22
.875
1-1/4
100
NOMINAL TUBE O.D.
STANDARD TORQUE
(N i m)
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
1.5
4
1.5
6
2
8
3
13
3
22
3
22
4
28
5
37
8
65
10
75
TIGHTENING OTHER FITTINGS
Ermeto Tube Fittings
Put nut and sleeve over the tube with head or
shoulder end of sleeve next to nut. Push tube into
counterbore of fitting body as far as possible. Turn
nut clockwise until sleeve holds tube and prevents
movement. Tighten the nut 1-1/4 turns more to seat
sleeve and give a locking action. When necessary to
assemble again, put sleeve over tube and tighten nut
until a sudden increase in torque is felt. Then tighten
1/6 to 1/3 turn more to seat the sleeve.
IDAS008B
Flex Fittings
Put nut and sleeve over the tubing and push tube in
to counterbore of fitting body as far as possible.
Tighten the nut until it is against the hex part of the
fitting body.
IDAS009B
6 of 7
(lb i ft)
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
±
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
4
6
7
AIR CONDITIONING AND TAPERED PIPE THREAD FITTINGS
O-RING
45û FLARE
IDAS010B
AIR CONDITIONING FITTINGS
45û FLARE FITTING END
O-RING FITTING END
THREAD
SIZE
inch
STANDARD TORQUE
N im
5/8-18
18
3/4-16
37
7/8-14
40
1 1/16-14
45
±4
±4
±4
±5
(lb i ft)
±
27 ±
30 ±
33 ±
13
3
3
3
4
STEEL TUBES
ALUMINUM TUBES
STANDARD TORQUE
STANDARD TORQUE
N im
±
52 ±
60 ±
75 ±
30
3
5
7
8
(lb i ft)
±
38 ±
44 ±
55 ±
22
N im
2
23
4
33
5
38
6
50
±
±
±
±
3
4
4
5
TAPERED PIPE THREAD FITTINGS
PIPE
THREAD
SIZE
inch
STANDARD TORQUE
THREADS WITH
1E2200E SEALANT
THREADS WITHOUT
SEALANT
Nim
(lb i ft)
Nim
(lb i ft)
1/16-27
15
11
20
15
1/8-27
20
15
25
18
1/4-18
25
18
35
26
3/8-18
35
26
45
33
1/2-14
45
33
60
45
3/4-14
60
45
75
55
1-11 1/2
75
55
90
65
1 1/4-11 1/2
95
70
110
80
1 1/2-11 1/2
110
80
130
95
2-11 1/2
130
95
160
120
7 of 7
(lb i ft)
±
24 ±
28 ±
37 ±
17
2
3
3
4
SB2077E04
Sep. 2003
Specifications
Systems Operation
Testing & Adjusting
MicroController Control System
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
EMOD4-00001~UP
EMOD5-00001~UP
EMOD6-00001~UP
(36V : P/N A154600, P/N A154701)
for Electric Lift Trucks
Important Safety Information
Most accidents involving product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety
rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an
accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary
training, skill and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, Iubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result
in injury or death.
Do not operater or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read
and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are
not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as “WARNING” as
shown below.
WARNING
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows :
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning, explaining the hazard, can be either written or pictorially
presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in this
publication.
DAEWOO cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in
this pulication and on the product are therefore not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating
technique not specifically recommended by DAEWOO is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and
others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or made unsafe by the operation, lubrication,
maintenance or repair procedures you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information available at the
time it was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other
items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service given to the product. Obtain the complete
and most current information before starting any job. DAEWOO dealers have the most current information
available.
MicroController Control Systems
1
Specifications
Index
Specifications
Component Measurements.......................................
Console .....................................................................
Contactors.................................................................
Control Panel (Layout) ..............................................
Current Measurements .............................................
5
7
8
9
5
Location of Control Panel Components .................. 16
Logic Unit ................................................................ 17
Operational Circuit Elements .................................. 18
Accelerator Control ............................................. 23
Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI)....................... 22
Central Vehicle Monitoring System..................... 18
Contactors .......................................................... 21
Current Sensor ................................................... 21
CVMS International Pictorial Symbols................ 20
On Board “Run Time” Diagnostics
(Fault Detection) ................................................. 18
Steer Angle Control ............................................ 23
Wait Mode........................................................... 21
Direction Switch ........................................................ 7
Display Layout .......................................................... 7
Fuses ........................................................................ 8
Head Capacitor ......................................................... 8
Instrument Panel ....................................................... 7
Thermal Switch - Control Panel ................................ 8
Transistor Connections ............................................. 6
Transistor Measurements ......................................... 6
Symbol Library ........................................................ 15
Testing And Adjusting
Systems Operation
Accessory Circuits ..................................................
DC - DC Converter .............................................
Horn Circuit.........................................................
Hour Meter Circuit ..............................................
Built-In Diagnostic Operation .................................. 46
Accessing Stored Error Codes ........................... 51
Erased Stored Error Codes ................................51
“Run Time” Diagnostics
(Lift Truck in Operation) ...................................... 46
Quick Diagnostic Procedure ............................... 52
Saving Service Records ..................................... 51
“Self” Diagnostics
(Lift Truck not in Operation) ................................ 48
Stored Error Codes............................................. 52
24
24
24
24
Actuation Circuit ...................................................... 25
Drive Circuit ............................................................
Bypass Circuit.....................................................
Control Circuit .....................................................
Current Limit .......................................................
Electrical Braking (Plugging) ..............................
Failure Protection Circuit ....................................
Flyback Circuit ....................................................
Power Circuit ......................................................
Thermal Protection Circuits ................................
33
38
33
37
39
41
36
34
41
Component Tests .................................................. 104
Capacitor (Head) .............................................. 107
Conductor and Switch Continuity ..................... 107
Contactors ........................................................ 108
Contactor Components..................................... 108
Current Sensor.................................................. 110
Diode Replacement........................................... 111
Diodes ............................................................... 111
Driver Board (Off Vehicle) ................................. 115
Driver Board (On Vehicle)................................. 112
Logic Unit Quick Reference Voltage Check ..... 104
Resistors (DR1, DR2, and PR1) ....................... 118
Thermal Switch ................................................. 119
Transistors DTR1, DTR2 and PTR1 ................. 117
Transistors Replacement
DTR1, DTR2 and PTR1.................................... 117
General Information ................................................ 17
Glossary .................................................................. 11
Hydraulic Pump Motor Circuit ................................. 26
Flyback Circuit .................................................... 30
Lift Circuit............................................................ 32
Lift Control Circuit ................................................31
Power Steering Circuit .........................................26
Power Steering Idle .............................................27
MicroController Control Systems
3
Index
Control and Power System Operational
Checks .................................................................... 45
Electrical System Adjustments ...............................120
Accelerator Control Linkage ..............................120
BDI Adjustment ..................................................123
Bypass Dropout Adjustment ..............................127
Current Limit Test and Adjustment.....................126
Electrical Braking (Plugging) Current
Test and Adjustment ..........................................127
Lift Sensor..........................................................121
Parking Brake Switch.........................................120
Rapid Tune - Up Procedure...............................123
Tilt and Auxiliary Switches .................................122
Valve Control Card Adjustment..........................121
Preparation Tests and Checks .................................42
Programmable Features ........................................128
Activating Default Settings.................................128
Programmable or Settable Option
Features.............................................................129
Quick Procedure for Programmable
Features.............................................................131
Setting Procedure Option Features ...................128
System Tests and Adjustments ..............................101
Discharging Head Capacitor
(HEAD CAP) ......................................................101
Logics Removal .................................................102
“Run Time” Tests................................................102
Test Equipment ..................................................101
Troubleshooting........................................................42
Troubshooting Problem List ....................................53
MicroController Control Systems
4
Index
Specifications
Component Measurements
Component
Meter
Meter Positive
Meter Negative
Scale
(+) Test Lead
(-) Test Lead
Desired Indication
DIODES (voltage indication)
All
Diode
Anode
Cathode
0.3 to 0.9 volts
All
Diode
Cathode
Anode
OL
RESISTORS (resistance indication) Panels With D557003(927566) Transistor
DRI, DR2, PR1
200Ω
90 ohms L 5%
R2, R5, R9
200Ω
7.5 ohms L 5%
HEAD CAPACITOR (resistance indication)
Head capacitor
200Ω
Positive side of
Negative side of
0 then change to
capactior (+)
capactior (-)
above 10K ohms
CONTACTOR COILS (resistance indication)
Direcitional
200Ω
X
Y
40 to 50 ohms
Line, Pump
200Ω
X
Y
95 to 115 ohms
Bypass
200Ω
X
Y
40 to 50 ohms
Current Measurements
CURRENT VALUES (AMPS)
Transistor
Current Limit
Plugging Limit
D557003 (927566)
270 L 10A
270 L 10A
MicroController Control Systems
5
Specifications
Transistor Measurements
SPECIFICATIONS
Multimeter
(+)
(-)
D557003 (927566)
Setting
Test Lead
Test Lead
Results
Resistance
Emitter
Base
45 to 135 ohms
Diode
Base
Collector
.3 to .9V
Diode
Collector
Base
OL
Diode
Emitter
Collector
.3 to .9V
Diode
Collector
Emitter
OL
Transistor Connections
D557554 - for Pump
D557003 (927566)-for Pump
2
1
1
2
3
3
(1) Emitter connection
(2) Base connection
(3) Collector connection
MicroController Control Systems
6
Specifications
Display Layout
Console
1
Instrument Panel
(1) Tighten bolts that fasten the cover to a torque
of ............................1.5 to 2.5 N•m (13 to 22 lb•in)
Direction Switch
1
1
2
(1) Tighten screws that fasten the instrument panel to
a torque of
....................................0.5 to 0.7 N•m (4 to 6 lb•in)
(1) Torque bolts that hold bracket to steering
column to ................2.8 to 3.4 N•m (25 to 31 lb•in)
(2) Torque bolts that hold bracket to switch to
............................143.4 to 3.9 N•m (31 to 35 lb•in)
MicroController Control Systems
7
Specifications
Head Capacitor
Thermal Switch - Control Panel
Contacts open at ................81 to 89°C (178 to 192˚F)
Contacts close at................69 to 77°C (156 to 171˚F)
1
3
2
Contactors
Torque for nuts that hold contactor bridge
assembly .........................................2.2 N•m (20 lb•in)
4
5
Fuses
Line .....................................................................600A
Pump ...................................................................150A
Key ....................................................................... 10A
Horn...................................................................... 10A
Voltage Converter................................................. 10A
Light...................................................................... 10A
Back up ................................................................ 10A
NOTE : Proper torque and assembly of capacitor
hardware is critical. Avoid disassembly
unless capacitor has to be replaced.
(1) Tighten capacitor terminal bolt to a torque
of.............................4.5 to 5.5 N•m (40 to 50 lb•in)
(2) Spring washer D917069.
(3) Ring terminal of wire assembly.
(4) Lockwasher D917071.
(5) Head capacitor terminal.
MicroController Control Systems
8
Specifications
Control Panel (Layout)
Control Panel - Drive
2
3
6
4
7
11
1
12
5
2
2
8
10
9
Control Panel - Pump
12
3
10
9
2
4
7
1
5
MicroController Control Systems
11
6
11
9
Specifications
(7) Tighten diodes DD1, DD2, DD3, DD4 and PD to a
torque of ......................9 to 11 N•m (81 to 99 lb•in)
NOTE : Apply a small amount of D557047 Thermal
Joint Compound on the surface of the
transistor, diode or thermal switch that
contacts the heatsink.
(8) Tighten Head Capacitor terminal bolts to a torque
of ............................4.5 to 5.5 N•m (40 to 50 lb•in)
(1) Control panel plate. Apply a small amount of
D557047 Thermal Joint Compound on control
panel plate and mating surface prior to assembly.
(9) Tighten all bolts that fasten bus bars of cables to
either heatsink to a torque of
................................5.5 to 9.5 N•m (50 to 85 lb•in)
(2) Apply Sealant (Loctite catalogue No. and nameNo. 242, Adhesive/Sealant) on the threads of all
screws that are used to fasten components on the
control panel.
(10) Tighten bolts that hold the negative heatsink to
the control panel to a torque of .......10 to 14 N•m
(90 to 125 lb•in)
(3) Apply Sealant (Loctite catalogue No. and nameNo. 242, Adhesive/Sealant) to the bolts used to
tighten the positive heatsink to the control panel
to a torque of ..........10 to 14 N•m (90 to 125 lb•in)
(11) Apply Sealant (Loctite catalogue No. and nameNo. 242, Adhesive/Sealant) on portion of
setscrew threads that are in the insulator and
control panel plate. Tighten bolts to a torque of
................................5.5 to 9.5 N•m (50 to 85 lb•in)
(4) Use a backup wrench to hold nuts and tighten
bolts the fasten bus bars to the power transistors
to a torque of ...............4 to 6 N•m (35 to 55 lb•in)
(12) Use a backup wrench to hold bolts and tighten
the nuts that fasten the cables or bus bars to the
contactors to a torque of .....................4 to 6 N•m
(35 to 55 lb•in)
(5) Tighten screws that fasten power transistors to
positive heatsink to a torque of
......................................4 to 6 N•m (35 to 55 lb•in)
(6) Tighten screws that fasten wires to the base of
the power transistors to a torque of
.............................1.3 to 1.7 N•m (11.5 to 15 lb•in)
MicroController Control Systems
10
Specifications
Systems Operation
Glossary
NAME
DESCRIPTION
Accelerator
A device that converts mechanical movement into a analog voltage pattern to the
logics for variable drive motor speed.
Activate
Word used with a component or circuit. To change from the normal condition to the
“activated” condition because of an application of force or electricity.
Ammeter
An electric meter used to measure current flow in amperes.
Ampere (or Amp)
The unit of measurement of current flow. The amount of current that one volt can
push through a resistance of one ohm.
Analog to Digital Converter
A device that converts an analog voltage into a pattern of digital HIGH and LOW
voltage signals.
Anode
The positive (+) side of a diode.
Armature
The rotating portion of an electric motor or generator.
Base
The terminal of a transistor through which control current flows (see Transistor).
Battery
Two or more cells connected together for a supply of electric current.
BDI
Battery Discharge Indicator - An electrically controlled display showing the operator
the state of battery charge.
Brush
A conductor, normally a block of carbon, that makes sliding contact between the
stationary and moving part of the motor or generator.
Bus Bar
A heavy electrical conductor to which other smaller wires are connected.
Capacitor
Device used to store electrical energy for short periods of time.
Cathode
The negative (-) side of a diode.
CVMS
Central Vehicle Monitoring System.
Circuit
A way for current to go from the positive (+) side of an electrical power source to
the negative (-) side of an electrical power source. This can be through wires and
electrical components.
Coil
A component made from many circles or turns of wire used to concentrate
a magnetic field.
Collector
A terminal of a transistor through which main current flows (see Transistor).
Commutator
An armature component used to transfer current from the brushes to the armature
windings.
Conduct
To allow the flow of current.
Conductor
A material that provides a path for current flow.
Connector
Part of a wire assembly or harness that connects with another wire assembly or
harness. Used for ease of assembly and disassembly.
MicroController Control Systems
11
Systems Operation
NAME
DESCRIPTION
Contactor Assembly
An electrical component consisting of an electromagnetic coil and a set of heavy
contact tips. Control current passes through the coil, building a magnetic field
which closes or opens the contact tips.
Contactor Coil
An electromagnet used to close or open contact tips in a contactor assembly.
Contact Tips or Contacts
The portion of a switch, relay or contactor where the circuit can be opened or
closed.
Continuity
Having the ability to allow current flow.
Control Circuits
The wires and components carrying low current used to signal the logic unit, turn
on main components, or support auxiliary circuits (indicated by narrow lines on a
schmatic).
Counter Electromotive
Force (CEMF)
An opposing voltage set up by a collapsing or increasing magnetic field within a
coil.
Current
The movement or flow of electricity through a conductor. A circuit must be
complete for current to flow.
Current Limit
The maximum allowable armature current of a stalled drive motor during pulsing.
Current Sensor
A hall-effect sensor in the drive motor circuit that produces an increasing voltage
output as the drive motor current increases.
Deactivate
To change from the activated condition back to the normal (deactivated) condition.
It can be caused by the application of force, the removal of force,or the removal of
electricity.
Digital Signal
A signal in which the elements may be either of two distinct values. For example
high voltage, low voltage.
Diode
A semiconductor device that allows current to flow in one direction, from the anode
to the cathode.
Display
An electrical device that converts voltage inputs to a visual output.
Electrical Braking
Electrically trying to rotate the drive motor opposite to the direction of truck
movement.
Electromagnet
A coil of wire, most often wound on an iron core, which produces a strong
magnetic field when current is sent through the coil.
Electromotive Force (EMF)
The force that causes an electric current to flow in a circuit. This force is measured
in volts.
Emitter
A terminal of a transistor through which low control current and main current flow
(see Transistor).
Field Windings
The stationary coils that produce a magnetic field in motors and generators.
Filter
An electrical device or component for restriction or suppression of undesired
voltage spikes.
Fuse
A component in an electrical circuit that will open the circuit if too much current
goes through it.
Harness
An assembly made of two or more wires that are held together.
Heat Sink
A mounting frame used for semiconductor cooling.
MicroController Control Systems
12
Systems Operation
NAME
DESCRIPTION
Hour Meter
An electrically activated device used to record the amount of usage a truck
receives.
Indicator
LCD that gives an indication of some vehicle condition when it turns on or flashes.
Input
A voltage change at the incoming connection of a component.
Insulator
A material that has a very large resistance so that it will not let current flow through
it.
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display.
Logics or Logic Unit
The main printed circuit board containing a microprocessor and circuits to
condition the voltage signals that go into or come out of the logics. It electronically
monitors and controls the truck's functions.
Magnetic Field
The area around a magnet where magnetic forces can be detected.
Microprocessor
A small computer chip preprogrammed to control the various electrical functions on
a lift truck.
Normal Condition
Words used with a switch or relay. Their normal condition is their condition when they
are not controlled by the application of force, temperature, pressure, or electricity.
Normally Close (N.C.)
A switch or relay whose contacts are closed in the normal condition.
Normally Open (N.O.)
A switch or relay whose contacts are opened in the normal condition.
OFF-Time
The amount of time current does not flow through a transistor.
Ohm
The unit of measurement of resistance. The amount of resistance that will let one
volt push only one ampere of current through it.
ON-Time
The amount of time current flows through a transistor.
Open Circuit
Wiring or components of a circuit that have no continuity.
Output
The current flow from a component which initiated from a voltage change at the
component's input.
Overload
The presence of voltage or current which is greater than an electrical circuit or
component is designed to handle.
Pin
The male contact of a connector that fits into a female contact (socket) of another
connector.
Plugging
A portion of electrical braking where the generated current is directed back through
the armature.
Plugging Current Limit
The maximum allowable current at the drive motor armature during the plugging
portion of electrical braking.
Potentiometer
An adjustable resistor to preset electronic controls for proper specifications.
Power Circuits
The main current carrying components and conductors (indicated by the heavy
lines on a schematic).
Power Transistor
A component in the power circuit which allows main motor current to pass through
when turned on.
Pulsing
Current flow in a circuit being turned on and off.
MicroController Control Systems
13
Systems Operation
NAME
DESCRIPTION
Relay
An electrical component consisting of an electromagnetic coil and a set of small
contact tips. Control current passes through the coil, building a magnetic field
which closes or opens the contact tips. When the contact tips are closed, low
current can flow in a separate isolated circuit.
Resistor
A component made of a material that has a specific resistance to the flow of
current.
Schematic
A line drawing of an electrical or electronic assembly which uses symbols to show
individual components. It shows how the components, wires and connectors
function electrically.
Semiconductor
Components such as, transistors, diodes, thyristors, etc. Having electrical
characteristics between a conductor and an insulator.
Series Wound Motor
A motor in which the armature is connected in series with the field windings.
Short Circuit
An electrical connection between two or more components that is not desired.
Socket
The female contact of a connector that slips over a male contact (pin) of another
connector.
Solid State
Reference to semiconductor components or circuits that use semiconductor
components that have no moving parts, such as diodes and transistors.
Switch
A component used to control an electric circuit . It can close or open a circuit.
Systems
The electrical components, circuits, and connections that deliver power to perform
specific tasks.
Terminal
An electrical connection point on an electrical component.
Thermal Switch
A switch that activates at a set temperature.
Transistor
A semiconductor component used in electric lift trucks as an electronic switch. A
transistor most often has three terminals, a base (B), a collector (C) and an emitter
(E). The main current flow is between the collector and emitter. This main current
flow is controlled by a much smaller current flow between the base and emitter.
Turn ON
When an electrical component conducts current.
Varistor
A component terminated across the horn connections to eliminate voltage spikes
when the horn is activated.
Volt
The unit of measurement of electromotive force. One volt is the force needed to
make one ampere of current flow through one ohm of resistance in a circuit.
Watt
The unit of measurement of power. The amount of power used when one volt
pushes one ampere of current through a resistance of one ohm. The result of
amperes (current) multiplied by volts (voltage) is watts (power).
Wire
A conductor used to provide a path for current to flow to and from electrical
components.
Wiring Diagram
A drawing using visual representation of components the way they actually look. It
is used to show the locations of components and the connections between them.
Zener Diode
A special diode used to regulate voltage or as an overvoltage (too high a voltage)
protector.
MicroController Control Systems
14
Systems Operation
Symbol Library
2
3
4
6
5
9
16
7
8
1
10
17
21
11
12
13
18
14
15
20
19
Schematic Symbols
(1) Power Transistor. (2) Zener Diode. (3) NPN Transistor. (4) PNP Transistor. (5) Thermal Switch. (6) Battery. (7) Resistor.
(8) Diode. (9) Normally Close Contacts. (10) Normally Open Contacts. (11) Male Terminal of Connector (pin).
(12) Female Terminal of Connector (socket). (13) Wire Connection. (14) No wire Connection. (15) Contactor Coil.
(16) Current Sensor. (17) Armature. (18) Field windings. (19) Capacitor. (20) Fuse. (21) Switch.
MicroController Control Systems
15
Systems Operation
Location of Control Panel Components
Control Panel - Drive
3
4
1
5
2
6
Control Panel - Pump
8
9
13
15
7
14
12
10
11
MicroController Control Panel
(1) Logic Unit (Logics). (2) DR1, DR2. (3) Key Fuse. (4) Bypass Contactor. (5) Right Dir. Contactor. (6) Left Dir. Contactor. (7) PR1
(8) Board as – HYD. (9) Thermal Switch – HYD. (10) Fuse – HYD. (11) Line Fuse. (12) Line Contactor.
(13) PTR1 (Pump Transistor one). (14) PD (Pump Diode) Flyback Diode (15) Pump Bypass Contactor.
Behind Logic Unit
17
18
19
20
21
16
25
24
23
22
Components Behind Logic Unit (1)
(16) Head Capacitor. (17) Drive Board. (18) DTR2 (Drive Transistor Two). (19) Thermal Switch.
(20) DD3 (Drive Diode Three) Flyback Diode. (21) DD1 (Drive Diode One) Flyback Diode. (22) Current Sensors.
(23) DD2 (drive Diode Two) Plugging Diode. (24) DD4 (Drive Diode Four) Plugging Diode. (25) DTR1 (Drive Transistor One).
MicroController Control Systems
16
Systems Operation
General Information
The speed of the hydraulic pump motor is controlled
by switch inputs to and outputs from the logics.
Outputs pulses the hydraulic pump power transistor.
The power transistor pulse to control the speed of the
hydraulic pump motor. To provide full speed the
logics turns the power transistor ON 100%. The
hydraulic pump system includes a failure protection
circuit to protect against malfunctions of the power
circuit.
The MicroControl Panel is the control center and the
Logic Unit (logics) is the decision making part of the
MicroController System. The logics provide a self
contained Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI) with lift
interrupt and built-in diagnostic capabilities. The
battery charge state and built-in diagnostic are
monitored by the logics and displayed by the Central
Vehicle Monitoring System (CVMS) located on the
steer console.
Thermal protection circuits are used on the hydraulic
pump motor, the drive motor and the control panel to
prevent permanent damage caused by over heating.
NOTICE
Damage to all motors and control panels will
result. The motors and control panels are 36 volt
unit and must be operated at their designed
voltage. The voltage can not be changed without
changing motors and control panel.
Logic Unit
The steering system is activated when the truck is
powered up and the line contactor closes. The truck
uses a combined power steering/hydraulic system
where the hydraulic fluid for steering is provided by a
DC series hydraulic motor, pump, and priority valve.
1
12
11
10
9
8
The drive motor and the hydraulic pump motor are
controlled by pulsing transistors ON and OFF and
controlling contactor operation.
The speed and direction of the drive motor are
controlled by voltage inputs to and outputs from the
logics. Inputs to the logics are generated by the
accelerator control and direction switch. Outputs
from the logics control contactor coils and drive
transistor pulsing.
4
3
2
5
6
7
Components on Logic Unit
(1) Connector P1
(2) Connector P2
(3) Connector P9
(4) Connector P8
(5) DIAG/RUN/SETUP
(6) Jumper JP1 - 36 V
(7) Jumper JP2 - 48 V
(8) VR1 potentiometer - Drive current limit adjustment
(9) VR2 potentiometer - Plugging current limit
adjustment
(10) VR5 potentiometer - BDI adjustment
(11) VR6 potentiometer - Bypass dropout adjustment
(12) VR8 potentiometer - Electrical Assist Brake
adjustment
The drive circuit pulses transistors to provide travel
speed control up to 90% of full speed, after which the
bypass contactor closes to provide full speed. The
drive circuit includes a failure protection circuit which
detects malfunctions of the drive power circuit, a
plugging circuit to provide electrical braking and a
current limit circuit to prevent excessively high
currents during transistor pulsing.
NOTE: When you change voltage jumper
(JP1
JP2), you should do the default
setting on page 129.
MicroController Control Systems
17
Systems Operation
Operational Circuit Elements
On Board “Run Time” Diagnostics
(Fault Detection)
Central Vehicle Monitoring System
“Run Time” diagnostics use letters and numbers on
the seven segment LCD portion of the CVMS,
International Pictorial Symbols and LCD to signal
both improper operating sequences and truck circuit
defects.
The Central Vehicle Monitoring System (CVMS) is
located on the steering console.
It is a self contained, solidstate instrument panel with
two seven segment liquid crystal displays, warning
and system condition segments.
The LCD consists of seven segments which are
turned on or off to form numbers and letters.
Display = “EE” Static Return to Off (SRO)
The logics has a Static Return to Off (SRO) circuit
which assures that the direction switch has been
returned to neutral and the accelerator returned to
the full up position after the key and seat switch are
closed. This safeguards against an accidental
actuation of direction and speed when an operator
resumes operation of an idle truck.
If SRO occurs, the direction lever can be moved to
neutral and the accelerator pedal released.
The direction can now be reselected and the
accelerator pedal depressed to start normal lift truck
drive operation.
Display = “EE” (Flashing) Seat Circuit Problem
Anytime the battery is connected, the key is turned to
ON and no one is in the seat longer than 6 seconds
the letter “EE” will flash on and off.
The truck will not operate until the seat switch is
closed.
Seven Segment Display Layout
The Central Vehicle Monitoring System interacts with
the logics and failure detection circuits.
It functions as a battery discharge indicator (BDI) and
provides on-board diagnostic data on the operational
condition of the truck.
During normal operation it provides “Run Time”
diagnostics, and during troubleshooting it provides
“Self” diagnostics.
Display = “E1” Drive Motor Brush Problem
The logics monitor the length of the brushes in the
drive motors. As the brushes wear, a wire built into
the brushes moves down and makes contact with the
commutator. A wire from each motor brush set is
connected to the logics. If any brushes wear down to
a preset limit, an “E1” will display on the LCD.
Display = “E2” Pump Motor Brush Problem
The logics monitor the length of the brushes in the
pump motor. As the brushes wear, a wire built into
the brushes moves down and makes contact with the
commutator. A wire from each motor brush set is
connected to the logics. If any brushes wear down to
a preset limit, an “E2” will display on the LCD.
MicroController Control Systems
18
Systems Operation
Display = “EL” Battery Lock-out
Display = “F5” Drive System Problem (Left)
When the battery is discharged, the CVMS displays
“EL” and pump motor will not operate. If key switch
turn off and then on, pump will operate for only 3
seconds. Drive motor speed will not exceed 70% of
the max. regardless of an accelerator’s output
voltage.
The logics at P9-5 uses wire #L64 from the emitter of
the left drive transistor to detect battery negative. The
logics sends a test pulse out to the left drive
transistor when power up. This test pulse is detected
at P9-5 also. If battery negative is present or the test
pulse is not detected, the line contactor will be
deactivated and an “F5” will display on the LCD.
Display = “F2” Drive System Problem (Left)
Display = “F5” (Flashing) Drive System Problem
(Right)
The logics at P9-5 uses wire #L64 from the emitter of
the left drive transistor to detect if the left drive
transistor, bypass contactor tips or the driver board
are shorted. In normal operation P9-5 has battery
voltage only when the logics is pulsing the left drive
transistor or the bypass contactor is activated.
When a failure occurs the line contactor will be
deactivated and an “F2” will display on the LCD.
The logics at P9-6 uses wire #R64 from the emitter
of the right drive transistor to detect battery negative.
The logics sends a test pulse out to the right drive
transistor when power up. This test pulse is detected
at P9-6 also. If battery negative is present or the test
pulse is not detected, the line contactor will be
deactivated and an “F5” will flash on the LCD.
Display = “F2” (Flashing) Drive System Problem
(Right)
Display = “F6” Pump System Problem
The logics at P9-7 uses wire #74 from the emitter of
the pump transistor to detect battery negative.
The logics sends a test pulse out to the pump
transistor when power up. This test pulse is detected
at P9-7 also. If battery negative is present or the test
pulse is not detected the line contactor will be
deactivated and an “F6” will display on the LCD.
The logics at P9-6 uses wire #R64 from the emitter
of the right drive transistor to detect if the right drive
transistor, bypass contactor tips or the driver board
are shorted. In normal operation P9-6 has battery
voltage only when the logics is pulsing the right drive
transistor or the bypass contactor is activated. When
a failure occurs the line contactor will be deactivated
and an “F2” will flash on the LCD.
Display = “F7” Drive and Pump System Problem
Display = “F3” Pump System Problem
The logics will release the line contactor and display
“F7” on the LCD when BOTH wires #64 and #74
detect battery negative or do not detect the proper
pulsing.
See “F5”, “F5” (Flashing) and “F6”.
The logics at P9-7 uses wire #74 from the emitter of
the pump transistor to detect if the pump transistor or
the driver board are shorted.
In normal operation P9-7 has battery voltage only
when the logics is pulsing the pump transistor is
activated. When a failure occurs the line contactor
will be deactivated and an “F3” will display on the
LCD.
Display = “FA” Angle Circuit Problem
Steer angle commands are monitored by the logics.
If steer angle switch has defects or each wires #50,
51, 52 and 53 is shorted/opened, the line contactor
will be deactivated and an “FA” will display on the
LCD.
Display = “F4” Drive and Pump System Problem
The logics will release the line contactor and display
“F4” on the LCD when BOTH wires #64 and #74
detect battery voltage when it should not be present.
See “F2”, “F2” (Flashing) and “F3”.
MicroController Control Systems
19
Systems Operation
Display = “Fb” Battery Mismatch
Central Vehicle Monitoring System
(CVMS) International Pictorial
Symbols
The motors and control panels are 36 volt units and
must be operated at 36 volt. If battery condition is
abnormal, an “Fb” will display on the LCD. Refer to
problem 42 in troubleshooting.
Park Brake Symbol
Display = “Fd” Pressure Switch Problem
The logics at P 2-1 uses wire #41 from the pressure
switch to detect if the pressure switch is opened for
more than 10 seconds after the key switch ON. The
“Fd” will be displayed and the truck will be operated
normally.
Park Brake Symbol
If the park brake is applied, the park brake symbol
will turn on to warn the operator that the brake is
applied, and drive operation will be prevented.
Overtemperature Symbol
Normally closed thermal switches are constantly
monitored by the logics and the CVMS. All these
thermal switches are normally closed, so must open
for the LCD to turn on. Truck performance will
automatically be cut back by the logics, and the
CVMS will light the LCD until the component cools.
Control Panel Overtemperature Symbol
Control Panel Overtemperature Symbol
Two thermal switches (HYD and MAIN control
panels) are connected in series to the logics. If any
of the control panels overheat, the thermal switch in
the center of the positive heatsink will open. The
logics will slow lifting speeds and reduce drive speed.
Truck acceleration will decrease.
The overtemperature symbol and “Ec” will display on
until the controller cools. “Ec” will be saved as stored
error code.
MicroController Control Systems
20
Systems Operation
Drive Motor Overtemperature Symbol
Wait Mode
If the seat switch is closed, key turned to ON and the
direction lever is left in neutral with no other operator
requests, the line contactor will deactivate after
approximately six seconds. The LCD will display
“PP”. The lift truck will remain in this condition until
the operator activates the direction switch,
accelerator pedal or a control valve lever. The line
contactor then reactivates and the truck is ready for
normal operatation.
Drive Motor Overtemperature Symbol
Current Sensor
The drive motor thermal switch, held against the
drive motor field, will open if the motor gets too hot.
The logics will reduce drive pulsing and prevent the
bypass contactor from pulling in. The truck speed
and acceleration will be reduced.
The overtemperature symbol and “Ed” will display on
until the motor cools. “Ed” will be saved as stored
error code.
The left current sensor mounts around the cable that
carries left drive motor current. The logics supplies a
constant voltage to one lead of the current sensor at
P1-16 wire #25 (12V). A second lead of the current
sensor is connected to battery negative at the
negative heatsink. When current passes through the
cable, the third current sensor lead wire #L22 causes
the voltage to change at logic P1-12. As the current
passing through the cable increases, the voltage at
logic P1-12 increases. The logics uses the voltage at
P1-12 to determine the amount of current flowing
through the left drive motor.
Pump Motor Overtemperature Symbol
The right current sensor, similar to the left current
sensor, mounts around the cable that carries right
drive motor current. A third lead of the right current
sensor is connected to logics at P1-13 #R22. The
logics uses the voltage at P1-13 to determine the
amount of current flowing through the right drive
motor.
Pump Motor Overtemperature Symbol
Contactors
The pump motor thermal switch, similar to the drive
motor thermal switch, will open if the motor gets too
hot. The logics will reduce pump motor speeds.
The overtemperature symbol and “EP” will display on
until the pump motor cools. “EP” will be saved as
stored error code.
MicroController Control Systems
The control panel is equipped with intermittent duty
contactors. The logics controls the voltage supplied
to the coils. When a contactor is first activated, full
battery voltage is supplied to the coil. After the
contactor tips have closed, the logics will pulse the
coil to reduce the voltage across the coil to between
18 and 36 volts.
21
Systems Operation
Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI)
BATTERY TERMINAL VOLTAGE
BAR SYMBOLS
The logics monitors the battery voltage during truck
operation and shows the level of battery charge on
the LCD. If the battery voltage is below 40.0V or
above 60.0V, this is a battery mismatch or
misconnection. If these voltages are monitored, the
display will show “Fb” on the LCD and no lift truck
operate.
TYPE 1 (OPT) : Closed Voltage
DISPLAY
Full 6 bars on the LCD indicates a fully charged
battery. As the battery discharges, the bars
decreases to 5, 4 etc, down to 1st bottom bar.
When the battery nears the 80% discharge level, the
1st bar continuously flashes. This is a warning that lift
interrupt is near. The operator should complete the
current lift operation and travel to the battery
replacement or charge area. If the truck is kept in
operation, the display go to a “EL”. The lift, tilt and
auxiliary functions will be vastly reduced in speed,
operating only with steering flows and the vehicle
travel speed will be cut in harf. At this point the
battery is greater than 80% discharged. The logics
will now remember that the battery has been
discharged to lift interrupt and require a fully charged
battery to reset the remembered interrupt. See
Programmable Option Features “3”.
36V
6
above 37.2
5
36.8 to 37.2
4
36.4 to 36.7
3
36.0 to 36.3
2
35.6 to 35.9
1
35.2 to 35.5
1*
25.8 to 35.1
O/EL
below 25.8
1* = Display is flashing
BATTERY TERMINAL VOLTAGE
BAR SYMBOLS
TYPE 2 (STD) : Closed Voltage
DISPLAY
Due to different voltage characteristic of battery
technologies, it may be necessary to use the battery
voltage chart as shown below. You can choose a
type in Programmable Option Features “10”.
36V
6
above 37.2
5
36.8 to 37.2
4
36.3 to 36.7
3
35.9 to 36.2
2
35.4 to 35.8
1
35.0 to 35.3
1*
34.5 to 34.9
O/EL
below 34.5
1* = Display is flashing
Descriptions of BDI symbol on the LCD
Bar Symbols
BATTERY TERMINAL VOLTAGE
BAR SYMBOLS
6 : The highest position
: Max. charged status
TYPE 3 (OPT) : Closed Voltage
DISPLAY
5:
36V
6
above 37.2
4:
5
36.9 to 37.2
3:
4
36.6 to 36.8
3
36.3 to 36.5
2
35.9 to 36.2
1
35.6 to 35.8
1*
35.3 to 35.5
O/EL
below 35.3
2:
1:
: A) Not flashing
B) Flashing - 80%
discharge
warning.
1* = Display is flashing
MicroController Control Systems
22
Systems Operation
Accelerator Control
Steer Angle Control
Accelerator Table
Two drive motors are controlled independently
according to steer wheel position. A direction of drive
motors is determined with wheel angle as shown in
the chart.
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
REMARKS
OVER
ACCELERATOR CIRCUIT
11.00
DEFECT
9.60
BYPASS OPERATION
DRIVE SPEED (100%)
WHEEL
9.02
8.44
7.86
7.28
6.70
6.12
5.54
4.96
4.38
3.80
3.22
2.64
2.06
1.48
0.90
0.00
ANGLE
DRIVE SPEED STEP 14
DRIVE SPEED STEP 13
**DEAD ZONE I**
DRIVE SPEED STEP 12
DRIVE SPEED STEP 11
ON - TIME(%)
P2-17 P2-18
P2-19 P2-20
-90°
LOW
HIGH HIGH HIGH
-75°
LOW
HIGH HIGH
-45°
LOW
HIGH
L 25° LOW
+45°
HIGH
LEFT RIGHT
(-)50
50
LOW
0
75
LOW
LOW
75
100
LOW
LOW
LOW
100
100
LOW
LOW
LOW
100
75
+75°
HIGH HIGH
LOW
LOW
75
0
+90°
HIGH HIGH
LOW
HIGH
50
(-)50
DRIVE SPEED STEP 10
(–) means that the motor will turn opposite direction.
DRIVE SPEED STEP 9
DRIVE SPEED STEP 8
DRIVE SPEED STEP 7
DRIVE SPEED STEP 6
DRIVE SPEED STEP 5
DRIVE SPEED STEP 4
DRIVE SPEED STEP 3
DRIVE SPEED STEP 2
DRIVE SPEED STEP 1
DRIVE SPEED STEP 0
**DEAD ZONE II**
i) DEAD ZONE I
In order to eliminate the bypass contactor
chattering, the bypass contactor will be engaged if
the accelerator output voltage is over than 9.6V.
But the bypass contactor should be disengaged if
the accelerator output is less than 9.02V.
ii) DEAD ZONE II
In order to eliminate the direction contactors
chattering, the direction contactors will be
engaged if the accelerator output voltage is over
than 1.48V.
But the direction contactors should be disengaged
if the accelerator output is less than 0.9V.
MicroController Control Systems
23
Systems Operation
Accessory Circuits
Horn Circuit
The 12 volt output of the converter is protected
against short circuits and overloading by an internal
15 amp current limit circuit. A fuse on the converter
protects it from reverse connection of the battery
voltage.
The horn will operate when the battery is connected
and the horn button is pushed. Current flows from
battery positive through horn fuse, horn switch and
horn, back to battery negative.
Refer to Problem 31 in Troubleshooting section.
Hour Meter Circuit
The hour meter, dependent on marketplace, can be
wired a number of different ways. Battery voltage is
always supplied from the key switch to the positive
terminal of the hourmeter. The negative terminal of
the hourmeter can go to seat switch to record seat
switch hours, or can be wired into the drive motor
armature through a diode assembly to record drive
motor hours.
NOTICE
Do not connect the 12volt negative output of the
DC-DC converter to battery negative. Damage to
system components could occur.
DC-DC Converter
DC-DC Converter Circuit System
The DC-DC converter changes the lift truck battery
voltage to 12 volts. This 12 volts is used to power
accessories such as floodlights, brakes/side lights
and backup alarms.
The positive of the 12 volt output is common to the
positive of the battery voltage. The negative of the 12
volt output is pulsed to maintain a steady 12 volt
supply.
MicroController Control Systems
24
Systems Operation
Actuation Circuit
Actuation Circuit
When the battery is connected and the key switch is
closed, current flows from battery positive
through the key fuse, key switch, wire #5 to the logic
connector P1-1 and P1-2.
The logic connection to battery negative is at P1-19
and P1-20. The logic circuits are powered up
to accept voltage inputs and create voltage outputs
whenever the battery is connected and the key is
turned to ON.
NOTE: The circuit diagrams have shaded lines for
illustration of current flow in each circuit.
Other circuits can be activated at the same
time, but each one is shown separately to
illustrate current flow in each individual
circuit.
This circuit supplies power to the MicroController
Control System and the Central Vehicle Monitoring
System (CVMS). It must be activated before power
steering, hydraulics or drive will operate.
MicroController Control Systems
25
Systems Operation
The Central Vehicle Monitoring System (CVMS) is
also powered at this time. The CVMS first does
a “LCD test” which will light all the warning lights
through 6 shield wires, wire #101(5V) and wire #108
(B-) for approximately five seconds.
Hydraulic Pump Motor Circuit
Only one hydraulic pump motor (series winding) is
used for all power steering, lift, tilt and auxiliary
hydraulic functions. To activate the pump circuit, the
seat switch, key switch and line contactor must be
closed first as explained in the topic, Actuation
Circuit.
The logics will start to perform a set of “Run Time”
diagnostic checks. The letter “EE” will flash on the
CVMS display indicating the key is ON with no
operator in the seat.
When the seat switch is closed, current will flow from
the logic P2-7 through the seat switch to battery
negative. The logics then activates the line contactor
by allowing current to flow from P1-3 through the line
contactor coil and P1-4 back to battery negative.
Power Steering Circuit
With the line contactor tips closed the logics
continues its checks for any “Run Time” faults.
If no faults are detected the display will indicate the
battery charge level, the power steering (IDLE)
system operates, the pump and drive power circuits
receive battery voltage and the logics receives
battery voltage on wire #4 at P9-9.
Followings are standard PTR1 pulsing rates of the
signal at the logics.
The power steering (PS) circuit has two speeds
(PS idle and PS boost-up) independent of the lifting
speeds.
Motor Speed
PTR1 Pulsing Rate
Logic Pin#
IDLE
11%
–
23%
P2-1
TILT
50%
P2-2
LIFT1
35%
LIFT2
50%
LIFT3
95%
AUX1
50%
P2-2
AUX2
45%
P2-16
POWER STEERING
P2-3 & P2-4
The above pulsing rate can be adjustable in
“Programmable Option Features”.
NOTE: The circuit diagrams have shaded lines for
illustration of current flow in each circuit.
Other circuits can be activated at the same
time, but each one is shown separately to
illustrate current flow in each individual circuit.
MicroController Control Systems
26
Systems Operation
Power Steering Idle
Transistor PTR1 Pulsing
TR5 Base Input Signal
logics is ON at TR5, TR5 will be ON.
When the base signal is OFF, TR5 will be OFF.
After the line contactor is closed the logics generates
a positive pulsing signal (approximately 0.7 volts) on
P9-3 to the base of transistor TR5. This is a rapidly
changing signal that can only be viewed on an
oscilloscope. Because TR5 is a NPN type transistor,
the positive signal into the base causes current flow
through the base/emitter junction. When current
flows through the base/emitter junction the transistor
turns ON and main current will flow through the
collector/emitter junction. If the base signal from the
MicroController Control Systems
27
Systems Operation
TR6 Base Input Signal, TR5 ON
When TR5 is ON, current flows through the
emitter/base junction of transistor TR6, through PR1
and TR5 to battery negative. Because TR6 is a PNP
type transistor, the current flow to battery negative
through the emitter/base junction causes TR6 to turn
ON. When TR5 is OFF, TR6 is OFF.
MicroController Control Systems
28
Systems Operation
PTR1 Base Input Signal, TR5 and TR6 ON
When TR6 is ON, current flows through TR6 into the
base of transistor PTR1. This puts a voltage signal at
the base of PTR1 causing PTR1 to turn ON.
With PTR1 ON, high amperage motor current can
flow through PTR1, motor armature and motor field
to battery negative.
When TR5 and TR6 are OFF, PTR1 is OFF.
The percent “on-time” of the signal at the logics is
also the percent “on-time” of PTR1.
PTR1 is pulsed at 11% “on-time” supplying 11% of
battery voltage to the pump motor (IDLE).
MicroController Control Systems
29
Systems Operation
Flyback Circuit
Flyback Circuit
PD is a flyback diode for the power steering and
hydraulic motor circuit. This circuit uses the current
created by the collapsing magnetic field of the field
windings in the pump motor to keep current flowing
when transistor PTR1 is OFF. When PTR1 is OFF all
current from the field goes through P2, PD, P1 and
pump motor armature (ARM) back to the field.
When PTR1 is pulsing the flyback circuit causes the
average pump motor current to be greater than the
average battery current through PTR1.
MicroController Control Systems
30
Systems Operation
Lift Control Circuit
1
Location of Components
(1) Valve control card.
This control panel accept a three speed lift control
signals and tilt/aux lever signals. The three speed lift
control system is controlled by valve control card (1)
mounted at the top of the control valve.
When the operator pulls the lift lever, magnet (3)
moves closer to the lift sensor (2). The sensor
detects the increasing magnetic field and sends an
increasing voltage to the valve control card. The
valve control card produces voltage changes which
input to the logics at P2-3 and P2-4 The logics uses
these changing voltages to determine what speed to
operate the pump motor. The logics then controls the
pump transistor PTR1. The pump motor lift speed as
shown in the chart.
The valve control card uses a hall-effect transducer
(LIFT SENSOR) and a magnet to sense lift lever
movement. The closer the magnet is to the
transducer the greater the hydraulic pump motor
speed.
2
Motor
Speed
P2-3
P2-4
PTR1
Pulse
Ratio
0
12V
12V
Steering
Variable
1
0.2V
12V
35% Pulsing
Variable
2
0.2V
0.2V
50% Pulsing
Variable
3
12V
0.2V
95% Pulsing
-
3
Variable : Set by Option Programmbles Feature.
Pump Bypass Contactor (36V only)
The Pump Bypass contactor will close at Lift Speed 3
on 36V system. Also this contactor will activate if the
Aux2 speed was set at 95% pulsing in option
programmable Feature 15.
Location of Components
(2) Lift Sensor. (3) Magnet.
MicroController Control Systems
31
Systems Operation
Lift Circuit
Lift Circuit
When the lift lever is pulled to lift speed 1 the logics
will pulse the pump transistors PTR1.
If the streeing wheel is turned, hydraulic pressure
increases and a pressure switch (PRESSURE SW)
located in the steering gear load sensing hose, will
open. This causes the voltage at logic connector
P2-1 to change from a LOW (less than one volt) to a
HIGH (12 volts). When a HIGH is present the logics
knows that more hydraulic flow is required and will
supply a pulse from P9-3 to PTR1 at rate of 23%
“on-time” for 48 volt trucks. The pump motor speed
will increase.
MicroController Control Systems
As shown in the chart under Lift Control Circuit, if the
lift lever is pulled to lift speeds 2 through 3 the pump
transistors are pulsed with a higher percent “on-time”.
The pump motor armature will turn faster.
32
Systems Operation
Drive Circuit
Control Circuit
Drive Control Circuit
Selecting a direction will change the voltage from
HIGH to LOW on P2-5 for forward or P2-6 for
reverse. Depressing the accelerator pedal will cause
the accelerator analog voltage on P1-15.
With the forward direction selected current flows from
the logics P1-3 through forward direction
contactor coil to logics P1-5 and P1-7 back to battery
negative. The forward contactors tips close.
NOTE: The circuit diagrams have shaded lines for
illustration of current flow in each circuit.
With the actuation circuit complete the logics
supplies a HIGH voltage (12volts) to the direction
(F/R) switch at P2-5 and P2-6. A HIGH voltage is
also supplied to the power of accelerator at P1-16.
Releasing the park brake closes the park brake
switch and provides a path to battery negative.
MicroController Control Systems
33
Systems Operation
Power Circuit
TR2 and TR4 Base Input Signal
The logics generates a positive pulsing voltage
(approximately 0.7 volts) on P9-1 and P9-2, to the
base of transistors TR2 and TR4. These pulses turn
ON TR2 and TR4 which turn ON TR1 and TR3. A
more complete description of this transistor turn on
circuit can be found in : Hydraulic Pump Motor
Circuit under Power Transistor Pulsing.
NOTE: The circuit diagrams have shaded lines for
illustration of current flow in each circuit.
Other circuits can be activated at the same
time, but each one is shown separately to
illustrate current flow in each individual
circuit.
The high amperage current, which provides the
power and torque necessary to drive the lift truck,
flows in this circuit. The speed of the drive motor is
controlled separately from the pump motor
circuit by the MicroController Control System.
MicroController Control Systems
34
Systems Operation
Power Transistors, TR1, TR2, TR3 and TR4 all ON
The percent “on-time” of the voltage at logics P9-1
and P9-2 is also the percent “on-time” of the power
transistors. As the “on-time” increases, the average
voltage applied to the drive motor increases which
increases the speed of the lift truck. The percent
“on-time” out of the logics is determined by how far
the accelerator is depressed.
When TR1 and TR3 are ON, current flows through
TR1 and TR3 emitter/collector into the base of drive
power transistors (DTR1 and DTR2). This puts a
HIGH voltage at the base of the power transistors
causing them to turn ON. With the power transistors
ON, high amperage motor current can flow through
them, the field, forward contact tips, armatures,
forward contact tips and current sensors back to
battery negative. When TR1 and TR3 are OFF,
the power transistors are OFF.
MicroController Control Systems
35
Systems Operation
Flyback Circuit
Flyback Circuit
Because of this, the average drive motor armature
current will be greater than the average battery
current. Refer to following Average Current Flow
chart.
When the drive power transistors (DTR1 and DTR2)
are ON, battery current flows through the field
windings of the drive motor and a magnetic field is
created around the windings. When the power
transistors are turned OFF battery current through
the windings stops and the magnetic field collapses.
This collapsing magnetic field induces current which
is used to power the drive motor while the power
transistors are OFF (during pulsing). Induced current
flows from the field windings through the forward
contact tips, armature, forward contact tips, current
sensor and diodes DD1, DD3 back to the field
windings.
MicroController Control Systems
36
Systems Operation
Average Current Flow
Current Limit
through the sensor and will increase or decrease as
current changes. The logics uses this voltage to
monitor the current in the circult.
When the current has increased too high, the logics
decreases the pulse rate to the transistors to prevent
current higher than the preset value.
The logics monitors the current that flows through
DTR1 and DTR2 and limit this current flow to a
preset value. As this current flows through DTR1 and
DTR2 the drive motor and the current sensors, a
voltage is created by the sensor.
This voltage is proportional to the current flowing
MicroController Control Systems
37
Systems Operation
Bypass Circuit
Bypass Circuit Activated
The bypass circuit bypasses DTR1 and DTR2 and
connects the drive motor in series with the battery,
applying full battery voltage to the drive motor. If the
accelerator pedal is fully depressed, and the logics
has pulsed DTR1 and DTR2 through 92% “on-time”,
the logics will activate the BYPASS CTR after 1.5
seconds.
MicroController Control Systems
38
Systems Operation
Electrical Braking (Plugging)
Plugging Circuit (Transistor DTR1, DTR2 “ON”)
When DTR1 and DTR2 are ON, battery current flows
through DTR1 and DTR2, field windings, direction
contactor tips, armature, direction contactor tips and
current sensor back to the battery. Current energizes
the field and tries to turn the armature opposite the
rotation caused by the truck’s motion. The current
acts to electrically brake the truck. With the field
energized and momentum of the truck turning the
armature opposite the pulsed direction, the armature
generates current.
Plugging is an electrical braking mode which permits
the lift truck operator to slow, stop and change the
direction of travel electrically without using the
service brake.
Plugging begins when the operator selects a
direction opposite the lift truck’s motion, while
keeping the accelerator depressed. The logics will
deactivate the bypass contactor (if activated) and
change the direction contactors to the new direction
selected. The momentum of the truck causes the
drive motor to generate current, and the logics will
puise the transistors at a slow rate.
MicroController Control Systems
39
Systems Operation
Plugging Circuit (Transistor DTR1, DTR2 ”OFF”)
back to the field. This current continues the electrical
braking action. As long as the truck momentum is
turning the armature opposite the pulsed direction,
the motor continues to act as a generator with
armature generated current flowing through DD2,
DD4 back into the armature.
When the truck has come to a stop, the armature no
longer is turning opposite the pulsed direction. The
armature stops generating current and DD2, DD4 no
longer conducts. The logics no longer detects a more
negative voltage on plug sensing wire #32 than on
wire #1, so normal drive operation begins in the
opposite direction.
The generated current flows from the armature
through the direction contactor, current sensor and
diode DD2, DD4, back to the armature. When
armature generated current flows through DD2, DD4
wire #1 at P1-20 becomes a more positive voltage
than plug sensing wire #32 at P1-10, P1-11, due to
the voltage drop across DD2, DD4. The logics
detects the voltage change at P1-20 and P1-10, P111, then reduces the tansistor pulsing to stay below
the preset plugging current limit.
When DTR1 and DTR2 are OFF, flyback current
from the collapsing motor field flows through the
direction contactor tips, armature, direction contactor
tips, current sensor and diode DD1, DD3,
MicroController Control Systems
40
Systems Operation
Thermal Protection Circuits
Control Panel
Hydraulic Pump Motor
If the power transistors overheat, a thermal switch
mounted in the transistor heatsink will open at a
predetermined temperature. When it opens, voltage
at logic connection P2-11 will go HIGH (12 volts).
The Central Vehicle Monitoring System will display a
“Run Time” diagnostic symbol.
The logics will decrease the pulsing of the drive
system and restrict the hydraulic circuit pulsing to
50%. The amount of current allowed to flow through
the power transistors is decreased to permit them to
cool. When the heatsink cools off and the thermal
switch closes, the truck will return to normal
operation. Drive system bypass is not affected by an
overheated control panel, but due to the reduced
pulsing acceleration performance will be decreased.
An “Ec” is stored in memory.
If the hydraulic pump motor overheats a thermal
switch mounted in the pump motor housing will open
at a predetermined temperature. When it opens,
voltage at logic connection P2-13 will go HIGH. The
Central Vehicle Monitoring System will display a “Run
Time” diagnostic symbol. To decrease the amount of
current allowed to flow through the pump motor, the
logics will reduce the hydraulic pump motor to 50%
pulsing. When the hydraulic pump motor cools off
and the thermal switch closes, the truck will return to
normal operation.
An “EP” is stored in memory.
Failure Protection Circuit
If the logics detects an improper voltage at P9-5 wire
#L64 (left drive circuit) and/or P9-6 wire #R64 (right
drive motor) or P9-7 wire #74 (pump circuit), the line
contactor will be deactivated and a “Run Time”
diagnostic code (display = “F2” through “F7”) will
display.
Current is also monitored in the drive motor, and
should it exceed preset limits in either pulsing or
bypass the truck will shut down and display an “F0”.
The logics will monitor the four steering angle switch
signals, wires #50, 51, 52 and 53 to determine if
there is an out of sequence problem.
An “FA” will be displayed if this should occur.
If the battery voltage is mismatched, the “Fb” will
display.
The logics will monitor the two current sensor
signals, wires #L22 and #R22 to determine if there is
an wrong voltage pattern. An “F5” will be displayed.
Once a failure has been detected the truck must be
repaired before normal operation can resume.
Drive Motor
If the drive motor overheats a thermal switch
mounted in the drive motor housing will open at a
predetermined temperature. When it opens, voltage
at logic connection P2-12 will go HIGH.
The Central Vehicle Monitoring System will display a
“Run Time” diagnostic symbol. To decrease the
amount of current allowed to flow through the drive
motor, the logics will reduce the pulsing and disable
the bypass contactor. When the drive motor cools off
and the thermal switch closes, the truck will return to
normal operation.
Drive system acceleration performance and top travel
speed is affected by an overheated drive motor.
An “Ed” is stored in memory.
MicroController Control Systems
41
Systems Operation
Testing And Adjusting
Troubleshooting
NOTICE
Damage can be caused to the control panel. Do
not switch the direction lever from one direction to
the other (plug the lift truck) when the drive wheels
are off the ground and in rotation at full speed.
The following Troubleshooting Check List is an aid in
troubleshooting MicroController lift trucks. The
troubleshooting check list, “Run Time” diagnostic
indications, “Self” diagnostic tests, problem list and
problem flow charts will assist in:
1. Defining the problem and verifying a problem
exists.
Troubleshooting Check List
2. Performing the checks in a logical order.
1. Perform Preparation Tests and Checks.
3. Making the necessary repairs.
2. Correct any display problems and “Run Time”
diagnostic faults.
4. Verifying the problem has been resolved.
3. Correct the “Self” diagnostic faults.
4. Perform Operational Checks.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly.Battery voltage
and high amperage are present. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift both drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so the drive wheels are
free to turn. During any test or operation check,
keep away from drive wheels. Before any contact
with the control panel is made, disconnect the
battery and dis- charge HEAD CAP. Ring's,
watches and other metallic objects should be
removed from hands and arms when
troubleshooting, the MicroController Control
System.
5. Correct “Failure Code Problems” in the
Troubleshooting Problem List.
NOTICE
Damage can be caused to the test equipment.
Make resistance and continuity checks only after
the battery is disconnected.
1. Verify proper polarity at the battery connector and
the MicroController panel. Positive cable should be
at the line contactor and negative at the negative
heatsink.
6. Perform Operational Checks to verify repairs.
Preparation Tests and Check
Battery Tests
A weak battery can cause or contribute to problems
in the MicroController and power circuits.
Verify the battery is good before investigating other
possibilities.
2. If the lift truck is operational, perform a battery
load test.
3. If the truck is not operational and the battery is
suspected, perform a cell voltage or specific
gravity test.
NOTICE
Damage can be caused to the control panel. Do
not use steam or solvent to clean the controls. Use
pressure from an air hose with a maximum
pressure of 205 kPa (30 psi) to clean the control
panel when necessary. Make sure the air pressure
supply is equipped with a water filter.
MicroController Control Systems
42
Testing And Adjusting
Battery Load Test
Cell Voltage Test
1. Turn the range switch on the multimeter to read
battery voltage.
With the truck powered up and the power steering
motor running, measure the voltage at each cell.
Normal voltage should be between 1.95V and 2.12V
per cell. If the voltage on each cell is below 1.95V the
battery must be charged or repaired before
continuing to troubleshoot.
2. Connect the battery.
NOTE : The indication between cells should not differ
more than 0.05 volts. If it does, the battery
must have an equalizing charge or be
repaired.
Hydrometer Test
1
2
Test each cell of the battery with a hydrometer. If the
specific gravity indication is below 1.140, the battery
must be charged. The battery is fully charged if the
indication is 1.265 to 1.285.
Battery Voltage Test
(1) Positive cable connection
(2) Negative cable connection
NOTE : The indication between cells should not differ
more than .020. If it does, the battery needs
an equalizing charge or needs to be
repaired.
3. Connect the multimeter leads between positive (+)
cable connection (1), and negative (-) cable
connection (2).
4. In a safe area, operate the hydraulic system, (hold
tilt lever to maximum position momentarily) while
reading the voltage indicated on the multimeter.
Battery Maintenance
NOTE : It is important that all batteries be charged
and maintained according to the battery
manufacturers instructions.
5. If the indication is less than 44.2 volts, the battery
needs to be charged or repaired before continuing
to troubleshoot.
The care and maintenance of batteries is most
important to maximize battery life and efficient truck
operation. Periodic inspection and service will
increase the life of batteries. Special attention should
be given to the rules that follow:
1. Keep batteries clean at all times. Cleaning will
prevent corrosion, current leakage and shorts to
chassis. Tighten all vent plugs, wash the battery
with water and a brush, then dry with an air hose.
It may be necessary to use a baking soda solution
if water alone will not clean the top of the battery.
2. Add enough water to cover the plates before
charging. This will ensure the proper chemical
reaction over the entire plate surface. After
charging is complete, add water until it is about
12.7 mm (.50 in) above the plates. Use distilled
water or water that has tested free from minerals.
MicroController Control Systems
43
Testing And Adjusting
switch and accelerator linkage for adjustment or
interference problems.
3. Charge the battery correctly. A battery should be
discharged to 80% of its capacity then fully
recharged. It should cool four to eight hours to
allow the voltage to stabilize before being put back
in use. The battery should have an equalizing
charge (an extra three or four hour charge at a low
finish rate) once a month to make sure all cells are
in a fully charged condition. Properly charged
batteries should be identified to prevent low
batteries from being installed in trucks.
Resistance to Chassis Checks
Resistance between any point in the truck wiring and
the chassis should be a minimum of 10,000 ohms or
more.
Many malfunctions are caused by shorts to chassis.
Usually, two shorts must exist before a malfunction
will occur. But, since batteries can have chassis
leakage, only one short to chassis in the truck wiring
can cause problems. To prevent problems because
of shorts, do the following:
4. Operation with a low battery must be prevented.
Low battery operation may damage the battery
and will cause higher than normal current in the
electrical system. High current draw due to a low
battery will damage contactor tips and shorten
motor brush life.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the HEAD
CAP.
5. The battery's maximum temperature is critical. The
electrolyte temperature should never exceed 43°C
(110˚F) either while operating or charging.
Overcharging a battery will cause over heating and
warp the battery plates. Maximum battery life will
result from maintaining 25˚C (77˚F) electrolyte
temperature. Most of the charging equipment is
fully automatic but should be checked periodically
to assure proper working order.
2. Randomly measure any component connection or
wiring connection in respect to the lift truck chassis
for a minimum resistance of 10,000 ohms. Any test
point with low resistance must have the short to
chassis removed.
3. Always keep batteries clean to minimize current
leakage to the chassis.
6. Keep accurate battery records. Regular battery
readings should be taken with a battery tester or
voltmeter and a written record kept. Specific
gravity and voltage of each cell should be checked
and recorded at least once each month. This
inspection should be made after an equalizing
charge. Readings should never be taken directly
after water has been added. Records of all battery
maintenance should be made and filed so it will be
known which batteries are being abused or
wearing out.
4. Routinely clean the brush dust from the motors.
5. Be sure that all attachments, such as horns and
lights are designed for no chassis connection (a
two wire system).
Removal of Shorts to Chassis
When a short is found, it must be cleared even if the
machine has normal operation. It is necessary to
narrow the field of possible problem areas before
inspection of individual wires and components.
Repairs should be made immediately otherwise
the battery may become damaged. Batteries
stored in a discharged condition may be difficult to
recharge due to sulfate formation.
When a low resistance circuit is located, it should be
opened at various points. This will permit the shorted
wire or component to be pin-pointed for repair or
replacement.
Visual Checks
1. Verify all components and wires are in their proper
place. Check fuses, components, contactor tips,
wires and connections. Verify that they are not
burned, broken or loose.
2. Verify there is no mechanical binding or
interference in the contactors.
3. Visually check the parking brake switch, the lift
MicroController Control Systems
44
Testing And Adjusting
Control and Power System
Operational Checks
All operational checks are to begin with the
battery connected, directional switch in neutral,
drive wheels off the ground and the accelerator
and parking brake released.
4. Depress the accelerator fully. The forward
contactors should remain activated. The bypass
contactors should activate. The drive wheels will
turn forward at full speed.
NOTE: Perform all operational checks before
returning to the Troubleshooting Check List.
Check 5: Reverse Drive Performance
Check 1: Key Switch, Seat Switch and Power
Steering
1. Select reverse direction and depress the
accelerator slightly. The reverse contactors should
activate and the drive wheels should turn in
reverse slowly.
1. Activate the key and seat switch. The line
contactor activate and the hydraulic pump motor
should turn on at slow speed (idle).
2. Slowly increase the amount of accelerator
depression. The reverse contactors should remain
activated. The drive wheels should turn in reverse
and slowly increase in speed.
2. Turning the steering wheel will increase the
hydraulic pump motor speed (boost-up).
3. Depress the accelerator fully. The reverse
contactors should activated. The bypass
contactors should activate. The drive wheels will
turn in reverse at full speed.
3. After five to ten seconds the line contactor
deactivates and the motor turns off.
Check 2: Lift Performance
Check 6: Electrical Braking (Plugging)
Performance
1. Pull the lift lever half way. The hydraulic pump
motor activates slowly to a preset speed.
2. Pull the lift lever to maximum. The hydraulic pump
motor activates full speed.
NOTICE
Do not perform this check with the lift truck in
bypass mode. Damage to the Drive Train can
result.
Check 3: Tilt and Auxiliary Performance
1. Slowly pull and push the tilt and auxiliary levers.
The hydraulic pump motor activates to one of the
preset speeds with each lever movement.
1. Select forward direction and depress the
accelerator to the point before bypass occurs.
While continuing to depress the accelerator,
change the direction switch to reverse. The
forward contactors should deactivate and the
reverse contactors should activate. There should
be a smooth deceleration of forward tire rotation.
After the forward tire rotation stops, there is a
smooth acceleration of reverse tire rotation.
Check 4: Forward Drive Performance
1. Engage the parking brake. Select forward direction
and depress the accelerator slightly. The forward
contactor should NOT activate and the drive
wheels should NOT turn.
2. Release the parking brake, select forward direction
and depress the accelerator slightly. The forward
contactors should activate and the drive wheels
should turn forward slowly.
2. Continue to depress the accelerator while in
reverse direction. Change the direction switch to
forward. The reverse contactors should deactivate
and the forward contactors should activate. There
should be a smooth deceleration of reverse tire
rotation. After the reverse tire rotation stops, there
is a smooth acceleration forward tire rotation.
3. Slowly increase the amount of accelerator
depression. The forward contactors should remain
activated. The drive wheels should turn forward
and slowly increase in speed.
MicroController Control Systems
45
Testing And Adjusting
Built-In Diagnostic Operation
Display =“Ec” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 20. Possible cause, control
panel thermal problem.
The overtemperature indication will display on LCD.
The logics and the display provide built-in diagnostic
analyzer functions. Several diagnostic functions
occur while the lift truck is in operation. These are
called “Run Time” diagnostics. The other diagnostics
are called “Self” diagnostics. They are performed
when the lift truck is not in operation by using a
switch located in the logics.
Display =“Ed” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 21. Possible cause, drive
motor thermal problem. The overtemperature
indication will display on LCD.
Central Vehicle Monitoring System (CVMS)
Problems
Display =“EP” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 22. Possible cause, pump
motor thermal problem.
The overtemperature indication will display on LCD.
If the display does not work, or it’s operation seems
incorrect see Troubleshooting Problems 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Display =“EL” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 23. Possible cause, low
battery voltage.
“Run Time” Diagnostics
(Lift Truck in Operation)
Display =“F0” Lift truck operates, then shuts down
during travel. See Troubleshooting Problem 32.
Possible cause, excessive currents in drive motor.
The diagnostic functions that follow would occur
during normal lift truck operation and are shown on
the seven segment display.
Display =“F2” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 33. Possible cause, a failed
left drive power transistor (DTR1).
NOTE: Improper lift truck operation with normal
battery indication, should be checked with “Self”
diagnostics.
Display =“F2” (Flashing) Lift truck will not operate,
see Troubleshooting Problem 34.
Possible cause, a failed right drive power transistor
(DTR2).
Display =“F3” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 35. Possible cause, a failed
pump power transistor (PTR1).
Display =“F4” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 36. Possible cause, failed
pump and drive power transistors.
Display =“F5” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 37. Possible cause, left
drive flyback diode DD1 failed.
Display Layout
Display =“EE” No Lift truck operation, see
Troubleshooting Problem 17. Possible cause, static
return to off.
Display =“F5” (Flashing) Lift truck will not operate,
see Troubleshooting Problem 38. Possible cause,
right drive flyback diode DD3 failed.
Display =“EE” (Flashing) Lift truck will not operate,
see Troubleshooting Problem 18. Possible cause,
seat switch open.
Display =“F6” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 39. Possible cause, pump
flyback diode PD failed.
Display =“E1” or “E2” Lift truck will operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 19. Possible cause, pump
or drive brush problem.
MicroController Control Systems
46
Testing And Adjusting
Display =“F7” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 40. Possible cause,pump
and drive flyback diodes (DD1,DD3 and PD) failed.
Display =“FA” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 41. Possible cause, steer
angle switch failure or harness problem.
Display =“Fb” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 42. Possible cause,
abnormal battery condition.
Display =“Fd” Lift truck will operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 43. Possible cause,
pressure switch failure or harness problem.
MicroController Control Systems
47
Testing And Adjusting
“Self” Diagnostics
(Lift Truck not in Operation)
3
The diagnostic procedure should be used to aid in
troubleshooting after a problem occurs. It will
help to find the faulty circuit or component.
Complete all the tests before returning to the
MicroController Troubleshooting Check List.
Before testing, do the steps that follow :
2
1. Turn the key to off.
2. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor below 5 volts by holding the discharge
resistor in place for 10 seconds.
Removing Cover from Logic Unit (Logics)
(2) Screws. (3) Cover.
5. Loosen four screws (2) to remove logic cover (3).
4
1
Location of Fuse
(1) Line fuse
3. Disconnect line fuse (1) to prevent lift truck
movement.
DIAG/RUN/SETUP Switch Location
(4) Switch.
WARNING
6. Move switch (4) to “DIAG” position. This places the
controller in diagnostics when the battery is
connected and key is turned to ON.
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Disconnect the battery and disconnect the line
fuse to prevent lift truck movement.
4. Release the parking brake to close the park brake
switch.
MicroController Control Systems
48
Testing And Adjusting
7. Connect the battery and turn key to ON.
Test 4 : Lift Switch Circuit
Display = “blank”
See Troubleshooting Problems 1 or 2.
Pull lift lever slowly.
Display now shows the speed that the lift lever is set
to. As lever is pulled back, 0 through 3 will be shown.
Display = “F”
Logics has a failure. Replace logics.
This indicates at what position the lift lever changes
the pump motor speed.
Display = “d”
Line fuse is not disconnected or discharge the head
capacitor. Return to step 2.
If still “A0” lift switch circuit defect, see
Troubleshooting Problem 10.
Test 5 : Tilt Switch Circuit
Display = “8b”
Direction lever is in the reverse position. Move
direction lever to neutral.
Pull tilt lever to maximum.
Display = “A6” Tilt switch circuit OK.
NOTE: This test does not check all the logics circuit,
so the logics may pass this test and still have
a failure.
Release tilt lever.
Display = “A0” Tilt switch circuit OK.
The LCD will display all symbols about 2 seconds.
Display = “A0” Ready for test 1.
If still “A0” or “A6”, tilt switch circuit defect, see
Troubleshooting Problem 11.
Test 1 : Seat Switch
Test 6 : Auxiliary Switch Circuit
Press seat to close seat switch.
Display = “A1” Seat switch circuit OK.
Pull auxiliary lever to maximum.
Display = “A7” Auxiliary switch circuit OK.
Release seat to open seat switch.
Display = “A0” Seat switch circuit OK.
Release auxiliary lever.
Display = “A0” Auxiliary switch circuit OK.
If still “A0” or “A1”, see Troubleshooting Problem 8.
If still “A0” or “A7”, auxiliary switch circuit defect, see
Troubleshooting Problem 12.
Test 2 : Reverse Direction Switch
Test 7 : Parking Brake Switch
Move direction switch from neutral to reverse.
Display = “A2” Direction switch circuit OK.
Pull park brake lever to maximum.
Display = “A9” Park brake circuit OK.
Move direction switch from reverse to neutral.
Display = “A0” Direction switch circuit OK.
Release Park brake lever.
Display = “A0” Park brake circuit OK.
If still “A0” or “A1”, see Troubleshooting Problem 9.
If still “A0” or “A9”, Park brake circuit defect, see
Troubleshooting Problem 13.
Test 3 : Forward Direction Switch
Move direction switch from neutral to forward.
Display = “A3” Direction switch circuit OK.
Move direction switch from forward to neutral.
Display = “A0” Direction switch circuit OK.
If still “A0” or “A3”, see Troubleshooting Problem 9.
MicroController Control Systems
49
Testing And Adjusting
Test 8 : Accelerator Control
Press accelerator pedal to maximum.
Display = The speed symbols will increase from 0 to
10 on the LCD, Accelector circuit OK.
6
7
Release accelerator pedal.
Display = The speed symbols will decrease from 10
to 0 on the LCD, Accelector circuit OK.
If the speed symbols is not full on the LCD, see
Troubleshooting Problem 14.
Test 1 through 8 may be checked without sequence
and there are repeatable checkings to adjust
switches and levers.
8
Contactor Locations
(6) Bypass contactor. (7) Right direction contactor.
(8) Left direction contactor.
36V
Contactor Test
Test 9 through 14 may be activated in regular
sequence by movement of the DIAG/RUN/SETUP (4)
to “Run” then back to “Diagnostic” position, and “AC”
will display on the LCD.
Test 9 : Line Contactor
Test 10 : Bypass contactor
5
Test 11 : Left Forward Direction Contactor
Test 12 : Right Forward Direction Contactor
Contactor Locations
(5) Line contactor.
Test 13 : Left Reverse Direction Contactor
Test 14 : Right Reverse Direction Contactor
Test 15 : Pump Bypass Contactor (36V only)
If the above actions do not occur, see
Troubleshooting Problem 15.
This completes the built-in diagnostic test.
Contactor test may be repeated contiune by
movement of the DIAG/RUN/SETUP to “Run” then
back to “Diagnostic” position.
After running through the contactor testing, pull tilt
lever and then release to netural position will access
the stored error codes. See Accessing Stored Error
Codes.
MicroController Control Systems
50
Testing And Adjusting
Accessing Stored Error Codes
Saving Service Records
The B18T series of trucks remembers the last 24
error codes. This is useful in case the truck has had
an intermittent problem, but the operator cannot
remember which code appeared on the display. Also
by analyzing the contents of the last 24 error codes,
it may be possible to determine what sort of
application the truck has been working in.
To save service records, the following procedures are
used at the end of self diagnostics and service
records are numbered from 1 to 9.
1. Access all of the error codes until display shows
static “E” on the LCD.
2. Move the direction lever to the forward then
display will show static “8d”.
The stored error codes are accessed at the end of
diagnostics by using the following procedure:
3. Move the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to “SETUP”
and back to “DIAG” two times.
1. Access the self diagnostics procedure as usual.
2. Either step through the self diagnostics procedure,
or override each test by moving the
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch from DIAG to RUN and
back to DIAG until the contactor testing is
completed.
4. Pull the tilt lever to maximum position and then
release.
3. Cycle the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch once more,
and cycle through the contactor testing again. After
the right reverse contactor drops out, now the
display will indicate a “AC”.
6. Wait until the display will show a flashing “8d”, the
display indicates that a service record have been
saved.
5. A saved service records will show for a few
second.
7. Turn OFF the key switch.
The error codes can now be accessed one at a time
by pulling tilt lever and then release. This will display
the most recent error code. By cycling the tilt lever
more times, more error codes will appear on the
display, up to a total of 24.
When the display shows a solid “E”, it will indicate
that all of the stored error codes have been
displayed. It is possible that the “E” will appear
immediately, indicating no error codes have been
encountered.
Erased Stored Error Codes
To erase all of the error codes, the following
procedures are used at the start of self
diagnostics.
1. Move the direction lever to the reverse and the
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to the DIAG position.
2. Turn on the key switch and wait until display
shows a solid “8b”, then move the
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to the SETUP position
and back to DIAG two times.
3. Move the direction lever to neutral.
4. Wait until the display will show a “A0”, the display
indicates that all error codes have been erased.
5. Turn off the key switch.
MicroController Control Systems
51
Testing And Adjusting
Stored Error Codes
Quick Diagnostic Procedure
The following are possible error codes stored in
memory. Most error codes are identical to the ones
displayed during RUN.
An alternative method of entering diagnostics has
been programmed into the logics. This will enable
quick diagnostics of some of the components without
removing the controller room, line fuse, or placing the
DIAG/RUN/SET switch to the “Diagnostic” position.
Contactors and seat circuit will NOT be energized.
E1 : Drive motor brush problem.
E2 : Hydraulic motor brush problem.
Ec : Control panel thermal problem.
Ed : Drive motor thermal problem.
EL : Battery lock out.
EP : Pump motor thermal problem.
F0 : Excessive drive motor current in pulsing or
bypass operation.
F2 : Left drive problem, voltage on left drive transistor
emitter (wire #L64).
F2 (Flashing) : Right drive problem, voltage on right
drive transistor emitter (wire #R64).
F3 : Pump problem, voltage on pump transistor
emitter (wire #74).
F4 : Both F2 and F3 problems together.
F5 : Left drive problem, no voltage on left drive
transistor emitter (wire #L64).
F5 (Flashing) : Right drive problem, no voltage on
right drive transistor emitter
(wire #R64).
F6 : Pump problem, no voltage on pump transistor
emitter (wire #74).
F7 : Both F5 and F6 problems together.
FA : Steer angle problem.
Fb : Battery mis-match.
Fd : Pressure switch problem.
MicroController Control Systems
To enter quick diagnostics, open the seat switch and
place the direction lever to forward and ensure that
the park brake is released. While depressing the
accelerator to maximum position other than OFF, and
key switch to ON.
Display will go to a solid “A3” and the speed symbols
will increase from 0 to 10 on the LCD, indicating that
you have entered diagnostics and you are ready for
Test: You can test the direction control lever, all
hydraulic levers, the park brake switch and the
accelerator.
See Built-In Diagnostic Operation on page 50-52.
NOTE : This test enables a salesman to demonstrate
some of the diagnostic procedure without
ever having to open up the controller room.
52
Testing And Adjusting
Troubleshooting Problem List
TROUBLESHOOTING PROBLEM LIST
Problem #
CENTRAL VEHICLE MONITORING SYSTEM (CVMS) PROBLEMS
1
CVMS does not work, with no lift truck operation.
2
CVMS does not work at all, lift truck operation normal.
Display portion of CVMS seems random or wrong.
3
4
Lift truck operation normal.
Display portion of CVMS works until seat switch is closed then blank,
no lift truck drive or pump motor operation.
“SELF” DIAGNOSTIC PROBLEMS
5
Display = “d”, no lift truck operation or “Self-diagnostics” operation.
6
Display = “F”, no lift truck operation.
7
Display = “8b”, no lift truck operation.
8
Seat switch circuit defect.
9
Direction switch circuit defect.
10
Lift switches circuit defect.
11
Tilt switch circuit defect.
12
Auxiliary switch circuit defect.
13
Park brake switch circuit defect.
14
Accelerator circuit defect.
15
Incorrect contactor operation.
16
Any contactor closes when key switch is activated.
“RUN TIME” DIAGNOSTIC PROBLEMS
17
Display = “EE”, no lift truck drive operation.
18
Display = “EE” (Flashing), no lift truck drive operation.
19
Display = “E1”, or “E2” lift truck operation normal.
20
Overtemperature is ON and display =
Lift truck accelerates slower than normal. Lifting speed is
slower than normal.
Overtemperature is ON and display =
21
Bypass contactor will not close.
Pump and steering operation normal. Acceleration slow.
Overtemperature is ON and display =
22
Lifting speed slow.
Drive and power steering operation normal.
23
Display = “EL”. No hydraulic (lift and tilt). Steering normal.
24
Hourmeter does not work.
25
Normal hydraulic operations, display is normal and no drive operations.
26
Current limit adjustment cannot be made.
27
Slow steering, but pump motor does turn. Drive system operation normal.
Pump motor runs continously when neutral is selected. Pump motor turns at high power steering
28
speed continuously.
Drive motor does not operate or operates with low power or is erratic.
29
30
Pump and power steering systems operation normal.
Horn does not function correctly. Lift and drive operation normal.
Auxiliary lighting and/or alarm does not function correctly.
31
Lift and drive operation normal.
MicroController Control Systems
53
Testing And Adjusting
TROUBLESHOOTING PROBLEM LIST
Problem #
FAILURE CODE PROBLEMS
32
Display = “F0”, no lift truck operation.
33
Display = “F2”, no lift truck operation.
34
Display = “F2” (Flashing), no lift truck operation.
35
Display = “F3”, no lift truck operation.
36
Display = “F4”, no lift truck operation.
37
Display = “F5”, no lift truck operation.
38
Display = “F5” (Flashing), no lift truck operation.
39
Display = “F6”, no lift truck operation.
40
Display = “F7”, no lift truck operation.
41
Display = “FA”, no lift truck operation.
42
Display = “Fb”, no lift truck operation.
43
Display = “Fd”, lift truck operation normal.
MicroController Control Systems
54
Testing And Adjusting
PROBLEM 1
Central Vehicle Monitoring System (CVMS) does
not work, with no lift truck operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Battery polarity not correct on control panel;
Key fuse open circuit; Key switch defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
With battery connected, check control panel battery connections for correct polarity.
Positive battery connected to line contactor and negative battery connected to negative heatsink.
If correct
If not correct
Push horn buttton to close horn switch.
Make correction to cables.
Horn work
Horn does not work
Does CVMS pass self test at actuation of key
and seat switches.
Yes
Disconnnect battery and check the horn
fuse for continuity.
NO
Continuity
See Problem 2, CVMS does not work,
lift truck operation normal.
Check for shorts and
replace fuse.
Check continuity from horn fuse holder to
control panel battery positive connection at
the line contactor. Also check continuity from
key fuse holder to wire #3 on key switch
Close key switch. Measure voltage on P1-1
and P1-2.
Battery
voltage
No continuity
Less than
Battery voltage
Continuity
Replace key switch or repair broken wire
#5 between key switch and P1-1 and P1-2.
Repair horn circuit.
No continuity
Repair or replace
open wire.
Check continuity from negative heatsink
to logics P1-19 and P1-20.
Continuity
Replace logics.
No continuity
Repair or replace open wire.
MicroController Control System
55
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 2
CVMS does not work at all, lift truck operation normal.
If only part of CVMS works, replace the CVMS.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Disconnected logic connector P8; Open circuit from
P8-1 to CVMS connector PIN 1; Open circuit from P88 to CVMS connector PIN 8; CVMS defect.
CHECKS
Make sure CVMS connector is connected to CVMS.
If connected
If not connected
Connect multimeter positive lead to P8-1
wire #101 and negative lead to P8-8 wire
#108. Measure the voltage.
5 volts
Replace the CVMS module.
MicroController Control System
Connect CVMS connector.
0 volt
Repair or replace open circuit between 8 wires
from logics to CVMS.
56
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 3
Display portion of the CVMS module seems random or wrong.
Lift truck operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Connection defect; Wiring defect; Logics defect; Display
defect.
CHECKS
Check continuity from logics to CVMS connector (wire
#101/WH/YL/GN/BU/BK/RD/108).
Continuity
No Continuity
Check for shorts to battery negative from
PIN 2 to PIN 7 on CVMS connector.
No shorts found
Repair or replace open wire.
Shorted
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Repair or replace shorted wire.
57
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 4
Display portion of CVMS works until seat switch is
closed then blank, no lift truck drive or pump motor
operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Line contactor defect; Line fuse open circuit; Wire #4
at P9-9 open circuit; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Does the line contactor close and remain closed ?
Yes
No
Check voltage at bottom of line fuse
with line contactor activated.
Battery voltage
See Problem 15. Incorrect
contactor operation.
Less than
Battery voltage
Check voltage at top of line fuse
with line contactor activated.
Battery voltage
Repair or replace line contactor
tips or power connections.
Less than
Battery voltage
Check voltage at logic connector
P9-9, wire #4 with line contactor
activated.
Less than
Battery voltage
Battery voltage
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Check for possible shorts in the power circuit
(Head Capacitor, diode, shorted cables) and
replace line fuse. If repeat failures occur,
check drive motor current limit and/or lift
truck application.
Repair open circuit between line
fuse and P9-9, wire #4.
58
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 5
Display = “d”, no lift truck or “Self-diagnostics” operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Logic DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch in DIAG position with
line fuse installed; Head capacitor not discharged
below 5 volts; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Trying to run
“Self-Diagnostics” ?
Trying to
operate lift truck ?
Disconnect battery, discharge head capacitor
below 5 volts, remove line fuse, set
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to DIAG position,
reconnect the battery and recycle key switch.
Display remains at “d”
Measure voltage on P9-9.
Disconnect battery, remove logic cover, set
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to RUN position,
reconnect the battery and recycle key switch.
“Self-diagnostic”
Operation OK
Display remains at “d”
Continue with “SelfDiagnostics” operation.
Replace logics.
Lift Truck
Operation OK
Place lift truck
into operation.
Below 5V.
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
59
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 6
Display = “F”, no lift truck operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
With the key on, check the voltage at logic P1-1 and
P1-2, wire #5.
Battery voltage
No voltage
Check continuity from control panel battery
negative to logic P1-19 and P1-20.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Repair or replace open wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace open wire.
MicroController Control System
60
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 7
Display = “8b”, no lift truck operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Direction switch defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Does the DlAG/RUN/SETUP switch in “Diagnostic” position ?
NO
YES
Does the direction switch in neutral ?
YES
NO
Check continuity from logic P2-6 to
battery negative.
No continuity
Replace logics.
Move switch to “Run” position.
Move switch to neutral.
Continuity
Repair or replace short wire
or direction switch.
MicroController Control System
61
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 8
Seat switch circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Seat switch defect; Wiring to seat defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery and remove logic cover.
Disconnect P2 connector. Check continuity from P2-7
harness connector to negative heatsink with multimeter in
diode test position. Should be closed circuit when
seat is pressed on and open circuit when seat is
released.
No continuity
Constant continuity
Disconnect seat switch connector. Push
on the seat and check the continuity
across the seat switch.
Continuity
No continuity
Replace seat switch.
Check OK
Replace logics.
Disconnect seat switch connector. Check
continuity from logic harness connector
P2-7 to control panel battery negative with
multimeter in diode test position.
Continuity
No continuity
Check continuity from terminal #1 of seat
switch to control panel battery negative.
Replace seat switch.
Continuity
No continuity
Repair or replace open wire
Check wiring for short circuits between
harness connector P2-7 and control
panel battery negative.
Repair any short circuit found.
Check continuity from terminal #2 of seat
switch to logic harness connector P2-7
with multimeter in diode test position.
Repair or replace open wire.
MicroController Control System
62
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 9
Direction switch circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Direction switch defect; Wiring to direction
switch defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Release park brake. Disconnect the battery and
remove logic cover. Disconnect P2 connector.
Disconnect service brake switch connector.
Check continuity from control panel battery negative to
P2-5 logic connector; With direction lever in forward
should have a closed circuit, in neutral should be open.
Check OK
Check failed
Check continuity from control panel
battery negative to logic connector
P2-6. With direction lever in reverse
should have a closed circuit, in neutral
should be open.
Check OK
Disconnect direction switch connector.
Check continuity of wire #27.
Continuity
Check failed
Repair or replace wire.
Replace logics.
Check continuity from terminal #2 of
direction switch harness connector to
control panel battery negative.
Disconnect direction switch connector.
Check continuity of wire #28.
Continuity
No continuity
Continuity
No continuity
No continuity
Replace direction switch.
Repair or replace wire.
Repair or replace open wire.
Check continuity from terminal #2 of direction
switch harness connector to control panel
battery negative.
Continuity
No continuity
Replace direction switch.
MicroController Control System
Repair or replace open wire.
63
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 10
Lift sensor circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Lift sensor not adjusted properly or defective;
Lift sensor wiring defect; Valve control card (board)
defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the tilt and auxiliary switch connectors.
Retest lift sensor circuit in self diagnostics.
Circuit passes
“Self-Diagnostics”
Perform Problem 11,12 Tilt or
auxiliary circuit defect.
Circuit fails
“Self-Diagnostics”
Disconnect PV connector at the valve control board.
Connect multimeter negative lead to PV-5 and the
positive lead to PV-2. Measure the voltage.
Battery Voltage
Measure each voltage from :
PV-1, PV-3 to battery negative PV-5.
All = 11.5 to 12.5
Any/All = 0V
0 Volt
Repair or replace broken wire
between key switch and PV-2
(wire #5) or between PV-5 and
battery negative(-).
Reconnect PV and adjust the lift sensor and
valve control card to specifications.
Measure each voltage from P2-3, P2-4
to battery negaive.
Display does not
change 0 to 3
All = 11.5 to 12.5
Display changes
0 to 3
Repair or replace broken wire
between P2 logic connector
and PV connector.
Perform “Self-Diagnostics”.
Lift circuit should work.
Measure each voltage from P2-3, P2-4 to
battery negative as the lever is pulled.
11.5 to 12.5 and .2v
Measured on each
Replace logics.
Any one or all 0V
Remove P2 logic connector. Check P2-3,
P2-4 for shorts to negative.
11.5 to 12.5 and .2V
NOT measured on each
If shorted
Replace valve Control Card.
Replace or replace wire.
No shorts
Replace logics.
NOTE : Before lift truck is placed into service, connect tilt and auxliary switches and verify proper adjustment.
MicroController Control System
64
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 11
Tilt switch circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Tilt switch defect; Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery and remove logic cover.
Disconnect P2 connector. Pull tilt lever to maximum.
Check continuity from P2-2 logic connector to
control panel negative.
Continuity
No continuity
Replace logics.
Check continuity of wire #49.
Continuity
Check continuity from tilt switch terminal
of wire #1 to control panel negative.
Continuity
Replace tilt switch.
MicroController Control System
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
65
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 12
Auxiliary switch circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Auxiliary switch defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery and remove logic cover.
Disconnect P2 connector. Pull auxiliary lever to
maximum. Check continuity from P2-16 logic
connector to control panel negative.
Continuity
No continuity
Replace logics.
Check continuity of wire #46.
Continuity
Check continuity from Aux. switch terminal
of wire #1 to control panel negative.
Continuity
Replace Aux. switch.
MicroController Control System
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
66
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 13
Park brake switch circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Park brake switch defect; Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery. Check continuity from wire #71
to #1 on the park brake switch; With park brake released
should have a closed circuit; With park brake applied
should have an open circuit. Check park brake switch to
make sure it is activated by the park lever.
Check OK
Check failed
Check continuity from wire #1 on the park
brake to control panel battery negative.
Continuity
Replace park brake switch.
No continuity
Check continuity from wire #71
on the park brake switch to
logic P2-8
Continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Repair or replace wire.
67
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 14
Accelerator circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Accelerator defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
With the key switch on, the seat switch closed,
park brake released and connect multimeter
positive lead to P1-16, negative lead to P1-20.
Measure the voltage.
12 volts
Other voltage
Connect multimeter positive lead to P1-15,
negative lead to P1-20. Measure the voltage
accelerator pedal released : 0 volt.
Press accelerator pedal to max. : 9.6 to 11
volts.
Check OK
Replace logics.
Check failed
Disconnect P1 logic connector.
Check continuity of wire #18.
Continuity
Replace accelerator.
No continuity
Check continuity from terminal #1 of accelerator
harness connector to logic harness connector P1-16.
Continuity
No continuity
Check continuity from terminal #3 of accelerator
harness connector to logic harness connector P1-20.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Repair or replace wire.
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
MicroController Control System
68
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 15
Incorrect contactor operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Contactor defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
During the “Self-Diagnostic” test, which of the following occurs?
Contactor does not activate
or does not remain activated.
A contactor activates whenever the key
switch is closed through all tests.
Disconnect the battery. Check for free
mechanical movement of contactor tips
Movement OK
See Problem 16. “Any contactor
closes when key switch is closed”.
Movement not free
Remove logic cover. Disconnect P1. Check continuity
from P1-3 (wire #15) to terminal of the contactor
with incorrect operation.
Continuity
No continuity
Measure continuity from the appropriate P1 socket to
the coil terminal of the contactor that has incorrect
operation. Determine the P1 socket with respect to
the contactor that has incorrect operation as follows:
Line ....................................................P1-4, wire #33
Forward direction left .........................P1-5, wire #L34
Reverse direction left .........................P1-6, wire #L35
Forward direction right .......................P1-7, wire #R34
Reverse direction right .......................P1-8, wire #R35
Bypass ..............................................P1-9, wire #36
Pump Bypass Contactor ....................P1-14,wire #37
Continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Check the contactor coil resistance.
See Component Measurements in
Specifications section.
Check OK
Replace contactor.
Repair or replace wire.
Check not OK
Connect P1 and run “Self-Diagnostics”
again. If contactor does not close,
replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Replace contactor.
69
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 16
Any contactor closes when key switch is activated.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Connect the battery. Does the line contactor close
when the key switch is closed ?
Yes
No
Did the seat switch pass
“Self-Diagnostics”?
No
Yes
See Problem 8 Seat
Switch Circuit Defect.
With contactor closed ? Disconnect the battery. Remove
logic cover and disconnect logic P1 connector.
Check for a short circuit from control panel battery
negative to P1 harness connector socket.
Determine the P1 socket with respect to the contactor
that closed as follows:
Line................................................................P1-4
Forward direction left.....................................P1-5
Reverse direction left ....................................P1-6
Forward direction right ..................................P1-7
Reverse direction right ..................................P1-8
Bypass...........................................................P1-9
Pump Bypass Contactor ...............................P1-14
Short circuit
Repair or replace shorted wire.
MicroController Control System
70
Open circuit
Replace logics.
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 17
Display = “EE”, no lift truck drive operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Static Return to Off (SRO) circuit activated by
improper operation sequence; Direction switch defect;
Accelerator linkage not fully released;
Accelerator control defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Check for SRO by release of accelerator, release
park brake move, the direction lever to neutral,
reselect direction and press the accelerator.
No change
Run “Self-Diagnostics” to find
faulty circuit or component.
Lift Truck Operation OK
Inform operator of correct start–up procedure.
Also, that the direction lever must be left
in neutral when leaving the truck.
If no faulty component is found,
replace logics.
MicroController Control System
71
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 18
Display = “EE” (Flashing),
no lift truck drive operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
No opterator in seat; Seat switch defect;
Open wiring; Logics defect.
CHECKS
See Problem 8, seat switch circuit defect.
MicroController Control System
72
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 19
Display = “E1”, or “E2” lift truck operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Worn brushes; Short wiring; Display defect.
CHECKS
If “E1” displays, drive motor brush wear.
If “E2” displays, hydraulic motor brush wear.
Disconnect the respective wire from the motor.
Wire #31 for drive motor or wire #72 for pump motor.
Connect the battery and close the key switch and
seat switch.
Does the LCD go out ?
No
Yes
Disconnect the battery. Check continuity of
the respective wires to the logics.
Continuity
Check the brushes and replace
as necessary.
No continuity
Replace or repair wires.
Disconnect logic P2 and check for shorts from
logic P2-14 and P2-15 to battery negative.
Shorted
Repair wires.
MicroController Control System
Opened
Replace logics.
73
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 20
Overtemperature is ON and Display =
. Lift truck
accelerates slower than normal. Lifting speed is
slower than normal. Power steering operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Control panel overheated; Control thermostat (thermal
switch) defect; Open wiring; Display defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Let the truck cool for 15 minutes.
Overtemperature indicator ON
Disconnect the battery. With the controller
at close to room temperature, disconnect the
control thermal switch connectors P10 and PP.
Check continuity of thermal switches.
Should have continuity below 69°C (156°F)
Continuity
Control panel was overheated, resume normal
operation. If repeats occur, check
drive and pump motors current draw or
operating cycle for excessive ramp
climbing, towing or excessive lifting.
No continuity
Replace thermal switch.
Check continuity of wire #69 between themostat
connector P10 and PP.
Continuity
No continuity
Check continuity of wire #1 at HYD. thermostat
to negative heatsink (control panel negative).
Continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Remove logic cover. Check continuity of wire
#69 at P10-7 to logic P2-11.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Normal display
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
MicroController Control System
74
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 21
Overtemperature is ON and Display =
. Bypass
contactor will not close. Pump and power steering
operation normal. Acceleration slow.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Drive motor overheated; Drive motor thermostat (thermal
switch) defect; Open wiring; Display defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Let the truck cool for 15 minutes.
Overtemperature indicator ON
Disconnect the battery. With the drive motor
at close to room temperature, disconnect the
drive motor thermal switch connector.
Check continuity of thermal switch.
Should have continuity below 123°C (253°F)
Continuity
Drive motor was overheated, resume normal
operation. If repeats occur, check drive motors
current draw or operating cycle for excessive
ramp climbing or towing.
No continuity
Replace thermal switch.
Check continuity of wire #43 between left and
right drive motor thermal switch.
Continuity
No continuity
Check continuity of wire #1 at left drive motor
thermal switch to negative heatsink.
Continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Remove logic cover. Check continuity of wire
#43 at right drive motor thermal switch to
logic P2-12.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Normal display
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
MicroController Control System
75
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 22
Overtemperature is ON and Display = . Lifting
performance slow. Drive and power steering operation
normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Pump motor overheated; Pump motor thermostat (thermal
switch) defect; Open wiring; Display defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Let the truck cool for 15 minutes.
Overtemperature indicator ON
Disconnect the battery. With the pump motor
at close to room temperature, disconnect the
pump motor thermal switch connector. Check
continuity of thermal switch.
Should have continuity below 123°C (253°F).
Continuity
Pump motor was overheated, resume normal
operation. If repeats occur, check
pump motor current draw or operating
cycle for excessive lifting and tilting.
No continuity
Repair or replace switch.
Check continuity of wire #1 at pump motor
thermal switch to negative heatsink.
Continuity
No continuity
Remove logic cover. Check continuity of wire
#42 at pump motor thermal switch connector to
logic P2-13.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Normal display
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
MicroController Control System
76
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 23
Display = “EL”. No hydraulic (lift and tilt).
Steering normal.
Battery discharge indicator (BDI) circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Battery discharged or has a defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Connect battery, turn on key switch, close seat
switch and measure voltage from line contactor to
negative heatsink. Voltage must be greater than
45 volts.
Voltage OK
Voltage low
With key ON, seat switch and line contactor
closed, measure voltage at P9-9.
Battery voltage
Check battery connections;
Charge or replace battery.
Less than battery
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Repair shorted wire or high resistance
connection causing the improper voltage.
77
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 24
Hourmeter does not work.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
The hourmeter requires battery voltage to run.
Measure voltage at hourmeter to ensure that it is
battery voltage.
No voltage
Battery voltage
Check continuity from key switch to
hourmeter positive (+) terminal.
Continuity
Replace hourmeter.
No continuity
Check continuity from hourmeter negative (-)
to seat switch wire #45.
Continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
Check continuity from seat switch to battery
negative wire #1.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
MicroController Control System
78
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 25
Normal hydraulic operations, display is normal
and no drive operations.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Service brake switch shorted.
Short wires (#27, #28).
Charged head capacitor.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery connector and
discharge the head capacitor fully.
Check continuity from wire #27 (logic P2-5)
to wire #28 (logic P2-6).
Continuity
No continuity
Check service brake switch and wires #27, #28
from logics to service brake switch.
Check direction switch.
All checks OK
Replace logics.
Any checks failed
Replace logics.
Repair or replace wire or switches.
MicroController Control System
79
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 26
Current limit adjustment cannot be made.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Current sensor defect; Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Perform current sensor component check.
Check OK
Check failed
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Repair wiring or replace current sensor.
80
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 27
Slow steering, but pump motor does turn. Drive
system operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Steering pressure switch defect; Wiring defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Check the battery, close the seat and key switches.
Put the direction lever in forward.
Disconnect pressure switch connector.
Pump motor speed
remains the same
Pump motor speed
increases
Replace the pressure switch.
Disconnect pressure switch connector.
Check for a continuity between P2-1
and battery negative.
No continuity
Replace logics.
Continuity
Repair the wiring.
MicroController Control System
81
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 28
Pump motor runs continuously when neutral is
selected (no wait mode). Pump motor turns at
high power steering speed continuously.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Steering pressure switch defect; Pressure switch
connector disconnected; Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Check steering pressure switch connector for
proper connection.
Connected
Disconnected
Disconnect the pressure switch connector. Place jumper
wire between both pressure switch connector terminals.
With the key ON, seat switch closed and a direction
selected, the pump motor should run at slow speed.
Remains at high speed
Runs at slow speed
Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor. Check continuity from terminal #1
of pressure switch connector to the control
panel negative. Also check continuity from
terminal #2 of pressure switch connector to
logic connector P2-1.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Connect connector.
Replace the pressure switch.
No continuity
Repair or replace open wire.
MicroController Control System
82
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 29
Drive motor does not operate or operates with
low power or is erratic. Pump and power steering
systems operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Accelerator defect; Direction control circuit defect ;
Current limit set too low; Wiring defect ;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Perform self-diagnostics.
Passed
Does not pass
See respective problem for
defective circuit.
Readjust current limit to specifications.
Check DR1 and DR2 for correct resistance.
Resistance is 90Ω L 5%.
In specification
Not in specification
Check wire #L67, #L68, #R67 and #R68 for a good connection on DR1
and DR2.
Check wires #L63 and #R63 to base of transistors DTR1 and DTR2.
Check continuity of wire #L64 and #R64 from emitter of power
transistors to logics P9-5 and P9-6.
All OK
Defective wiring
Repair or replace defective wiring
or connection.
Check diode DD1, DD2, DD3 and
DD4 for shorts or open circuit.
Diode OK
Defective diode
Check drive motor, cables and contactor for open circuits.
Check OK
Replace logics.
Replace resistor.
Replace defective diode.
Open circuit
Repair open circuit or replace drive motor.
MicroController Control System
83
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 30
Horn does not function correctly. Lift and drive
operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Open fuse; Faulty wiring; Defective switch;
Horn defect.
CHECKS
With the faulty horn circuit activated, check for
voltage on the load side of the horn fuse.
Battery voltage
No voltage
Check for voltage on the load side of
the horn switch.
Battery voltage
Check for short circuits;
Replace horn fuse.
0 volt
Repair or replace open wire from fuse
or replace defective switch.
Check for voltage at the negative
connection of the load.
0 volt
Battery voltage
Repair or replace open wire from
the horn switch or replace horn.
MicroController Control System
Repair or replace open wire going to battery
negative.
84
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 31
Auxiliary lighting and/or alarm does not function
correctly. Lift and drive operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Open fuse; Faulty wiring; Defective switch; Shorted
load; Open load; Loss of input voltage to DC-DC
converter; Defective DC-DC converter.
CHECKS
Connect the battery and close the key switch.
Measure from the DC-DC converter 12V positive
terminal to the 12V negative terminal.
No voltage
output
Voltage
above 13V
Con’d
Next
Page
Voltage
below 11V
Con’d
Next
Page
Con’d
Next
Page
Voltage
11 to 13V
With the faulty auxiliary circuit
activated, check for voltage on
load side of the auxiliary fuse.
11 to 13 volts
Check for voltage on the load
side of the auxiliary switch.
11 to 13 volts
Check for short
circuits; Replace
auxiliary fuse.
0 volt
Check for voltage at the negative connection
of the load.
0 volt
No voltage
Repair or replace open wire from
fuse or replace detective switch.
11 to 13 volts
Repair or replace open wire from the
auxiliary switch or replace the
defective auxiliary component.
Repair or replace open wire going
to battery negative.
MicroController Control System
85
Troubleshooting
Problem 31 (continued)
No voltage output.
Measure the voltage from (POS INPUT) to (NEG INPUT).
Battery voltage
0 volt
Measure the voltage from (12V POS) terminal
of the DC-DC converter to battery negative.
Battery voltage
Measure the voltage from the battery positive
cable at the line contactor to the (NEG INPUT)
terminal of the DC-DC converter.
0 volt
Battery voltage
Measure the voltage from
(ENABLE) terminal of the
DC-DC converter to
battery negative.
Battery voltage
Replace
the DC-DC
converter.
0 volt
Check for open fuse or
wiring between the line
contactor and the (POS
INPUT) terminal of the
DC-DC converter.
0 volt
Repair open
negative
connection from
converter (NEG
INPUT) to battery
negative.
Open fuse Open wiring
Repair or replace open wiring
from the key sw to the (ENABLE)
terminal of the DC-DC converter.
Replace fuse and check
wiring for shorts. If no
shorts are found and the
fuse continues to fail,
replace the DC-DC converter.
Repair or replace
faulty wiring.
Test the fuse at the DC-DC converter for continuity.
Fuse good
Fuse open
Remove the load connections at the (12V POS) and (12V NEG)
terminals of the DC-DC converter. Measure the voltage from
the (12V POS) to the (12V NEG) terminals of the DC-DC converter.
11 to 13 volts
<11 or >13 volts
Replace the DC-DC
converter.
Check for a short circuit in each auxiary circuit.
No shorts found
Replace the DC-DC converter.
MicroController Control System
Replace fuse. If fuse
continues to fail, replace
the DC-DC converter.
Shorts found
Repair or replace faulty
wiring or components.
86
Troubleshooting
Problem 31 (continued)
Voltage bellow 11 volts.
Measure the voltage from (POS INPUT) or (+IN) terminal
to the (NEG INPUT) or (-IN) terminal of the DC-DC
converter.
36 volts or above
Below 35 volts
Remove all connections at the (12V POS) and(12V
NEG) or the (+OUT) and (-OUT) terminals
of the DC-DC converter. Measure the voltage
from (12V POS) to (12V NEG) or (+OUT) to
(-OUT).
11 to 13 volts
Check the battery and DC-DC converter
input connections from the battery.
Battery low
Poor connection
Below 11 volts
Charge or replace battery.
Repair or replace faulty wiring or
connections.
Check for a short or low resistance
in the auxiliary circuits and loads.
NOTE : Excessive loading places the
converter into current limit
(12A maximum).
DC-DC converter faulty.
Replace converter.
Voltage above 13 volts.
Remove all connections at the (12V POS) and (12V NEG)
or the (+OUT) and (-OUT) terminals of the DC-DC
converter. Measure the voltage from (12V POS) to
(12V NEG) or (+OUT) to (-OUT).
11 to 13 volts
Above 13 volts
Check the output load circuits for
incorrect wiring or shorts to battery
negative.
MicroController Control System
DC-DC converter faulty.
Replace converter.
87
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 32
Display = “F0”, no lift truck operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Logic potentiometers VR1 and VR6 out of adjustment.
Excessive drive motor currents due to pushing or ramp
application. Failed drive motor. Failed logics.
Weak or discharged battery.
CHECKS
Adjust current limit to specification :
48 V - 250 amps
OK
Still “F0”
Place lift truck into operation.
Determine when the “F0” occurs.
Before bypass
During bypass
Is there a steep ramp that the truck must stop on ?
If so the Excessive Drive Motor Current option may not
be applicable in this application.
Set option Programmable Feature 9 to Data Codes 3.
Determine if there is a steep ramp in the
application. Adjust VR6 so that current is
greater than maximum drive motor current
going up the ramp.
No ramp, or continues “F0”
No ramp, or continues “F0”
Does the “F0” occur due to excessive pushing or abuse. Ensure that the battery is not being deep
discharged, causing high currents. Inspect the battery for poor maintenance or bad cells.
Explain situation to the customer. If abuse continues, any drive failure will not be warranted.
Discussion : The logic card monitors the current in the drive motors, and prevents high currents that may
damage the drive motor, or possibly blow the line fuse. It uses two current limits settings for this purpose.
Potentiomenter VR1 sets current limit for transistor pulsing, and if drive motor current exceeds the VR1
current setting for longer than 3 seconds, it will failsafe and display an “F0”. Similary, if the bypass contactor
is closed, and the current exceeds the potentiometer VR6 setting for longer than 3 seconds, the truck will
failsafe in a similar manner. In addition, the bypass operation will be prevented if the drive motor currents
exceed the VR1 current limit.
MicroController Control System
88
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 33
Display = “F2”, no lift truck operation,
line contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Shorted DTR1; Welded bypass contactor tips ;
Open wiring; Driver board defect; Logics defect;
Frame voltage on LS1 drive motor cable.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery, check bypass contactor for
welded tips. Check contactor for free tip movement.
Not welded
Welded
Disconnect battery, remove logic cover, check
continuity and connections of wire #L64 at DTR1
emitter to P9-5 on logics.
Continuity
No continuity
Disconnect LS1 cable at
panel and retry.
Still “F2”
Repair or replace contactor tips.
Check BDI adjustment and battery
Check current limit adjustment.
Repair or replace
wiring or connection.
OK
Investigate voltage
present on LS1 cable.
Check DTR1 for failure
Test OK
Test driver board
(drive side only).
Test OK
Failed
Replace transistor.
Failed
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Replace driver board.
89
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 34
Display = “F2” (Flashing), no lift truck operation,
line contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Shorted DTR2; Welded bypass contactor tips ;
Open wiring; Driver board defect; Logics defect;
Frame voltage on RS1 drive motor cable.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery, check bypass contactor for
welded tips. Check contactor for free tip movement.
Not welded
Welded
Disconnect battery, remove logic cover, check
continuity and connections of wire #R64 at DTR2
emitter to P9-6 on logics.
Continuity
Repair or replace contactor tips.
Check BDI adjustment and battery.
Check current limit adjustment.
No continuity
Disconnect RS1 cable at
panel and retry.
Still “F2” (Flashing)
Repair or replace
wiring or connection.
OK
Investigate voltage
present on RS1 cable.
Check DTR2 for failure
Test OK
Test driver board
(drive side only).
Test OK
failed
Replace transistor.
Failed
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Replace driver board.
90
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 35
Display = “F3”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Shorted PTR1; Open wiring; Driver board (HYD.)
defect; Open circuit pump motor or P1, P2 cables ;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Connect the battery, close the seat and key switches.
Line contactor closes then
opens, pump motor does
not turn. Display = “F3”
Line contactor closes then
opens, pump motor turns a
small amount. Display = “F3”
Disconnect battery, remove logic cover, check
continuity of wire #74 at emitter connector of
PTR1 to P9-7 on logics.
No continuity
Check PTR1 for a short circuit.
Not failed
Failed
Continuity
Replace transistor.
Repair or replace
wiring
Check continuity from P1 to
P2 at panel.
Check driver board (HYD.).
Continuity
Not failed
Replace logics.
No continuity
Check motor and
cables and repair.
Replace logics.
*
Failed
Replace driver
board (HYD.)
*
* See Notice
NOTICE
Damage to the control panel could result. To prevent further damage, before PTR1 or driver
board are replaced, complete the following checks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
the diode PD for a failure.
Head capacitor for a failure.
PTR1 for a failure.
Driver board for a failure.
for continuity from PTR1 emitter (wire #74) to logics P9-7.
MicroController Control System
91
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 36
Display = “F4”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Bypass contactor tips shorted; Shorted DTR1, DTR2
and PTR1. Poor connection at logic P9 connector ;
Driver board defect.
CHECKS
See Problems 33, 34 and 35, Display = “F2” or “F2”
(Flashing) and “F3”. Do both procedures.
MicroController Control System
92
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 37
Display = “F5”, no lift truck operation, line contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Faulty wire connections; DTR1 failed; Current limit set to low; Failed DD1
or DD2; Failed driver board; Failed current sensor; Failed logics.
CHECKS
Disconnect the following wires, visually inspect them for burnt or discolored terminals; Loose
connections; Smashed or compressed connectors; Corrosion or foreign material. Wire #L65 at P9-1.
Wire #L64 at P9-5 and emitter bus bar of left drive power transistors. Wire #L67 and #L68 at resistor
DR1. Wires #L63 at DTR1. Wire #4 from driver board to positive heatsink. Wire #1 from driver board to
negative heatsink. Wire #L22 from logics P1-12 to current sensor. Wire #25 from logics P1-16 to current
sensor. Current sensor PIN3 to negative heatsink. Repair any defects then reconnect the wires.
Display = “F5”
Display normal
Test DTR1 for a failure.
Not failed
Return truck to operation.
Failed
Replace transistor.
Make sure that the connecter of current sensor is
connected. Measure the voltage at P1-12 with
the key switch closed. If the voltage is over than
10V, replace the current sensor.
*
Test diodes DD1 and DD2 for a failure.
Not failed
Failed
Measure voltage at P1-16 with the key switch closed.
Voltage = 11 to 12V
Any other voltage
Perform Rapid Turn-Up procedure for current limit (VR1).
Display “F5”
Replace logics.
Replace logics.
*
*
Display normal
Test driver board (drive) for a failure.
Not failed
Replace failed components.
Recalibrate current limit
to specifications.
Recalibrate current limit
adjustments to specifications.
Failed
Replace failed components. Recalibrate current limit to specifications.
*
* See Notice #1
MicroController Control System
93
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 38
Display = “F5” (Flashing), no lift truck operation, line contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Faulty wire connections; DTR2 failed; Current limit set to low; Failed DD3 or
DD4; Failed driver board; Failed current sensor; Failed logics.
CHECKS
Disconnect the following wires, visually inspect them for burnt or discolored terminals; Loose
connections; Smashed or compressed connectors; Corrosion or foreign material. Wire #R65 at P9-2.
Wire #R64 at P9-6 and emitter bus bar of right drive power transistors. Wire #R67 and #R68 at resistor
DR2. Wires #R63 at DTR2. Wire #4 from driver board to positive heatsink. Wire #1 from driver board to
negative heatsink. Wire #R22 from logics P1-13 to current sensor. Wire #25 from logics P1-16 to
current sensor. Current sensor PIN3 to negative heatsink. Repair any defects then reconnect the wires.
Display = “F5” (Flashing)
Display normal
Test DTR2 for a failure.
Not failed
Return truck to operation.
Failed
Replace transistor.
Make sure that the connecter of current sensor is
connected. Measure the voltage at P1-13 with
the key switch closed. If the voltage is over than
10V, replace the current sensor.
*
Test diodes DD3 and DD4 for a failure.
Not failed
Failed
Measure voltage at P1-16 with the key switch closed.
Voltage = 11 to 12V
Any other voltage
Perform Rapid Turn-Up Procedure for current limit (VR1).
Display “F5” (Flashing)
Replace logics.
Replace logics.
*
*
Display normal
Test driver board (drive) for a failure.
Not failed
Replace failed components.
Recalibrate current limit
to specifications.
Recalibrate current limit
adjustments to specifications.
Failed
Replace failed components. Recalibrate current limit to specifications.
*
* See Notice #2
MicroController Control System
94
Troubleshooting
NOTICE #1
Damage to the control panel could result. To prevent further damage, before DTR1 or driver
board are replaced, complete the following checks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
the diode DD1 and DD2 for a failure.
DTR1 for a failure.
Driver board for a failure.
Head capacitor for a failure.
for continuity from DTR1 emitter (wire #L64) to logics P9-5.
Current sensor for a failure.
NOTICE #2
Damage to the control panel could result. To prevent further damage, before DTR2 or driver
board are replaced, complete the following checks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
the diode DD3 and DD4 for a failure.
DTR2 for a failure.
Driver board for a failure.
Head capacitor for a failure.
for continuity from DTR2 emitter (wire #R64) to logics P9-6.
Current sensor for a failure.
MicroController Control System
95
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 39
Display = “F6”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Failed Fuse - Hydraulic;
Faulty wire connections; PD, PTR1 failed;
Failed driver board (HYD.); Failed logics.
CHECKS
Check the continuity of Fuse - Hydraulic.
Disconnect the following wires, visually inspect them for burnt or discolored terminals,
loose connections, smashed or compressed connectors, corrosion or foreign material.
Wire #75 at P9-3. Wire #77 and #78 at resistor PR1.
Wire from driver board (HYD.) to positive heatsink.
Wire #1 from driver board (HYD.) to negative heatsink.
Wire #73 at base of transistor PTR1.
Repair any defects then reconnect the wires.
Display = “F6”
Display normal
Check diode PD for a failure.
Return truck to operation.
Not failed
Failed
Check transistor PTR1 for
a failure.
OK
Replace failed diode.
Failed
Check driver board (HYD.).
Not failed
*
Replace transistor.
*
Failed
Replace logics.
Replace driver board (HYD.).
*
* See Notice
NOTICE
Damage to the control panel could result. To prevent further damage, before PTR1 or driver
board are replaced, complete the following checks:
1. Check the diode PD for a failure.
3. Check PTR1 for a failure.
2. Check Head capacitor for a failure.
4. Check Driver board for a failure.
5. Check for continuity from PTR1 emitter (wire #74) to logics P9-7.
MicroController Control System
96
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 40
Display = “F7”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Failure in both the drive and pump circuits.
Incorrect wiring of wires #L67, #L68, #R67, #R68,
#77 and #78.
CHECKS
See Problem 37, 38 and 39, Display = “F5” or “F5”
(Flashing) and Display = “F6”. Do both procedures.
MicroController Control System
97
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 41
Display = “FA”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Faulty wire connections; Failed steer angle
switch; Failed logics.
CHECKS
Disconnect steer angle switch connector.
Check continuity of wires #50, #51, #52 and #53
from logic P2-17 ~ 20 to steer angle switch connector.
Continuity
Not continuity
Repair or replace wires.
Check continuity wire #1 at steer angle
switch connector to negative heatsink.
Continuity
No continuity
Put steer wheel in straight position.
Remove steer angle switch assembly
cover. Check continuity of steer angle
switches.
Continuity
Repair or replace wires.
Not continuity
Check steer angle switch operation by
steer wheel position. (See steer angle
control - page 24)
Check OK
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Replace failed switches.
Failed
Adjust steer angle switches.
98
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 42
Display = “Fb”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Battery defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect battery, measure voltage at battery
connector terminal. Voltage must be higher
than 20 volts.
Voltage OK
Wrong voltage
Check battery connections;
Replace battery.
With key on, seat switch and line
contactor closed, measure voltage at logic
P9–9.
Battery voltage
No battery voltage
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Repair or replace wire.
99
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 43
Display = “Fd”, lift truck operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Pressure switch defect; Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery. Check continuity from wire
#41 to #1 on the pressure switch.
Continuity
No continuity
Check continuity from wire #1 on the pressure
switch to control panel battery negative.
continuity
No Continuity
Check continuity from wire #41 on
the pressure switch to logic P 2-1
continuity
Repair or replace wires.
No Continuity
Replace logics.
MicroController Control System
Repair or replace wires.
Repair or replace wires.
100
Troubleshooting
System Tests and Adjustments
Potentiometer Adjustment Tool -Trimmer
Test Equipment
Available from most electronic suppliers, this
insulated tool allows for fast and easy adjustments of
potentiometers.
Hydrometer
Hydrometers are usually available from any battery
supplier. Battery maintenance is a crucial part of
maintaining the electric vehicle. The ability to
measure specific gravity and adjust the battery
discharge indicator to match battery manufacturers
specifications is an important part in the total
maintenance of the electric vehicle.
Discharging Head Capacitor
(HEAD CAP)
There are various pieces of electric truck test
equipment that Daewoo recommends for all service
personnel. This equipment is available from a
number of world wide manufacturers and local
electronic suppliers. Contact your Daewoo dealer or
the factory for further recommendations.
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
Handheld Multimeter
A digital multimeter that measures DC voltage,
resistance, and has a diode tester, is required. It is
recommended that a high quality meter that is drop
protected, or comes with a drop proof case, be
purchased. Autoranging features, fast becoming an
industry standard, are convenient for the service
personnel, but are not required for servicing the lift
truck. A variety of miniature test leads, alligator clips,
and needle probes are also useful, and some of
these usually come with the multimeter.
Clamp-on Current Probe
The electric lift truck testing and adjusting procedures
require the measurement of average DC currents.
Currents in excess of 600 amps may be present, so
a clamp-on meter that will exceed this level is
required. It is also highly recommeded that a device
that has a voltage output, as well as a visible display,
be used. This makes viewing and adjusting currents
from the operator's seat possible. The jaws of the
current probe should be able to accept at least a
19mm (.75 inch) cable diameter.
MicroController Control Systems
2
1
3
Discharging Head Capacitor (HEAD CAP)
(1) Resistor. (2) Positive heatsinks.
(3) Negative heatsinks.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
2. Put a 82 ohm, 80 watt resistor (1) Part No.
929315, in position between the positive (2) and
negative (3) heatsinks. Hold the resistor in position
for 10 seconds. This will discharge the capacitor
below 5 volts.
101
Testing And Adjusting
Logics Removal
8
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
7
Logics Removal
(7) Nuts. (8) Logics.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
5. Remove screws (7) which hold logics (8) to control
panel.
6. Remove logics and replace logic cover to prevent
damage.
2
“Run Time” Tests
1
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present. Injury
to personnel is possible. Disconnect the battery and
discharge the head capacitor (HEAD CAP) before any
contact is made with the control panel.
Component Location
(1) Screws. (2) Logic Cover.
2. Loosen screws (1) that hold logic cover (2).
3. Remove the logic cover.
WARNING
3
5
6
The lift truck can move suddenly. Battery voltage
and high amperage are present. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift both drive wheels off the floor. Put
blocks of wood under the frame so the drive
wheels are free to turn. During any test or
operation check, keep away from drive wheels.
4
Key ON, No Operator Warning, Display =“EE”
(Flashing)
1. Connect the battery.
2. Turn key to ON with no one on the seat.
Connector Re4moval
(3) Connector P1. (4) Connector P2. (5) Connector P8.
(6) Connector P9.
3. The display should show the letter “EE” flashing on
and off.
4. Disconnect connectors P1(3), P2 (4), P8 (5) and
P9 (6). When disconnecting connectors pull on
plastic connector housing, not on the wires.
MicroController Control Systems
4. With an operator on the seat or by pressing on the
seat the letter “EE” should stop flashing.
102
Testing And Adjusting
Overtemperature Protection
Static Return to Off (SRO), Display = “EE”
1. Connect the battery and sit on the seat.
2. Select a direction before turning key to ON.
3. Turn key to ON. An “EE” should appear on the
display and the drive system should not operate.
4. Return the direction lever to neutral, then back to
forward or reverse. The “EE” should disappear
from the display and the drive system should
operate.
5. Turn key to OFF. Depress and hold the accelerator
pedal.
To turn on overtemperature indicator.
6. Turn the key to ON. An “EE” should appear on the
display and the drive system should not operate.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
7. Release the accelerator padal. The “EE” should
disappear from the display and the drive system
should operate.
2. Disconnect the control panel thermal switch
connector.
3. Connect the battery, close the seat switch and turn
the key ON. The overtemperature indicator and
“Ec” should be truned on. The drive and hydraulic
speed will be reduced. “Ec” stored.
Steps 1 through 3 can be repeated for the drive and
pump motor thermal switches, the results should be:
Drive – Drive pulse ratio reduced, bypass operation
prevented, and “Ed” stored.
Pump – Lifting performance reduced, and “EP”
stored.
MicroController Control Systems
103
Testing And Adjusting
Logic Unit Quick Reference Voltage
Check
Component Tests
The chart that follows is a quick reference of the
expected voltages at the logic pin connectors. All
voltage measurements are made with respect to
battery negative.
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels.
NOTICE
Do not use steam or solvent to clean the controls.
Damage can be caused to the control panel. Use
pressure from an air hose with a maximum
pressure of 205 kPa (30 psi) to clean the control
panel when necessary. The air supply must be
equipped with a water filter.
1. Put blocks of wood under the frame so both drive
wheels are free to turn.
2. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
NOTE: When control wires and power cables or bus
bars are to be connected to the same bolt or
stud, place all control wires together on the
top of the bus bar or power cable.
3. Remove the logic cover.
4. Set the multimeter to the 200 volt DC range.
Use the electrical schematic (located in left side
panel) to locate components referred to by name and
number in the procedures that follow. All wires must
be located as shown on the schematic.
Refer to SB2082E02 schematic(A154764) as
attached.
5. Connect the multimeter negative lead to control
panel battery negative.
6. Use the multimeter positive lead with an Needle
Tip to measure the voltages under normal and
activated conditions as shown in the Logic Voltage
Reference chart.
Make sure the chart matches the control
system being tested.
1
3
4
2
Connector Layout
(1) Connector P1.(2) Connector P2. (3)Connector P8.
(4) Connector P9.
MicroController Control Systems
104
Testing And Adjusting
Logic
Terminal
P1-1
P1-2
P1-3
Wire
No.
P1-4
P1-5
P1-6
P1-7
P1-8
P1-9
P1-10
P1-11
P1-12
P1-13
P1-14
P1-15
33
L34
L35
R34
R35
36
L32
R32
L22
R22
18
Battery (+) from
key switch
Battery (+) to all
CTR coils
Line CTR coil
Left-FWD coil
Left-REV coil
Right-FWD coil
Right-REV coil
Bypass CTR coil
Left Plug sensor
Right Plug sensor
Left drive CT
Right drive CT
Not used
Accelerator
P1-16
25
12 Voltage (+)
P1-17
P1-18
P1-19
P1-20
–
–
Not used
Not used
1
Battery Negative
P2-1
41
P2-2
49
P2-3
P2-4
P2-5
P2-6
P2-7
47
48
27
28
45
Pressure switch
Tilt switch
AUX1. switch
Lift 1 switch
Lift 2 switch
FWD switch
REV switch
Seat switch
P2-8
71
P2-9
P2-10
20
24
P2-11
69
P2-12
43
P2-13
42
P2-14
31
P2-15
72
5
15
Function
LOGIC VOLTAGE CHECKS
Normal
Activated
Voltage
Voltage
B (+)
B (+)
B (+)
B (+)
B
B
B
B
B
B
(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)
0
0
0 to 0.03
0 to 0.03
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
-0.8 to -0.2
-0.8 to -0.2
0.03 to 12
0.03 to 12
0 to 0.89
0.9 to 12
11 to 13
11 to 13
0
0
Test Function
Procedure
0V: key switch OFF,
B (+): key switch ON.
B (+) to all coils with key ON,
0V key OFF.
B (+): Line CTR open, 0V: closed
B (+): Left FWD open, 0V: closed
B (+): Left REV open, 0V: closed
B (+): Right FWD open, 0V: closed
B (+): Right REV open, 0V: closed
B (+): Byp. CTR open, 0V: closed
Voltage exchanges 0 to negative
Voltage exchanges 0 to negative
Voltage increases with current
Voltage increases with current
Activate pedal from full up to full down
0V = key switch OFF,
12V = key switch ON
Logic board negative
Low
High
Activate steering wheel
High
Low
Activate lever from OFF to ON
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Park brake switch
Low
High
Height 1 switch
Height 2 switch
Control thermal
switch
Drive motor
thermal switch
Pump motor
thermal switch
Drive brush wear
indicator sensor
Pump brush wear
indicator sensor
High
High
Low
Low
Low
High
Low
High
Low
High
High
Low
High
Low
Activate lever from OFF to ON
Activate lever from OFF to ON
Activate lever from OFF to ON
Activate lever from OFF to ON
High: switch open, Low: closed
Low: Park brake activated
High: Park brake released
Activate lever from OFF to ON
Activate lever from OFF to ON
Activated by overtemperature of
control panel
Activated by overtemperature of
drive motor
Activated by overtemperature of
pump motor
Activated by brush wear of
drive motor
Activated by brush wear of
pump motor
MicroController Control Systems
105
Testing And Adjusting
LOGIC VOLTAGE CHECKS
Logic
Wire
Terminal
No.
P2-16
46
AUX2 switch
P2-17
50
ANGLE SWITCH 1
High/Low
High/Low
Turn steer wheel lock to lock
P2-18
51
ANGLE SWITCH 2
High/Low
High/Low
Turn steer wheel lock to lock
P2-19
52
ANGLE SWITCH 3
High/Low
High/Low
Turn steer wheel lock to lock
P2-20
53
ANGLE SWITCH 4
High/Low
High/Low
Turn steer wheel lock to lock
P8-1
101
LCD: DC 5 Volt (+)
4.5 to 5.5
4.5 to 5.5
Key switch OFF: 0V, ON: 5V
P8-2
WH
LCD: DATA
0
High / Low
0V: segment OFF, High: On
P8-3
YL
LCD: DATA-bar
0
High / Low
0V: segment ON, High: OFF
P8-4
GN
LCD: CLOCK
0
High / Low
0V: segment OFF, High: On
P8-5
BU
LCD: CLOCK-bar
0
High / Low
0V: segment ON, High: OFF
P8-6
BK
LCD: LOAD
0
High / Low
0V: segment OFF, High: On
P8-7
RD
LCD: LOAD-bar
0
High / Low
0V: segment ON, High: OFF
P8-8
108
Battery negative
0
0V
P9-1
L65
0
0.1 to 1.3
Activated as drive TR pulses (Left TR)
0
0.1 to 1.3
Activated as drive TR pulses
P9-2
R65
P9-3
75
P9-4
–
P9-5
L64
P9-6
R64
P9-7
74
P9-8
–
P9-9
4
Function
Normal
Activated
Test Function
Voltage
Voltage
Procedure
High
Low
Activate lever from OFF to ON
Logic board negative
Pulse drive TR
base (Left motor)
Pulse drive TR
base (Right motor)
(Right TR)
Pulse pump main
TR base
0
0.1 to 1.3
0
1.5 to B (+)
0
1.5 to B (+)
0
1.5 to B (+)
Activated as pump TR pulses
Not used
Drive TR emitter
sensor (Left)
Voltage increases as drive TR pulses
Drive TR emitter
sensor (Right)
Voltage increases as drive TR
Pump main TR
emitter
Not used
faster (Left TR)
pulses faster (Right TR)
Voltage increases as pump TR
pulses faster
0
B(+) from positive
heatsink
0
B (+)
B (+) with line CTR closed
NOTE : “Normal” ; battery connected, key switch and park switch closed.
High voltage signal should be 9 to 12 volts. Low voltage signal should be 0 to 0.9 volt.
MicroController Control Systems
106
Testing And Adjusting
Conductor and Switch Continuity
1. Set the multimeter to the 200 Ω range.
2. Use the multimeter to perform the continuity test. lf
continuity exists, the measurement will be less
than 1 ohm. lf the measurement is more than this,
continuity does not exist and the problem will have
to be repaired.
Capacitor (Head)
5
2
1
4
3
WARNING
Location of Components
(1) Positive connection point. (2) Positive cable.
(3) Negative connection point. (4) Negative cable.
(5) Capacitor.
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
4. Disconnect positive cable (2) from the positive
connection point (1).
5. Disconnect negative cable (4) from the negative
connection point (3).
NOTICE
Damage can be caused to the head capacitor. Do
not remove bolts from capacitor to perform tests.
Remove capacitor connecting cables at heatsink
connections.
6. Set the multimeter to the 20 KΩ range. Connect
the multimeter positive lead to positive cable (2) of
head capacitor (5). Connect the multimeter
negative lead to negative cable (4) of head
capacitor (5).
7. The meter must increment to above 10 KΩ.
lf the capacitor fails the Head Capacitor Test, then
replace capacitor.
8. If the head capacitor fails this test, then capacitor
should be replaced.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
See Head Capacitor in Specifications section for
proper assembly order of the head capacitor
connections and bolt torque specifications.
2. Visually inspect the capacitor for bulges at the
terminals.
3. Verify the plastic top is not melted around the
terminals and that the blow plug is not leaking.
WARNING
Head Capacitor “blow plug” will rupture with
reverse polarity. Vapors and contents of Head
Capacitors are toxic, flammable and corrosive.
Personal injury can be caused from breathing the
fumes or if its contents make contact with the
skin. Be sure to always connect the positive wire,
from the positive heatsink, to the positive terminal
of the Head Capacitor.
MicroController Control Systems
107
Testing And Adjusting
Contactors
Contactor Components
WARNING
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that
turn.
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
NOTICE
Damage can be caused to the control panel. Do
not switch the direction lever from one direction to
the other (plug the lift truck) when the drive wheels
are off the ground and in rotation at full speed.
Coil Suppression Diodes
1. Connect the battery and close the seat switch.
1 35
2. Turn the key to ON and release the parking brake.
The line contactor will close.
3. Select a direction and rapidly depress the
accelerator pedal all the way to the floor.
246
4. Measure and record the time it takes the bypass
contactor to close. This should be 1.5 to 2.5
seconds after the accelerator is fully depressed.
5. If the recorded value from Step 5 is less than 1.0
seconds, the logics may need to be replaced.
(During normal operation this time will vary with
the load on the truck).
Suppression Diodes
(1) D3-Line. (2) D4-Left Forward. (3) D5-Left Reverse.
(4) D6-Right Forward. (5) D7-Right Reverse.
(6) D8-Bypass.
6. If the recorded value from Step 5 is more than 2.5
seconds, check the bypass contactor tips for free
movement. Check wiring for bad connections, and
check current limit.
2. Disconnect the logic connector P1.
3. Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
NOTE : The bypass contactor will not close if the
accelerator linkage is not adjusted correctly.
4. Connect positive multimeter lead to anode, and
the negative multimeter lead to cathode of diode in
the logics.
5. The multimeter must indicate .3 to .9 volts.
6. Reverse the leads (positive multimeter lead to
cathode and negative multimeter lead to anode).
The meter must indicate OL.
MicroController Control Systems
108
Testing And Adjusting
Contactor Tips
Coil Resistance
2. Disconnect all leads to both terminals of the coil.
3. Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range.
4. Measure the resistance of the coil at both
teminals. If must be within specifications. See
Component Measurements in Specifications
section.
5. If the coil is not within specifications, the contactor
assembly will be replaced.
Coil Pulsing
Checking Contactor Tip Gap
2. With the contactor coil leads and suppression
assembly leads connected, set the multimeter to
the 200 volts DC range.
2. Visually inspect the tips to verify they are not
welded, melted, burned, or pitted.
3. Pull and release the tips quickly to verify there is
no binding.
3. Connect the multimeter negative lead to the
negative coil terminal wire #33 and the meter
positive lead to the coil positive terminal wire #15.
4. Visually inspect the contactor assembly.
Verify foreign objects don't interfere with normal
contactor operation.
4. Connect the battery and activate the controls
necessary for the contactor to be activated.
5. Check contactor tip gap with a feeler gauge as
shown. Refer to Specifications section for correct
settings.
5. After the contactor activates the multimeter must
indicate 24 to 36 volts. If the voltage is not correct
and the contactor passed the Coil Suppression
Diodes test and the Coil Resistance test, the logics
must be replaced.
MicroController Control Systems
109
Testing And Adjusting
Current Sensor
4. Check continuity from harness connector PIN2
wire #L22 to logic P1-12 (3) and connector PIN2
wire #R22 to logic P1-13 (4). Repair or replace
any defective wires.
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery. The head capacitor (HEAD CAP) must be
discharged before any contact with the control
panel is made. Disconnect the battery and
discharge HEAD CAP.
5. Set the multimeter to the 200V DC range. With
connector P1 disconnected, connect the
multimeter positive lead to logic P1-16 (5).
Connect the multimeter negative lead to control
panel battery negative.
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor, and remove the logic cover.
6. Connect the battery and turn the key to ON. The
measurement must be 11 to 13 volts. If the
measurement is not correct replace the logics.
7. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor. Connect P1.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that
turn.
2
1
8. Set the multimeter to the 200V DC range and
connect the positive lead to logic P1-12 (3) or P113(4)
Location Of Components
(1) Current Sensor - Right. (2) Current Sensor - Left.
2. Disconnect current sensor connector.
9. Connect the battery and turn the key to ON. The
measurement must be 0 volts.
3. Make sure wire #1 from current sensors is
connected to the negative heatsink.
3
10. Move the direction lever to forward and depress
the accelerator. The voltage being measured
should increase. If there is no voltage measured
or the voltage being measured does not change,
the current sensor must be replaced.
4 5
NOTE: If the current sensor is replaced current limit
must be adjusted.
P1 Connector Locations
(3) P1-12. (4) P1-13. (5) P1-16.
MicroController Control Systems
110
Testing And Adjusting
Diodes
Diode Replacement
WARNING
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
1
5
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
6
2. Remove the logics.
3. Disconnect the lead wire and remove the diode.
1
2
7 9 3
4 8
Location of Comporrents
(1) DD1. (2) DD1cathode lead wire. (3) DD2.
(4) DD2 cathode lead wire. (5) DD3.
(6) DD3 cathode lead wire.(7) DD4.
(8) DD4 cathode lead wire. (9) Battery negative heatsink.
Diode installation
(1) Contact surfaces.
DD1 (1) is shown in the procedure that follows.
Use a similar procedure for the other diodes. DD1
(1), DD2 (3), DD3 (5) and DD4 (7) have a cathode
lead wire.
4. Wipe clean contact surfaces (1). Put a small
amount of D557047 Thermal Joint Compound on
contact surfaces (1), but not on the threads.
5. lnstall the diode and tighten to the specification
listed in the chart that follows.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
2. Disconnect DD1 cathode lead wire (2).
Diode
Torque
DD1, DD2, DD3, DD4
9 to 11 N•m (81 to 99 lb•in)
3. Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
6. Connect all wires that were removed.
4. Connect the negative multimeter lead on DD1
cathode lead wire (2). Connect the positive
multimeter lead to battery negative (9). The
multimeter should indicate .3 to.9 volts.
5. Reverse the multimeter leads. The multimeter
should indicate OL. If any of the measurements
are not correct, replace the diode.
MicroController Control Systems
111
Testing And Adjusting
Driver Board (On Vehicle)
NOTE: Driver board components are soldered
parallel to each other. The tests that follow
may not be typical of individual components
tests. The driver board must be replaced if
any incorrect test results are obtained.
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
Drive Side Tests
Refer to Driver Board Components and Connections.
If any of the measurements that follow are incorrect
the driver board must be replaced.
NOTICE
Damage to the control panel could result. To
prevent further damage before the Driver Board is
replaced, complete the check list that follow;
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor.
2. Disconnect CONN A from driver board - main.
3. Resistor R2 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range. Connect the
positive lead to CONN A-8. Connect the negative
lead to CONN A-9. The measurement must be 7.1
to 7.9 ohms.
1. Check head capacitor for a failure.
If the drive circuit failed:
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check diodes DD1, DD2.
Check diodes DD3, DD4.
Check transistors DTR1, DTR2.
Check continuity of current sensor wires.
Check continuity from DTR1 emitter (wire #L64)
to logic connector P9-5 and DTR2 emitter (wire
#R64) to logic connector P9-6.
4. Resistor R5 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range. Connect the
positive lead to CONN A-2. Connect the negative
lead to CONN A-3. The measurement must be 7.1
to 7.9 ohms.
5. Transistor TR1 (collector/emitter) and ZD1 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-9. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-1.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
If the hydraulic pump circuit failed:
2. Check diode PD.
3. Check transistor PTR1.
4. Check continuity from PTR1 emitter (wire #74)
to logic connector P9-7.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
NOTE: Visually inspect the following connections to
ensure proper connection and lack of
corrosion.
6. Transistor TR3 (collector/emitter) and ZD2 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-2. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-1.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
1. Wire #L63 to the base of DTR1.
2. Wire #R63 to the base of DTR2.
3. Wire #73 to the base of PTR1.
4. Wire #74 to the emitter of PTR1.
5. Wire #4 to the positive heatsink.
6. Wire #1 to the negative heatsink.
7. Wires #L67 and #L68 to DR1.
8. Wires #R67 and #R68 to DR2.
9. Wires #77 and #78 to PR1.
10. Wires #L65, #R65 and #75 to connector P9–1,
P9-2 and P9-3.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
7. Transistor TR1 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-9. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-10.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
MicroController Control Systems
112
Testing And Adjusting
15. Transistor TR2 (emitter/base) and R3 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-12.
Connect the negative lead to CONN A-7.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts as
above
8. Transistor TR3 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-2. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-4.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be almost same as
above.
9. Transistor TR1 (emitter/base) and R1 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-1. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-10.
The measurement must be 3.5 to 4.3 ohms.
16. Resistor R3 test.
Set the multimeter to the 2 KΩ range. Connect
the positive lead to CONN A-7. Connect the
negative lead to CONN A-12. The measurement
must be 1000 to 1400 ohms.
10. Transistor TR3 (emitter/base) and R4 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-1.
Connect the negative lead to CONN A-4.
The measurement must be 3.5 to 4.3 ohms.
17. Transistor TR4 (emitter/base) and R6 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-6. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-7.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
11. Transistor TR2 (collector/emitter) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-7. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-11.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be almost same as
above.
18. Resistor R6 test.
Set the multimeter to the 2 KΩ range. Connect
the positive lead to CONN A-7. Connect the
negative lead to CONN A-6. The measurement
must be 1000 to 1400 ohms.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
12. Transistor TR4 (collector/emitter) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-7. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-5.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
19. Connect all disconnected connectors.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
13. Transistor TR2 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-12.
Connect the negative lead to CONN A-11.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
14. Transistor TR4 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-6. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-5.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
MicroController Control Systems
113
Testing And Adjusting
8. Transistor TR6 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN P-3. Connect
the negative lead to CONN P-5.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Hydraulic Pump Side Tests
Refer to Driver Board Components and Connections.
If any of the measurements that follow are incorrect
the driver board must be replaced.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor.
9. Transistor TR6 (emitter/base) and R11 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200 Ω range.
Connect the positive lead to positive heatsink.
Connect the negative lead to CONN P-5.
The measurement must be 3.5 to 4.3 ohms.
2. Disconnect CONN A, CONN B from driver board main and CONN P from driver board - hydraulic.
3. Transistor TR5 (collector/emitter) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-7. Connect
the negative lead to CONN B-4.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
10. Resistor R9 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200 Ω range.
Connect the positive lead to CONN P-3. Connect
the negative lead to CONN P-4.
The measurement must be 7.1 to 7.9 ohms.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
11. Connect all disconnected connectors.
4. Transistor TR5 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN B-6. Connect
the negative lead to CONN B-4.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
5. Transistor TR5 (emitter/base) and R7 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN B-6. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-7.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be almost same as
above.
6. Resistor R7 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range.
Connect the positive lead to CONN B-6. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-7.
The measurement must be 1000 to 1400 ohms.
7. Transistor TR6 (collector/emitter) and ZD3 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN P-3. Connect
the negative lead to positive heatsink. The
measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
MicroController Control Systems
114
Testing And Adjusting
Driver Board (Off Vehicle)
Driver Board – Main
2
1
1
1
6
7
5
6
12
3
4
10
Driver Board – Hydraulic
8
8
1
9
10
Driver Board Components and Connections
(1) CONN A. (2) CONN B. (3) TR1. (4) TR2. (5) TR3. (6) TR4. (7) TR5. (8) CONN P. (9) TR6.
(10) Positive heatsink.
MicroController Control Systems
115
Testing And Adjusting
DRIVER BOARD TEST (OFF VEHICLE)
Component
Multimeter Range
+ Lead
- Lead
Result
DRIVE SIDE
TR1 (C to E)
Diode
#R63-A9
#4-A1
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR1 (C to E)
Diode
#4-A1
#R63-A9
OL
TR1 (C to B)
Diode
#R63-A9
#R67-A10
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR1 (C to B)
Diode
#R67-A10
#R63-A9
OL
TR1 (E to B) AND R1
200Ω
#4-A1
#R67-A10
3.5 to 4.5 ohms
R2
200Ω
#R64-A8
#R63-A9
7.1 to 7.9 ohms
TR2 (C to E)
Diode
#1-A7
#R68-A11
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR2 (C to E)
Diode
#R68-A11
#1-A7
OL
TR2 (C to E)
Diode
#R65-A12
#R68-A11
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR2 (C to B)
Diode
#R68-A11
#R65-A12
OL
TR2 (E to B) AND R3
Diode
#R65-A12
#1-A7
0.3 to 0.9 ohms
R3
200Ω
#R65-A12
#1-A7
1000 to 1400 ohms
TR3 (C to E)
Diode
#L63-A2
#4-A1
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR3 (C to E)
Diode
#4-A1
#L63-A2
OL
TR3 (C to B)
Diode
#L63-A2
#L67-A4
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR3 (C to B)
Diode
#L67-A4
#L63-A2
OL
TR3 (E to B) AND R4
200Ω
#4-A1
#L67-A4
3.5 to 4.3 ohms
R5
200Ω
#L63-A2
#L64-A3
7.1 to 7.9 ohms
TR4 (C to E)
Diode
#1-A7
#L68-A5
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR4 (C to E)
Diode
#L68-A5
#1-A7
OL
TR4 (C to B)
Diode
#L65-A6
#L68-A5
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR4 (C to B)
Diode
#L68-A5
#L65-A6
OL
TR4 (E to B) AND R6
Diode
#L65-A6
#1-A7
0.3 to 0.9 ohms
R6
200kΩ
#1-A7
#1-A7
1000 to 1400 ohms
PUMP SIDE
TR5 (C to E)
Diode
#1-A7
#78-B4
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR5 (C to E)
Diode
#78-B4
#1-A7
OL
TR5 (C to B)
Diode
#75-B6
#78-B4
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR5 (C to B)
Diode
#78-B4
#75-B6
OL
TR5 (E to B) AND R7
Diode
#1-A7
#75-B6
0.3 to 0.9 ohms
R7
200kΩ
#1-A7
#75-B6
1000 to 1400 ohms
TR6 (C to E)
Diode
#73-P3
+ HEATSINK
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR6 (C to C)
Diode
+ HEATSINK
#73-P3
OL
TR6 (C to B)
Diode
#73-P3
#77-P5
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR6 (C to B)
Diode
#77-P5
#73-P3
OL
TR6 (E to B) AND R11
200Ω
#77-P5
+ HEATSINK
3.5 to 4.3 ohms
R9
200Ω
#73-P3
#74-P4
7.1 to 7.9 ohms
MicroController Control Systems
116
Testing And Adjusting
1. Check head capacitor for a failure.
Transistors DTR1,DTR2 and PTR1
If drive circuit failed:
WARNING
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check DD1,DD2 for a failure.
Check DD3,DD4 for a failure.
Check DTR1,DTR2 for a failure.
Check driver board (drive side) for a failure.
Check continuity from DTR1,DTR2 emitter bus
bar (wire #L64, #R64) to logic P9-5, P9-6.
7. Perform Current Sensor test.
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor
(HEAD CAP) before any contact is made with the
control panel.
If the pump circuit failed:
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor and remove the logics.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2. Remove wires and bus bars from base and emitter
terminals of the transistors to be tested.
Check PD for a failure.
Check PTR1 for a failure.
Check driver board (pump side) for a failure.
Check continuity from PTR1 emitter (wire #74)
to logic P9-7.
2
1
Transistor Replacement DTR1,
DTR2 and PTR1
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
3
D557003 (927566) Transistor
(1) Emitter. (2) Base. (3) Collectror.
TRANSISTOR SPECIFICATIONS
Multimeter
(+)
(-)
D557003
Setting
Test Lead
Test
Results
Resistance
Emitter
Base
45 to 135Ω
Diode
Base
Collector
3 to .9 V
Diode
Collector
Base
OL
Diode
Emitter
Collector
.3 to.9V
Diode
Collector
Emitter
OL
7 6
31
2
Location of Components
(1) Bolt. (2) Bar. (3) Emitter wire #L64.
(4) Base wire #L63. (5) Transistor DTR1. (6) Screw.
(7) Bolts.
NOTICE
Damage to the control panel could result.
To prevent further damage before a power transistor
is replaced, complete the check list that follows:
MicroController Control Systems
4 5
DTR1,DTR2 and PTR1 are all replaced in the same
way. DTR1(5) is shown in the procedure that follows.
117
Testing And Adjusting
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor, and remove the logics.
Resistors (DR1, DR2 and PR1)
2. Remove bolt (1), bar (2) and emitter wire #L64 (3).
WARNING
3. Remove screw (6) and base wire #L63 (4).
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
4. Remove mounting bolts (7).
NOTE : Look for visual breaks or cracks on resistors.
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor, and remove the logics.
8
1
2
Transistor Removal
(8) Contact surface.
4
5
3
6
5
8
Location of Components
(1) DR1. (2) Wire #L67. (3) DR2.
(4) Wire #R67. (5) PR1. (6) Wire #77.
Transistor Removal
(5) DTR1 transistor. (8) Contact surface.
2. Disconnect wire #L67 (2) from resistor DR1 (1)
and disconnect wire #R67 from resistor DR2 (3).
5. The contact surface (8) of transistor (5) is coated
with D557047 Thermal Joint Compound. Carefully
remove the transistor.
3. Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range. Connect the
multimeter leads to terminals on resistor (1) to
check the resistance of DR1. Connect the
multimeter leads to terminals on resistor (3) to
check the resistance of DR2. Connect the
multimeter leads to terminals on resistor (5) to
check the resistance of PR1.
6. To Replace the transistor, wipe clean contact
surfaces. Put a small amount of D557047 Thermal
Joint Compound on the contact surface (8). Coat
transistor so that compound covers only the
contact area.
7. Install transistor (5) with mounting bolts (7). See
Specifications section for proper torques.
4. The measurement for each resistor must be: 85 to
95 ohms.
8. Install base wire #L63 (4) with screw (6). See
Specifications section for proper torques.
5. If the measurement is not correct, the resistor
must be
9. Install bar (2) and emitter wire #L64 (3) with bolts
(1). See Specifications section for proper torques.
MicroController Control Systems
118
Testing And Adjusting
Thermal Switch
The Thermal Switch (1) will open circuit if the
temperature is 81 to 89°C (178 to 192°F) and close
circuit at 69 to 77°C (156 to 171°F).
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
If the thermal switch is removed from the heatsink, it
can be tested in an oven.
See Troubleshooting Problem 20. Possible cause,
pump or drive transistors overtemperature.
NOTICE
Damage to the thermal switch will occur. Do not
heat the thermal switch over an open flame.
Pump Motor and Drive Motor
The Thermal Switch (1) will open circuit if the
temperature is 144 to 156°C (291 to 313°F)
and close circuit at 123 to 137°C (253 to 279°F).
If the thermal switch is removed from the motor, it
can be tested in an oven.
Control Panel
See Troubleshooting Problems 21 and 22. Possible
cause, drive or pump motors overtemperature.
1
5
Location of Components
(1) Thermal switch-Drive. (5) Thermal switch-Hydraulic.
MicroController Control Systems
119
Testing And Adjusting
Method B (Electrical)
Electrical System Adjustments
1. Enter diagnostics, through the specified procedure,
the display is an “A0”.
Accelerator Control Linkage
2. Depress the accelerator slowly to stop. The speed
symbols will increase from 0 to 10 on LCD.
Method A (Mechanical)
3. Release the accelerator, the display will be “A0”,
disconnect the battery, and place the
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch back to RUN, and
reinstall the line fuse.
1
4
Parking Brake Switch
63
2
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that
turn.
3
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
2. Adjust length of lever (1) to 63 L 2 mm and
tighten the nut (2). Fully depress accelerator pedal
(4) until stopped by accelerator stopper (3).
3. Release accelerator pedal (4). Check for
dimension.
3
2
1
Parking Brake Switch Adjustment
(1) Switch. (2) Plate. (3) Bolts.
1. Close the seat switch and turn the key to ON.
2. Release the parking brake and put the truck in
forward.
MicroController Control Systems
120
Testing And Adjusting
3. Reposition plate (2) so the switch (1) actuator is
against the bracket. Tighten bolts (3).
Valve Control Card Adjustment
4. Engage the parking brake and the park brake
symbol will be displayed. Repeat the procedure
until adjustment is correct.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safety lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that turn.
Lift Sensor
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
1. Verify the lift sensor clearance is adjusted
correctly.
1
2. Disconnect all tilt and auxiliary switch connectors.
3
3. Place the lift truck in “Quick” or “Self” diagnostics
so that the display is flashing the lift speed.
4
2
Lift Sensor Adjustment
(1) Lift Sensor(transducer) (2) Magnet. (3) Screw.
(4) Setscrew. (A) 1.0 mm (.039 in) Clearance.
1
NOTICE
Lift sensor may be damaged. Do not allow the magnet
(2) to make contact with the plastic bracket when the
lift lever is activated.
2
Valve Control Card Adjustment
(1) P1 Potentiometer. (2) P2 Potentiometer.
4. Turn potentiometer P1 (1) fully counterclockwise
unitl a clicking sound is heard (roughly 20 turns).
2. Loosen setscrew (4).
5. Turn potentiometer P2 (2) fully counterclockwise
until a clicking sound is heard (roughly 20 turns).
3. Adjust screw (3) to make clearance (A) 1.0mm
(.039 in) between lift sensor (1) and magnet (2)
when the lift lever is activated fully (pulled all the
way back).
6. Turn potentiometer P2 (1) 15 full turns clockwise.
7. Position the lift lever just prior to the hydraulic
valve opening. Adjust P1(1) clockwise until a
flashing “1” is obtained on the display.
4. Tighten setscrew (4). Check lift sensor circuit. The
valve control card may need adjusting.
MicroController Control Systems
121
Testing And Adjusting
8. Pull the lift lever all the way back. A flashing “3”
must be displayed.
Tilt and Auxiliary Switches
9. If a flashing “3” is not displayed, adjust P2 (2)
clockwise until it is.
Because each tilt and auxiliary switch can turn on the
pump motor, it is recommended that only one be
connected to start with. After adjusting the first switch
proceed with the next one.
10. Release the lift lever and adjust P1
counterclockwise until a “0” is displayed.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor. Disconnect all but one switch connector.
11. Repeat steps 9 and 10 until “0” to “3” speeds
correct.
12. Put the lift truck back in the run mode so the
actual hydraulics can be tested.
13. Connect the battery, close the seat switch and
turn the key to ON.
14. Pull the lift lever back until the pump motor turns
on. The forks must not move. Adjust P1 so the
motor starts just before the valve opens.
1
If the valve opens before the motor turns on, adjust
P1 (1) clockwise.
2
If the motor turns on too far in advance of the valve
opening, adjust P1 (1) counterclockwise.
Tilt and Auxiliary Switch Adjustment
(1) Screw. (2) Screws.
2. With valve spool in neutral position, loosen screws
(2) and adjust screw (1) to center the switch roller
on cam.
3. After adjusting switch in or out to obtain correct
switch point, tighten screws (1) and (2) to lock
switch into position.
4. Connect the battery, close the seat switch and turn
the key to on. Readjust switch if needed, so that
the pump motor turns on before the control valve
opens.
This must be adjusted for each lever direction
(pushed or pulled).
5. Connect the next switch and repeat this proccdure.
MicroController Control Systems
122
Testing And Adjusting
Rapid Tune-Up Procedure
3) VR6 : Bypass Dropout Current Potentiometer
5
4
Fully counterclockwise (CCW) and then
slowly turn VR6 (13 full turns) clockwise
(430A).
3
2
1
4. Make the final adjustments as specified in each of
the Testing And Adjusting procedures before
putting the truck into service. Perform these
procedures in the order listed below:
Lacation of Potentiometers
(1) Current limit potentiometer VR1.
(2) Plugging Current limit potentiometer VR2.
(3) BDI adjustment potentiometer VR5.
(4) Bypass drop out adjustment potentiometer VR6.
(5) Electric Assist Brake adjustment potentiometer VR8.
1) Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI)
2) Current Limit
3) Plugging Current Limit
5. Turn off the key switch.
The rapid tune-up procedure establishes a starting
point for logic card adjustments. The following
procedure allows the truck to run without damage to
the truck or its components.
Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI)
Adjustment
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that turn.
1
3
2
1. Turn off the key switch.
2. Place direction lever to reverse or forward or seat
switch open.
Logic Board Layout
(1) Jumper JP1. (2) Jumper JP2. (3) Potentiometer VR5
3. Turn on the key switch and then wait until display
“EE” (SRO) or “EE” flashing shows on the LCD
and the line contactor will be opened.
Accurate adjustment of the BDI is only possible with
a battery of the same voltage that the truck is going
to operate at, and at a voltage within the range of the
display. If a lift interrupt has occurred, with a “EL” on
the display, it may be necessary to reprogram
Feature “10” to select TYPE1, and then make the
necessary adjustments.
If 48 volt European tubular batteries are used, it is
recommended that logic board is programmed
TYPE1 on Programmable Feature “10”.
1) VRI : Drive Motor Current Limit
Potentiometer
Fully counterclockwise (CCW) and then
slowly turn VR1 (9 full turns) clockwise
(270A).
2) VR2 : Plugging Current Limit Potentiometer
Fully counterclockwise (CCW) and then
slowly trun VR2 (8 full turns) clockwise
(250A).
MicroController Control Systems
123
Testing And Adjusting
Battery Table of the Closed Circuits
BDI Adjustment
Battery Terminal Voltage
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor. Remove logic cover and verify the
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch is in the RUN position.
2. Make sure the jumper connector is in the correct
place for the lift truck battery used. Place the
jumper on the following.
JP1=36V, JP2=48V
3. Set the multimeter to measure battery voltage.
Connect the multimeter positive lead to the battery
positive cable at the line contactor. Connect the
multimeter negative lead to the battery negative
cable.
4. Put the direction lever in neutral and connect the
battery.
Bar Symbols
Display
Type 1(OPT) : Closed Voltage
6
above 37.2
5
36.8 to 37.2
4
36.4 to 36.7
3
36.0 to 36.3
2
35.6 to 35.9
1
35.2 to 35.5
1*
25.8 to 35.1
0/EL
below 25.8
36V
1*=Display is flashing
5. Close the seat switch and turn the key to ON. The
BDI display must show the correct bar for the
voltage measured. To correct values are shown in
the charts that follow.
Battery Terminal Voltage
Bar Symbols
Display
Type 1(STD) : Closed Voltage
EXAMPLE: If the measurement is 37.2 volts for a 36
volt battery, the bar display should be at “5”.
6
above 37.2
5
36.8 to 37.2
6. If the display is not correct, turn the key to OFF
and make an adjustment to potentiometer VR5.
Turn VR5 clockwise to increase and
counterclockwise to decrease the bar display.
Approximately a 1/2 turn of VR5 will change the
display one bar. Turn the key to OFF between
adjustments otherwise the display WILL NOT
CHANGE.
4
36.4 to 36.7
3
35.9 to 36.2
2
35.4 to 35.8
1
35.0 to 35.3
1*
34.5 to 34.9
0/EL
below 34.5
36V
1* = Display is flashing
7. If the voltage was 37.2V, VR5 should be turned to
find the transition point between 6 and 5 on the
bar display. This will assure that the BDI is
calibrated at a high 5.
6 : The highest position
Battery Terminal Voltage
: Max. Charged Status
5:
4:
3:
2:
1:
: (A) Not flashing
(B) Flashing - 80%
discharge warning
MicroController Control Systems
124
Bar Symbols
Display
Type 1(OPT) : Closed Voltage
6
above 37.2
5
36.9 to 37.2
4
36.6 to 36.8
3
35.3 to 36.5
2
35.9 to 36.2
1
35.6 to 35.8
1*
35.3 to 35.5
0/EL
below 35.3
36V
Testing And Adjusting
NOTE: Closed Voltage means that line contactor
close and idle operation in hydraulic system.
7. If the voltage is higher than 37.2V, adjust the BDI
as example.
EXAMPLE: If the measurement is 38.8V, adjust bar
display at a low 6 and then turn VR5 to 1
TURN CW. (1 TURN CW = 1.6V
increase)
BDI Adjustment with display at “EL”
If the logics has already gone into lift interrupt
(display = “EL”) it is not possible to adjust the BDI
until a battery above a certain programmed voltage is
connected to the vehicle.
The factory default setting to reset the lift interrupt is
any voltage equivalent to a bar display of 3 or higher.
This level can be adjusted.
See Program Feature “3”.
By reprogramming Feature “3”, from the factory
default code of 3, to a temporary code of 0, it will
become possible to adjust the BDI with a battery with
a voltage less than a 3 on the bar display .
After adjustment of the BDI, reprogram Feature “3”
back to the default setting of 3.
MicroController Control Systems
125
Testing And Adjusting
Current Limit Test and Adjustment
4. Engage the park brake. Connect the park brake
connector of harness to hold the closed circuit.
5. Connect the battery. Close the seat switch and
turn the key to ON.
6. Select a direction and depress the service brake
so that the wheels do not turn. Depress the
accelerator to 80% pulsing.
To prevent bypass operation ensure that the
accelerator is not depressed all the way down. To
get an accurate current reading the wheels must
not slip.
1
Ammeter Connection
(1) Digital Ammeter.
NOTICE
Damage to the drive motor will result. Do not stall
the drive motor for longer than absolutely
necessary. To protect the drive motor from
excessive currents, and “F0” can occur during
current limit setting. Allow for the motors to cool
between stalls, and let the motor run between
stalls.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that
turn.
7. The current measurement must be within
specification. Adjust logic potentiometer VR1
clockwise to increase the current and
counterclockwise to decrease the current.
36V between 240 and 270 amps.
NOTE : Current limit is preset at the factory and
should not be adjusted unless the truck
malfunctions, or the logic board is replaced.
Only qualified service personnel with the
correct instrumentation should adjust current
limits.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until setting is correct.
9. Don’t forget to re-engage the service brake switch
and park brake switch prior to putting the vehicle
back into operation.
1. Put blocks of wood under the frame so both drive
wheels are free to turn.
2. Connect clamp-on ammeter (1) around the LA1
cable to measure drive motor current. Use
multimeter to read current remotely from the
operator’s seat. Ensure that option feature “9” is
default setting to prevent bypass operation.
3. Remove the floor plate, and disconnect the service
brake switch connector.
MicroController Control Systems
126
Testing And Adjusting
Electrical Braking (Plugging)
Current Test and Adjustment
Bypass Dropout Adjustment - Stall
Protection
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that
turn.
1
The stall protection feature helps protect the drive
motor from abuse, and can also prevent unnecessary
line fuse failures. Adjustment or checking of this
current setting is not recommended unless drive
motor or fuse failures have occurred, or an “F0”
occurs during bypass operation. Factory settings are
as follows:
Ammeter Connection
(1) Digital Ammeter.
1. Make sure current limit is adjusted to specification
before adjusting Electrical Braking current.
2. Connect clamp-on current probe (1) around LA1
cable to measure drive motor current. Use
multimeter to read current remotely from the
operator’s seat.
36V between 420 and 440 amps
Fully counterclockwise (CCW) and then slowly turn
VR6 (20 full turns) clockwise (430A).
3. Move the lift truck FORWARD at full speed. Keep
the accelerator pedal fully depressed and change
the direction to REVERSE.
If “F0” occurs during bypass operation, the
application should be investigated for incorrect
operation, and maximum currents should be
measured. Adjusting VR6 clockwise will increase the
maximum current allowed in bypass. For maximum
motor protection, VR6 can be adjusted
counterclockwise, until a “F0” occurs in bypass, then
adjust the potentiometer clockwise 1 turn.
4. The current measured during the electircal braking
(plugging )must be 250 amps L 5%.
5. If the correct current is not measured, disconnect
the battery and discharge the head capacitor.
Remove the logic cover and adjust potentiometer
VR2. Turn the potentiometer adjustment screw
counterclockwise to decrease the plugging current.
NOTE : Though the plugging distance
(Recommended plugging distance is
approximately 5 meters) is an application
specific adjustment, plugging current should
not exceed 250 amps. If the recommended
current produces a short stopping distance,
the distance may be lengthened by turning
potentiometer VR2 counterclockwise to
reduce plugging current.
MicroController Control Systems
127
Testing And Adjusting
Programmable Features
There are 17 programmable features that effect the
operation of the lift truck. A table of these features,
the default setting, the minimum setting and the
maximum setting are shown below:
Feature Minimum Maximum Default
Number Setting
With the desired Feature Number being shown, move
the direction lever to forward or reverse and then
neutral. The display will flash the preset data value.
To increase the value, cycle the direction lever to
forward and then back to neutral. The display will
increment number. Repeat this cycle until the
desired value for this feature is flashed.
Description
Setting Setting
0
1
5
4
Creep Speed
1
1
6
4
Maximum Steering Speed
2
1
2
0
Electrically Assisted Braking
3
0
6
3
Discharged Battery Reset Value
4
0
6
5
0
Top Travel Speed Limit
P
Auto Plugging
6
0
4
2
Wait Timer (seconds)
7
1
2
1
Discharged Battery Drive Speed
8
1
5
4
Acceleration Travel Speed Time
9
1
3
1
Excessive Drive Motor Current
10
1
3
2
Battery Type Selection
11
1
6
3
Maximum Idle Speed
12
1
6
3
Maximum Lift1 Speed
13
1
6
1
Maximum Lift2 Speed
14
1
6
3
Maximum Tilt Speed
15
1
9
4
Maximum Auxiliary Speed
16
1
5
3
Hydraulic Ramp Timer
To save a new setting, pull the tilt lever to
maximum position and then release slowly while
holding a wanted setting.
The display will show the next feature number.
3. Repeat again on the above NO.2 until static
display, 16 will show.
A “PE” indicates the end of the feature list and can
be cycled to return to the beginning of the feature
list.
Activating Default Settings
All of the programmable features can be set to
the factory default settings by the following
procedure.
1. Turn the key switch to OFF.
Setting Procedure Option Features
2. Seat switch must be open.
The programming procedures are described on the
following.
3. Move the direction lever to reverse.
4. Place the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to SETUP.
1. Initial conditions
5. Park brake must be released.
Move the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to “SETUP”
and then turn on the key switch.
6. Depress the accelerator pedal to maximum.
Wait until display “0” shows on the LCD. This code
indicates that truck is in the SETUP mode.
7. Turn the key switch to ON.
8. After the display performs the LCD test, a “d”
(Flashing) will be displayed. This indicates that the
default settings have been programmed.
2. Programming methods
To change the Programmable Feature Numbers,
pull the tilt lever to maximum position and then
release once. The display will show Feature
Number 1.
NOTE: When you change voltage jumper
(JP1
JP2), you should do the default
setting on page 129
Cycling the tilt switch advances the display to the
next Feature Number. Cycle the tilt switch until the
Feature Number of the parameter to be
programmed is shown on the display.
MicroController Control Systems
128
Testing And Adjusting
Programmable or Settable Option Features
The logics contains a number of features which are either settable or programmable.
The following is a list of the features, however the “Service Manual” or your Daewoo Dealer should be consulted
in determing which options may be beneficial to the application.
Note : Marked
means default setting.
FEATURE NO.
DESCRIPTIONS
• • Creep Speed
•B
•
0
Creep Speed Selection provides for slower creep speed control, especially at high mast
application. Depending on truck chassis configuration and customer preference, the
creep speed can be selected. The default setting of 2 gives improved creep speed
control, especially at higher mast. The higher “number” makes more faster creep speed.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
On-Duty (%)
20
23
26
29
32
• • Maximum Steering Speed
•B
•
This can be used to limit the maximum steering speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
1
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
17
20
23
26
29
32
• • Electrically Assisted Braking
B
•
2
To automatically activate plugging braking when the service brake is depressed and
accelerator pedal is released.
Data Codes
0
1
Comments
Not used
Used
• • Discharged Battery Reset Value
•B
•
3
This feature sets the level of battery charge required to enable the hydraulics after
a lift interrupt occurs. The battery discharge indicator (BDI) must read a level
greater than the value set in this feature to enable the hydraulics after a lift interrupt
occurs.
(1* = Display is flashing)
Data Codes
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
1*
1
2
3
4
5
6
• • Top Travel Speed Limit
•B
•
4
The value of this feature is set to select the drive motor top speed.
Values between 1 and 5 allow for varying speeds, 1 being the slowest and 5 being
the fastest without using the bypass contactor.
0 being the normal travel and bypass operation.
Data Codes
0
1
2
3
4
5
Speed(%)
100 : Bypass operation
43
50
60
75
90
MicroController Control Systems
129
Testing And Adjusting
FEATURE NO.
DESCRIPTIONS
• • Auto Plugging
•B
•
5
If selected, this feature will automatically activate auto plugging braking when the
accelerator is released during driving.
Data Codes
P
Time (Sec)
Pass
• • Wait Timer
•B
•
6
This feature varies the time before the line contactor drops out after the truck has
been inactive (wait mode-no operator requests, and direction lever in neutral).
The delay may be set in 6 second increments between 0 and 12 seconds.
Data Codes
0
1
2
3
4
Time (Sec)
0
3
6
9
12
• • Discharged Battery Drive Speed
•B
•
7
This feature sets the drive motor top speed during lift interrupt, battery lock-out. If
the display shows “EL”, the logics limits the drive motor top speed to the value set
in this feature.
Data Codes
Comments
1
2
1. Max.speed=70%
1. Normal operation.
2. No bypass operation.
2. Bypass operation.
• • Acceleration Travel Speed Time
•B
•
8
This feature allows for varying amounts of time until the bypass contactor close
when accelerator pedal has been depressed from zero to max. position.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
Time (Sec)
Slowest
Slower
Normal
Faster
Fastest
• • Excessive Drive Motor Current
•B
•
9
This prevents the truck from entering bypass when the truck is in current limit, thus
extending the life of the bypass contactor tips, reducing line fuse failures, and
extending drive motor brush life.
If the motor is stalled for longer than the timer is set for, the vehicle will failsafe to
prevent motor damage and an “F0” will be displayed.
Data Codes
Comments
1
2
3
This is to protect drive
This is to protect drive
motor from excessive
motor from excessive
current in either pulsing
current in only bypass
or bypass modes.
modes.
Not used
• • Battery Type Selection
•B
•
10
Due to different voltage characteristics of battery technologies, specifically
european tubular designs, it may be necessary to use a battery voltage chart with a
reduced voltage range.
Data Codes
1
2
3
Battery Voltage (Volt)
Max.37.2/Min.25.8
Max.37.2/Min.34.5
Max.37.2/Min.35.3
MicroController Control Systems
130
Testing And Adjusting
FEATURE NO.
DESCRIPTIONS
• • Maximum Idle Speed
•B
•
11
This can be used to limit the maximum idle speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
7
9
11
13
15
17
• • Maximum Lift 1 Speed
•B
•
12
This can be used to limit the maximum lift 1 speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
25
30
35
40
45
50
• • Maximum LIft 2 Speed
•B
•
13
This can be used to limit the maximum lift 2 speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
50
60
70
80
90
95
• • Maximum Tilt Speed
•B
•
14
This can be used to limit the maximum tilt speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
Data Codes
15
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
30
•
•B
• • Maximum Auxiliary Speed
40
50
60
70
80
This can be used to limit the maximum aux. speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Time (Sec)
30
35
40
45
55
65
75
85
95
• • Hydraulic Ramp Timer
•B
•
16
When the hydraulic switches are activated, the time which is to take to maximum
pulsing can be adjusted.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
On-Duty (%)
Slowest
Slower
Normal
Faster
Faster
Quick Procedure for Programmable Features
An alternative method of entering option programmable features has been programmed into the logics. This will
enable quick option programmable features without removing the controller room, line fuse, or placing the
DIAG/RUN/SET switch to the “Set Up” position.
To enter quick option programmable features, open the seat switch and place the direction lever to reverse and
ensure that the park brake is released. While depressing the accelerator to maximum position other than OFF,
and key switch to ON.
Display will go to a solid “O”, indicating that you have entered option programmable features and you are ready
for setting: Place the direction lever to neutral and release accelerator pedal.You can set the option
programmable features.
See programmable or Settable Option Features on page 129-132.
MicroController Control Systems
131
Testing And Adjusting
SB4101E00
Sep. 2003
Specifications
Systems Operation
Testing & Adjusting
MicroController Control Systems
Models : B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
EMOFB-00001~UP
EMOFC-00001~UP
EMOFD-00001~UP
EMOD7-00001~UP
(48V P/N A244300)
for Electric Lift Trucks
Important Safety Information
Most accidents involving product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety
rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an
accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary
training, skill and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, Iubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result
in injury or death.
Do not operater or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read
and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are
not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or other persons.
The hazards are identified by the “Safety Alert Symbol” and followed by a “Signal Word” such as “WARNING” as
shown below.
WARNING
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows :
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The message that appears under the warning, explaining the hazard, can be either written or pictorially
presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in this
publication.
DAEWOO cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in
this pulication and on the product are therefore not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating
technique not specifically recommended by DAEWOO is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and
others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or made unsafe by the operation, lubrication,
maintenance or repair procedures you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information available at the
time it was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other
items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service given to the product. Obtain the complete
and most current information before starting any job. DAEWOO dealers have the most current information
available.
MicroController Control Systems
1
Specifications
Index
Specifications
Component Measurements.......................................
Console .....................................................................
Contactors.................................................................
Control Panel (Layout) ..............................................
Current Measurements .............................................
5
7
8
9
5
Location of Control Panel Components .................. 16
Logic Unit ................................................................ 17
Operational Circuit Elements .................................. 18
Accelerator Control ............................................. 23
Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI)....................... 22
Central Vehicle Monitoring System..................... 18
Contactors .......................................................... 21
Current Sensor ................................................... 21
CVMS International Pictorial Symbols................ 20
On Board “Run Time” Diagnostics
(Fault Detection) ................................................. 18
Steer Angle Control ............................................ 23
Wait Mode........................................................... 21
Direction Switch ........................................................ 7
Display Layout .......................................................... 7
Fuses ........................................................................ 8
Head Capacitor ......................................................... 8
Instrument Panel ....................................................... 7
Thermal Switch - Control Panel ................................ 8
Transistor Connections ............................................. 6
Transistor Measurements ......................................... 6
Symbol Library ........................................................ 15
Testing And Adjusting
Systems Operation
Accessory Circuits ..................................................
DC - DC Converter .............................................
Horn Circuit.........................................................
Hour Meter Circuit ..............................................
Built-In Diagnostic Operation .................................. 46
Accessing Stored Error Codes ........................... 51
Erased Stored Error Codes ................................51
“Run Time” Diagnostics
(Lift Truck in Operation) ...................................... 46
Quick Diagnostic Procedure ............................... 52
Saving Service Records ..................................... 51
“Self” Diagnostics
(Lift Truck not in Operation) ................................ 48
Stored Error Codes............................................. 52
24
24
24
24
Actuation Circuit ...................................................... 25
Drive Circuit ............................................................
Bypass Circuit.....................................................
Control Circuit .....................................................
Current Limit .......................................................
Electrical Braking (Plugging) ..............................
Failure Protection Circuit ....................................
Flyback Circuit ....................................................
Power Circuit ......................................................
Thermal Protection Circuits ................................
33
38
33
37
39
41
36
34
41
Component Tests .................................................. 104
Capacitor (Head) .............................................. 107
Conductor and Switch Continuity ..................... 107
Contactors ........................................................ 108
Contactor Components..................................... 108
Current Sensor.................................................. 110
Diode Replacement........................................... 111
Diodes ............................................................... 111
Driver Board (Off Vehicle) ................................. 115
Driver Board (On Vehicle)................................. 112
Logic Unit Quick Reference Voltage Check ..... 104
Resistors (DR1, DR2, and PR1) ....................... 118
Thermal Switch ................................................. 119
Transistors DTR1, DTR2 and PTR1 ................. 117
Transistors Replacement
DTR1, DTR2 and PTR1.................................... 117
General Information ................................................ 17
Glossary .................................................................. 11
Hydraulic Pump Motor Circuit ................................. 26
Flyback Circuit .................................................... 31
Lift Circuit............................................................ 27
Lift Control Circuit ................................................32
Power Steering Circuit .........................................26
Power Steering Idle .............................................28
MicroController Control Systems
3
Index
Control and Power System Operational
Checks .................................................................... 45
Electrical System Adjustments ...............................120
Accelerator Control Linkage ..............................120
BDI Adjustment ..................................................123
Bypass Dropout Adjustment ..............................127
Current Limit Test and Adjustment.....................126
Electrical Braking (Plugging) Current
Test and Adjustment ..........................................127
Lift Sensor..........................................................121
Parking Brake Switch.........................................120
Rapid Tune - Up Procedure...............................123
Tilt and Auxiliary Switches .................................122
Valve Control Card Adjustment..........................121
Preparation Tests and Checks .................................42
Programmable Features ........................................128
Activating Default Settings.................................128
Programmable or Settable Option
Features.............................................................129
Setting Procedure Option Features ...................128
System Tests and Adjustments ..............................101
Discharging Head Capacitor
(HEAD CAP) ......................................................101
Logics Removal .................................................102
“Run Time” Tests................................................102
Test Equipment ..................................................101
Troubleshooting........................................................42
Troubshooting Problem List ....................................53
MicroController Control Systems
4
Index
Specifications
Component Measurements
Component
Meter
Meter Positive
Meter Negative
Scale
(+) Test Lead
(-) Test Lead
Desired Indication
DIODES (voltage indication)
All
Diode
Anode
Cathode
0.3 to 0.9 volts
All
Diode
Cathode
Anode
OL
RESISTORS (resistance indication) Panels with D557003(927566) Transistor & D557065 Transistor
DRI, DR2, PR1
200Ω
90 ohms L 5%
R2, R5, R8
200Ω
7.5 ohms L 5%
HEAD CAPACITOR (resistance indication)
Head capacitor
200Ω
Positive side of
Negative side of
0 then change to
capactior (+)
capactior (-)
above 10K ohms
CONTACTOR COILS (resistance indication)
Direcitional
200Ω
X
Y
40 to 50 ohms
Line
200Ω
X
Y
95 to 115 ohms
Bypass
200Ω
X
Y
60 to 95 ohms
Current Measurements
CURRENT VALUES (AMPS)
Transistor
Current Limit
Plugging Limit
D557003 (927566)
270 L 10A
250 L 10A
MicroController Control Systems
5
Specifications
Transistor Measurements
SPECIFICATIONS
Multimeter
(+)
(-)
D557003 (927566)
Setting
Test Lead
Test Lead
Results
Resistance
Emitter
Base
45 to 135 ohms
Diode
Base
Collector
.3 to .9V
Diode
Collector
Base
OL
Diode
Emitter
Collector
.3 to .9V
Diode
Collector
Emitter
OL
Transistor Connections
A154972 - for Drive
A154973 - for Hydraulic
1
2
E
B
1
E
E
3
3
E
3
BX
2
3
B BX
(1) Emitter connection
(2) Base connection
(3) Collector connection
MicroController Control Systems
6
Specifications
Display Layout
Console
1
Instrument Panel
(1) Tighten bolts that fasten the cover to a torque
of ............................1.5 to 2.5 N•m (13 to 22 lb•in)
Direction Switch
1
1
2
(1) Tighten screws that fasten the instrument panel to
a torque of
....................................0.5 to 0.7 N•m (4 to 6 lb•in)
(1) Torque bolts that hold bracket to steering
column to ................2.8 to 3.4 N•m (25 to 31 lb•in)
(2) Torque bolts that hold bracket to switch to
............................143.4 to 3.9 N•m (31 to 35 lb•in)
MicroController Control Systems
7
Specifications
Head Capacitor
Thermal Switch - Control Panel
Contacts open at ................81 to 89°C (178 to 192˚F)
Contacts close at................69 to 77°C (156 to 171˚F)
1
3
2
Contactors
Torque for nuts that hold contactor bridge
assembly .........................................2.2 N•m (20 lb•in)
4
5
Fuses
Line .....................................................................600A
Key ....................................................................... 10A
Horn...................................................................... 10A
Voltage Converter................................................. 10A
Light...................................................................... 10A
Back up ................................................................ 10A
NOTE : Proper torque and assembly of capacitor
hardware is critical. Avoid disassembly
unless capacitor has to be replaced.
(1) Tighten capacitor terminal bolt to a torque of
................................4.5 to 5.5 N•m (40 to 50 lb•in)
(2) Spring washer D917069.
(3) Ring terminal of wire assembly.
(4) Lockwasher D917071.
(5) Head capacitor terminal.
MicroController Control Systems
8
Specifications
Control Panel (Layout)
Control Panel
3
10
4
1
2
2
6
5
8
9 12
2
2
MicroController Control Systems
7
11
2
2
2
9
Specifications
NOTE : Apply a small amount of D557047 Thermal
Joint Compound on the surface of the
transistor, diode or thermal switch that
contacts the heatsink.
(1) Control panel plate. Apply a small amount of
D557047 Thermal Joint Compound on control
panel plate and mating surface prior to assembly.
(2) Apply Sealant (Loctite catalogue No. and nameNo. 242, Adhesive/Sealant) on the threads of all
screws that are used to fasten components on the
control panel.
(3) Apply Sealant (Loctite catalogue No. and nameNo. 242, Adhesive/Sealant) to the bolts used to
tighten the positive heatsink to the control panel
to a torque of ..........10 to 14 N•m (90 to 125 lb•in)
(4) Use a backup wrench to hold nuts and tighten
bolts the fasten bus bars to the power transistors
to a torque of ...............4 to 6 N•m (35 to 55 lb•in)
(5) Tighten screws that fasten power transistors to
positive heatsink to a torque of
......................................4 to 6 N•m (35 to 55 lb•in)
(6) Tighten screws that fasten wires to the base of
the power transistors to a torque of
.............................1.3 to 1.7 N•m (11.5 to 15 lb•in)
(7) Tighten diodes DD1, DD2, DD3, DD4 and PD to a
torque of ......................9 to 11 N•m (81 to 99 lb•in)
(8) Tighten Head Capacitor terminal bolts to a torque
of ............................4.5 to 5.5 N•m (40 to 50 lb•in)
(9) Tighten all bolts that fasten bus bars of cables to
either heatsink to a torque of
................................5.5 to 9.5 N•m (50 to 85 lb•in)
(10) Tighten bolts that hold the negative heatsink to
the control panel to a torque of
..............................10 to 14 N•m (90 to 125 lb•in)
(11) Apply Sealant (Loctite catalogue No. and nameNo. 242, Adhesive/Sealant) on portion of
setscrew threads that are in the insulator and
control panel plate. Tighten bolts to a torque of
................................5.5 to 9.5 N•m (50 to 85 lb•in)
(12) Use a backup wrench to hold bolts and tighten
the nuts that fasten the cables or bus bars to the
contactors to a torque of
....................................4 to 6 N•m (35 to 55 lb•in)
MicroController Control Systems
10
Specifications
Systems Operation
Glossary
NAME
DESCRIPTION
Accelerator
A device that converts mechanical movement into a analog voltage pattern to the
logics for variable drive motor speed.
Activate
Word used with a component or circuit. To change from the normal condition to the
“activated” condition because of an application of force or electricity.
Ammeter
An electric meter used to measure current flow in amperes.
Ampere (or Amp)
The unit of measurement of current flow. The amount of current that one volt can
push through a resistance of one ohm.
Analog to Digital Converter
A device that converts an analog voltage into a pattern of digital HIGH and LOW
voltage signals.
Anode
The positive (+) side of a diode.
Armature
The rotating portion of an electric motor or generator.
Base
The terminal of a transistor through which control current flows (see Transistor).
Battery
Two or more cells connected together for a supply of electric current.
BDI
Battery Discharge Indicator - An electrically controlled display showing the operator
the state of battery charge.
Brush
A conductor, normally a block of carbon, that makes sliding contact between the
stationary and moving part of the motor or generator.
Bus Bar
A heavy electrical conductor to which other smaller wires are connected.
Capacitor
Device used to store electrical energy for short periods of time.
Cathode
The negative (-) side of a diode.
CVMS
Central Vehicle Monitoring System.
Circuit
A way for current to go from the positive (+) side of an electrical power source to
the negative (-) side of an electrical power source. This can be through wires and
electrical components.
Coil
A component made from many circles or turns of wire used to concentrate
a magnetic field.
Collector
A terminal of a transistor through which main current flows (see Transistor).
Commutator
An armature component used to transfer current from the brushes to the armature
windings.
Conduct
To allow the flow of current.
Conductor
A material that provides a path for current flow.
Connector
Part of a wire assembly or harness that connects with another wire assembly or
harness. Used for ease of assembly and disassembly.
MicroController Control Systems
11
Systems Operation
NAME
DESCRIPTION
Contactor Assembly
An electrical component consisting of an electromagnetic coil and a set of heavy
contact tips. Control current passes through the coil, building a magnetic field
which closes or opens the contact tips.
Contactor Coil
An electromagnet used to close or open contact tips in a contactor assembly.
Contact Tips or Contacts
The portion of a switch, relay or contactor where the circuit can be opened or
closed.
Continuity
Having the ability to allow current flow.
Control Circuits
The wires and components carrying low current used to signal the logic unit, turn
on main components, or support auxiliary circuits (indicated by narrow lines on a
schmatic).
Counter Electromotive
Force (CEMF)
An opposing voltage set up by a collapsing or increasing magnetic field within a
coil.
Current
The movement or flow of electricity through a conductor. A circuit must be
complete for current to flow.
Current Limit
The maximum allowable armature current of a stalled drive motor during pulsing.
Current Sensor
A hall-effect sensor in the drive motor circuit that produces an increasing voltage
output as the drive motor current increases.
Deactivate
To change from the activated condition back to the normal (deactivated) condition.
It can be caused by the application of force, the removal of force,or the removal of
electricity.
Digital Signal
A signal in which the elements may be either of two distinct values. For example
high voltage, low voltage.
Diode
A semiconductor device that allows current to flow in one direction, from the anode
to the cathode.
Display
An electrical device that converts voltage inputs to a visual output.
Electrical Braking
Electrically trying to rotate the drive motor opposite to the direction of truck
movement.
Electromagnet
A coil of wire, most often wound on an iron core, which produces a strong
magnetic field when current is sent through the coil.
Electromotive Force (EMF)
The force that causes an electric current to flow in a circuit. This force is measured
in volts.
Emitter
A terminal of a transistor through which low control current and main current flow
(see Transistor).
Field Windings
The stationary coils that produce a magnetic field in motors and generators.
Filter
An electrical device or component for restriction or suppression of undesired
voltage spikes.
Fuse
A component in an electrical circuit that will open the circuit if too much current
goes through it.
Harness
An assembly made of two or more wires that are held together.
Heatsink
A mounting frame used for semiconductor cooling.
MicroController Control Systems
12
Systems Operation
NAME
DESCRIPTION
Hour Meter
An electrically activated device used to record the amount of usage a truck
receives.
Indicator
LCD that gives an indication of some vehicle condition when it turns on or flashes.
Input
A voltage change at the incoming connection of a component.
Insulator
A material that has a very large resistance so that it will not let current flow through
it.
LCD
Liquid Crystal Display.
Logics or Logic Unit
The main printed circuit board containing a microprocessor and circuits to
condition the voltage signals that go into or come out of the logics. It electronically
monitors and controls the truck's functions.
Magnetic Field
The area around a magnet where magnetic forces can be detected.
Microprocessor
A small computer chip preprogrammed to control the various electrical functions on
a lift truck.
Normal Condition
Words used with a switch or relay. Their normal condition is their condition when they
are not controlled by the application of force, temperature, pressure, or electricity.
Normally Close (N.C.)
A switch or relay whose contacts are closed in the normal condition.
Normally Open (N.O.)
A switch or relay whose contacts are opened in the normal condition.
OFF-Time
The amount of time current does not flow through a transistor.
Ohm
The unit of measurement of resistance. The amount of resistance that will let one
volt push only one ampere of current through it.
ON-Time
The amount of time current flows through a transistor.
Open Circuit
Wiring or components of a circuit that have no continuity.
Output
The current flow from a component which initiated from a voltage change at the
component's input.
Overload
The presence of voltage or current which is greater than an electrical circuit or
component is designed to handle.
Pin
The male contact of a connector that fits into a female contact (socket) of another
connector.
Plugging
A portion of electrical braking where the generated current is directed back through
the armature.
Plugging Current Limit
The maximum allowable current at the drive motor armature during the plugging
portion of electrical braking.
Potentiometer
An adjustable resistor to preset electronic controls for proper specifications.
Power Circuits
The main current carrying components and conductors (indicated by the heavy
lines on a schematic).
Power Transistor
A component in the power circuit which allows main motor current to pass through
when turned on.
Pulsing
Current flow in a circuit being turned on and off.
MicroController Control Systems
13
Systems Operation
NAME
DESCRIPTION
Relay
An electrical component consisting of an electromagnetic coil and a set of small
contact tips. Control current passes through the coil, building a magnetic field
which closes or opens the contact tips. When the contact tips are closed, low
current can flow in a separate isolated circuit.
Resistor
A component made of a material that has a specific resistance to the flow of
current.
Schematic
A line drawing of an electrical or electronic assembly which uses symbols to show
individual components. It shows how the components, wires and connectors
function electrically.
Semiconductor
Components such as, transistors, diodes, thyristors, etc. Having electrical
characteristics between a conductor and an insulator.
Series Wound Motor
A motor in which the armature is connected in series with the field windings.
Short Circuit
An electrical connection between two or more components that is not desired.
Socket
The female contact of a connector that slips over a male contact (pin) of another
connector.
Solid State
Reference to semiconductor components or circuits that use semiconductor
components that have no moving parts, such as diodes and transistors.
Switch
A component used to control an electric circuit . It can close or open a circuit.
Systems
The electrical components, circuits, and connections that deliver power to perform
specific tasks.
Terminal
An electrical connection point on an electrical component.
Thermal Switch
A switch that activates at a set temperature.
Transistor
A semiconductor component used in electric lift trucks as an electronic switch. A
transistor most often has three terminals, a base (B), a collector (C) and an emitter
(E). The main current flow is between the collector and emitter. This main current
flow is controlled by a much smaller current flow between the base and emitter.
Turn ON
When an electrical component conducts current.
Varistor
A component terminated across the horn connections to eliminate voltage spikes
when the horn is activated.
Volt
The unit of measurement of electromotive force. One volt is the force needed to
make one ampere of current flow through one ohm of resistance in a circuit.
Watt
The unit of measurement of power. The amount of power used when one volt
pushes one ampere of current through a resistance of one ohm. The result of
amperes (current) multiplied by volts (voltage) is watts (power).
Wire
A conductor used to provide a path for current to flow to and from electrical
components.
Wiring Diagram
A drawing using visual representation of components the way they actually look. It
is used to show the locations of components and the connections between them.
Zener Diode
A special diode used to regulate voltage or as an overvoltage (too high a voltage)
protector.
MicroController Control Systems
14
Systems Operation
Symbol Library
2
3
4
6
5
9
16
7
8
1
10
17
21
11
12
13
18
14
15
20
19
Schematic Symbols
(1) Power Transistor. (2) Zener Diode. (3) NPN Transistor. (4) PNP Transistor. (5) Thermal Switch. (6) Battery. (7) Resistor.
(8) Diode. (9) Normally Close Contacts. (10) Normally Open Contacts. (11) Male Terminal of Connector (pin).
(12) Female Terminal of Connector (socket). (13) Wire Connection. (14) No Wire Connection. (15) Contactor Coil.
(16) Current Sensor. (17) Armature. (18) Field Windings. (19) Capacitor. (20) Fuse. (21) Switch.
MicroController Control Systems
15
Systems Operation
Location of Control Panel Components
Control Panel
1
3
2
4
5
6
Behind Logic Unit
8
11
12 13
19
7
10
9
18
17
16 15 14
MicroController Control Panel
(1) Logic Unit (Logics). (2) DR1, DR2, PR1. (3) Line Fuse. (4) Line Contactor. (5) Right Dir. Contactor. (6) Left Dir. Contactor.
(7) Driver Board. (8) PTR1 (Pump Transistor 1). (9) DTR1 (Drive Transistor 1). (10) DTR2 (Drive Transistor 2). (11) Head Capacitor.
(12) PD (Pump Flyback Diode). (13) DD4 (Drive Plugging Diode 4). (14) DD2 (Drive Plugging Diode 2).
(15) DD3 (Drive Flyback Diode 3). (16) DD1 (Drive Flyback Diode 1). (17) Bypass Contactor. (18) Key Fuse. (19) Current Sensors.
MicroController Control Systems
16
Systems Operation
General Information
The speed of the hydraulic pump motor is controlled
by switch inputs to and outputs from the logics.
Outputs pulses the hydraulic pump power transistor.
The power transistor pulse to control the speed of the
hydraulic pump motor. To provide full speed the
logics turns the power transistor ON 100%. The
hydraulic pump system includes a failure protection
circuit to protect against malfunctions of the power
circuit.
The MicroControl Panel is the control center and the
Logic Unit (logics) is the decision making part of the
MicroController System. The logics provide a self
contained Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI) with lift
interrupt and built-in diagnostic capabilities. The
battery charge state and built-in diagnostic are
monitored by the logics and displayed by the Central
Vehicle Monitoring System (CVMS) located on the
steer console.
Thermal protection circuits are used on the hydraulic
pump motor, the drive motor and the control panel to
prevent permanent damage caused by over heating.
NOTICE
Damage to all motors and control panels will
result. The motors and control panels are 48 volt
unit and must be operated at their designed
voltage. The voltage can not be changed without
changing motors and control panel.
Logic Unit
The steering system is activated when the truck is
powered up and the line contactor closes. The truck
uses a combined power steering/hydraulic system
where the hydraulic fluid for steering is provided by a
DC series hydraulic motor, pump, and priority valve.
1
12
The drive motor and the hydraulic pump motor are
controlled by pulsing transistors ON and OFF and
controlling contactor operation.
The speed and direction of the drive motor are
controlled by voltage inputs to and outputs from the
logics. Inputs to the logics are generated by the
accelerator control and direction switch. Outputs
from the logics control contactor coils and drive
transistor pulsing.
4
2
5
6
7
Components on Logic Unit
(1) Connector P1
(2) Connector P2
(3) Connector P9
(4) Connector P8
(5) DIAG/RUN/SETUP
(6) Jumper JP1 - 36 V
(7) Jumper JP2 - 48 V
(8) VR1 potentiometer - Drive current limit adjustment
(9) VR2 potentiometer - Plugging current limit
adjustment
(10) VR5 potentiometer - BDI adjustment
(11) VR6 potentiometer - Bypass dropout adjustment
(12) VR8 potentiometer - ELEC. Brake (EAB)
adjustment
The drive circuit pulses transistors to provide travel
speed control up to 90% of full speed, after which the
bypass contactor closes to provide full speed. The
drive circuit includes a failure protection circuit which
detects malfunctions of the drive power circuit, a
plugging circuit to provide electrical braking and a
current limit circuit to prevent excessively high
currents during transistor pulsing.
MicroController Control Systems
11
10
9
8
3
17
Systems Operation
Operational Circuit Elements
On Board “Run Time” Diagnostics
(Fault Detection)
Central Vehicle Monitoring System
“Run Time” diagnostics use letters and numbers on
the seven segment LCD portion of the CVMS,
International Pictorial Symbols and LCD to signal
both improper operating sequences and truck circuit
defects.
The Central Vehicle Monitoring System (CVMS) is
located on the steering console.
It is a self contained, solidstate instrument panel with
two seven segment liquid crystal displays, warning
and system condition segments.
The LCD consists of seven segments which are
turned on or off to form numbers and letters.
Display = “EE” Static Return to Off (SRO)
The logics has a Static Return to Off (SRO) circuit
which assures that the direction switch has been
returned to neutral and the accelerator returned to
the full up position after the key and seat switch are
closed. This safeguards against an accidental
actuation of direction and speed when an operator
resumes operation of an idle truck.
If SRO occurs, the direction lever can be moved to
neutral and the accelerator pedal released.
The direction can now be reselected and the
accelerator pedal depressed to start normal lift truck
drive operation.
Display = “EE” (Flashing) Seat Circuit Problem
Anytime the battery is connected, the key is turned to
ON and no one is in the seat longer than 6 seconds
the letter “EE” will flash on and off.
The truck will not operate until the seat switch is
closed.
Seven Segment Display Layout
The Central Vehicle Monitoring System interacts with
the logics and failure detection circuits.
It functions as a battery discharge indicator (BDI) and
provides on-board diagnostic data on the operational
condition of the truck.
During normal operation it provides “Run Time”
diagnostics, and during troubleshooting it provides
“Self” diagnostics.
Display = “E1” Drive Motor Brush Problem
The logics monitor the length of the brushes in the
drive motors. As the brushes wear, a wire built into
the brushes moves down and makes contact with the
commutator. A wire from each motor brush set is
connected to the logics. If any brushes wear down to
a preset limit, an “E1” will display on the LCD.
Display = “E2” Pump Motor Brush Problem
The logics monitor the length of the brushes in the
pump motor. As the brushes wear, a wire built into
the brushes moves down and makes contact with the
commutator. A wire from each motor brush set is
connected to the logics. If any brushes wear down to
a preset limit, an “E2” will display on the LCD.
MicroController Control Systems
18
Systems Operation
Display = “EL” Battery Lock-out
Display = “F5” Drive System Problem (Left)
When the battery is discharged, the CVMS displays
“EL” and pump motor will not operate. If key switch
turn off and then on, pump will operate for only 3
seconds. Drive motor speed will not exceed 70% of
the max. regardless of an accelerator’s output
voltage.
The logics at P9-5 uses wire #L64 from the emitter of
the left drive transistor to detect battery negative. The
logics sends a test pulse out to the left drive
transistor when power up. This test pulse is detected
at P9-5 also. If battery negative is present or the test
pulse is not detected, the line contactor will be
deactivated and an “F5” will display on the LCD.
Display = “F2” Drive System Problem (Left)
Display = “F5” (Flashing) Drive System Problem
(Right)
The logics at P9-5 uses wire #L64 from the emitter of
the left drive transistor to detect if the left drive
transistor, bypass contactor tips or the driver board
are shorted. In normal operation P9-5 has battery
voltage only when the logics is pulsing the left drive
transistor or the bypass contactor is activated.
When a failure occurs the line contactor will be
deactivated and an “F2” will display on the LCD.
The logics at P9-6 uses wire #R64 from the emitter
of the right drive transistor to detect battery negative.
The logics sends a test pulse out to the right drive
transistor when power up. This test pulse is detected
at P9-6 also. If battery negative is present or the test
pulse is not detected, the line contactor will be
deactivated and an “F5” will flash on the LCD.
Display = “F2” (Flashing) Drive System Problem
(Right)
Display = “F6” Pump System Problem
The logics at P9-7 uses wire #74 from the emitter of
the pump transistor to detect battery negative.
The logics sends a test pulse out to the pump
transistor when power up. This test pulse is detected
at P9-7 also. If battery negative is present or the test
pulse is not detected the line contactor will be
deactivated and an “F6” will display on the LCD.
The logics at P9-6 uses wire #R64 from the emitter
of the right drive transistor to detect if the right drive
transistor, bypass contactor tips or the driver board
are shorted. In normal operation P9-6 has battery
voltage only when the logics is pulsing the right drive
transistor or the bypass contactor is activated. When
a failure occurs the line contactor will be deactivated
and an “F2” will flash on the LCD.
Display = “F7” Drive and Pump System Problem
Display = “F3” Pump System Problem
The logics will release the line contactor and display
“F7” on the LCD when BOTH wires #64 and #74
detect battery negative or do not detect the proper
pulsing.
See “F5”, “F5” (Flashing) and “F6”.
The logics at P9-7 uses wire #74 from the emitter of
the pump transistor to detect if the pump transistor or
the driver board are shorted.
In normal operation P9-7 has battery voltage only
when the logics is pulsing the pump transistor is
activated. When a failure occurs the line contactor
will be deactivated and an “F3” will display on the
LCD.
Display = “FA” Angle Circuit Problem
Steer angle commands are monitored by the logics.
If steer angle switch has defects or each wires #50,
51, 52 and 53 is shorted/opened, the line contactor
will be deactivated and an “FA” will display on the
LCD.
Display = “F4” Drive and Pump System Problem
The logics will release the line contactor and display
“F4” on the LCD when BOTH wires #64 and #74
detect battery voltage when it should not be present.
See “F2”, “F2” (Flashing) and “F3”.
MicroController Control Systems
19
Systems Operation
Display = “Fb” Battery Mismatch
Central Vehicle Monitoring System
(CVMS) International Pictorial
Symbols
The motors and control panels are 48 volt units and
must be operated at 48 volt. If battery condition is
abnormal, an “Fb” will display on the LCD.
Park Brake Symbol
Display = “Fd” Pressure Switch Problem
The logics at P 2-1 uses wire #41 from the pressure
switch to detect if the pressure switch is opened for
more than 10 seconds after the key switch ON. The
“Fd” will be displayed and the truck will be operated
normally.
Park Brake Symbol
If the park brake is applied, the park brake symbol
will turn on to warn the operator that the brake is
applied, and drive operation will be prevented.
Overtemperature Symbol
Normally closed thermal switches are constantly
monitored by the logics and the CVMS. All these
thermal switches are normally closed, so must open
for the LCD to turn on. Truck performance will
automatically be cut back by the logics, and the
CVMS will light the LCD until the component cools.
Control Panel Overtemperature Symbol
Control Panel Overtemperature Symbol
Two thermal switches (HYD and MAIN control
panels) are connected in series to the logics. If any
of the control panels overheat, the thermal switch in
the center of the positive heatsink will open. The
logics will slow lifting speeds and reduce drive speed.
Truck acceleration will decrease.
The overtemperature symbol and “Ec” will display on
until the controller cools. “Ec” will be saved as stored
error code.
MicroController Control Systems
20
Systems Operation
Drive Motor Overtemperature Symbol
Wait Mode
If the seat switch is closed, key turned to ON and the
direction lever is left in neutral with no other operator
requests, the line contactor will deactivate after
approximately six seconds. The LCD will display
“PP”. The lift truck will remain in this condition until
the operator activates the direction switch,
accelerator pedal or a control valve lever. The line
contactor then reactivates and the truck is ready for
normal operatation.
Drive Motor Overtemperature Symbol
Current Sensor
The drive motor thermal switch, held against the
drive motor field, will open if the motor gets too hot.
The logics will reduce drive pulsing and prevent the
bypass contactor from pulling in. The truck speed
and acceleration will be reduced.
The overtemperature symbol and “Ed” will display on
until the motor cools. “Ed” will be saved as stored
error code.
The left current sensor mounts around the cable that
carries left drive motor current. The logics supplies a
constant voltage to one lead of the current sensor at
P1-16 wire #25 (12V). A second lead of the current
sensor is connected to battery negative at the
negative heatsink. When current passes through the
cable, the third current sensor lead wire #L22 causes
the voltage to change at logic P1-12. As the current
passing through the cable increases, the voltage at
logic P1-12 increases. The logics uses the voltage at
P1-12 to determine the amount of current flowing
through the left drive motor.
Pump Motor Overtemperature Symbol
The right current sensor, similar to the left current
sensor, mounts around the cable that carries right
drive motor current. A third lead of the right current
sensor is connected to logics at P1-13 #R22. The
logics uses the voltage at P1-13 to determine the
amount of current flowing through the right drive
motor.
Pump Motor Overtemperature Symbol
Contactors
The pump motor thermal switch, similar to the drive
motor thermal switch, will open if the motor gets too
hot. The logics will reduce pump motor speeds.
The overtemperature symbol and “EP” will display on
until the pump motor cools. “EP” will be saved as
stored error code.
MicroController Control Systems
The control panel is equipped with intermittent duty
contactors. The logics controls the voltage supplied
to the coils. When a contactor is first activated, full
battery voltage is supplied to the coil. After the
contactor tips have closed, the logics will pulse the
coil to reduce the voltage across the coil to between
18 and 36 volts.
21
Systems Operation
Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI)
BATTERY TERMINAL VOLTAGE
BAR SYMBOLS
The logics monitors the battery voltage during truck
operation and shows the level of battery charge on
the LCD. If the battery voltage is below 40.0V or
above 60.0V, this is a battery mismatch or
misconnection. If these voltages are monitored, the
display will show “Fb” on the LCD and no lift truck
operate.
TYPE 1 (OPT) : Closed Voltage
DISPLAY
Full 6 bars on the LCD indicates a fully charged
battery. As the battery discharges, the bars
decreases to 5, 4 etc, down to 1st bottom bar.
When the battery nears the 80% discharge level, the
1st bar continuously flashes. This is a warning that lift
interrupt is near. The operator should complete the
current lift operation and travel to the battery
replacement or charge area. If the truck is kept in
operation, the display go to a “EL”. The lift, tilt and
auxiliary functions will be vastly reduced in speed,
operating only with steering flows and the vehicle
travel speed will be cut in harf. At this point the
battery is greater than 80% discharged. The logics
will now remember that the battery has been
discharged to lift interrupt and require a fully charged
battery to reset the remembered interrupt. See
Programmable Option Features “3”.
36V
48V
6
above 37.2
above 49.1
5
36.8 to 37.2
48.6 to 49.1
4
36.4 to 36.7
48.0 to 48.5
3
36.0 to 36.3
47.5 to 47.9
2
35.6 to 35.9
47.0 to 47.4
1
35.2 to 35.5
46.5 to 46.9
1*
25.8 to 35.1
33.8 to 46.4
O/EL
below 25.8
below 33.8
1* = Display is flashing
BATTERY TERMINAL VOLTAGE
BAR SYMBOLS
TYPE 2 (STD) : Closed Voltage
DISPLAY
Due to different voltage characteristic of battery
technologies, it may be necessary to use the battery
voltage chart as shown below. You can choose a
type in Programmable Option Features “10”.
36V
48V
6
above 37.2
above 49.1
5
36.8 to 37.2
48.4 to 49.1
4
36.3 to 36.7
47.7 to 48.3
3
35.9 to 36.2
47.1 to 47.6
2
35.4 to 35.8
46.4 to 47.0
1
35.0 to 35.3
45.9 to 46.3
1*
34.5 to 34.9
45.0 to 45.8
O/EL
below 34.5
below 45.0
1* = Display is flashing
Descriptions of BDI symbol on the LCD
Bar Symbols
BATTERY TERMINAL VOLTAGE
BAR SYMBOLS
6 : The highest position
: Max. charged status
TYPE 3 (OPT) : Closed Voltage
DISPLAY
5:
36V
48V
6
above 37.2
above 49.1
4:
5
36.9 to 37.2
48.3 to 49.1
3:
4
36.6 to 36.8
47.4 to 48.2
3
36.3 to 36.5
46.6 to 47.3
2
35.9 to 36.2
45.7 to 46.5
1
35.6 to 35.8
44.9 to 45.6
1*
35.3 to 35.5
44.0 to 44.8
O/EL
below 35.3
below 44.0
2:
1:
: A) Not flashing
B) Flashing - 80%
discharge
warning.
1* = Display is flashing
MicroController Control Systems
22
Systems Operation
Accelerator Control
Steer Angle Control
Accelerator Table
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE
REMARKS
OVER
ACCELERATOR CIRCUIT
11.00
DEFECT
9.60
BYPASS OPERATION
DRIVE SPEED (100%)
9.02
8.44
7.86
7.28
6.70
6.12
5.54
4.96
4.38
3.80
3.22
2.64
2.06
1.48
0.90
0.00
Two drive motors are controlled independently
according to steer wheel position. A direction of drive
motors is determined with wheel angle as shown in
the chart.
WHEEL
ANGLE
DRIVE SPEED STEP 14
DRIVE SPEED STEP 13
**DEAD ZONE I**
DRIVE SPEED STEP 12
DRIVE SPEED STEP 11
DRIVE SPEED STEP 10
ON - TIME(%)
P2-17 P2-18
P2-19 P2-20
-90°
LOW
HIGH HIGH HIGH
-75°
LOW
HIGH HIGH
-45°
LOW
HIGH
L 25° LOW
+45°
HIGH
LEFT RIGHT
(-)50
50
LOW
0
75
LOW
LOW
75
100
LOW
LOW
LOW
100
100
LOW
LOW
LOW
100
75
+75°
HIGH HIGH
LOW
LOW
75
0
+90°
HIGH HIGH
LOW
HIGH
50
(-)50
DRIVE SPEED STEP 9
(–) means that the motor will turn opposite direction.
DRIVE SPEED STEP 8
DRIVE SPEED STEP 7
DRIVE SPEED STEP 6
DRIVE SPEED STEP 5
DRIVE SPEED STEP 4
DRIVE SPEED STEP 3
DRIVE SPEED STEP 2
DRIVE SPEED STEP 1
DRIVE SPEED STEP 0
**DEAD ZONE II**
i) DEAD ZONE I
In order to eliminate the bypass contactor
chattering, the bypass contactor will be engaged if
the accelerator output voltage is over than 9.6V.
But the bypass contactor should be disengaged if
the accelerator output is less than 9.02V.
ii) DEAD ZONE II
In order to eliminate the direction contactors
chattering, the direction contactors will be
engaged if the accelerator output voltage is over
than 1.48V.
But the direction contactors should be disengaged
if the accelerator output is less than 0.9V.
MicroController Control Systems
23
Systems Operation
Accessory Circuits
Horn Circuit
The 12 volt output of the converter is protected
against short circuits and overloading by an internal
15 amp current limit circuit. A fuse on the converter
protects it from reverse connection of the battery
voltage.
The horn will operate when the battery is connected
and the horn button is pushed. Current flows from
battery positive through horn fuse, horn switch and
horn, back to battery negative.
Refer to Problem 31 in Troubleshooting section.
Hour Meter Circuit
NOTICE
Do not connect the 12volt negative output of the
DC-DC converter to battery negative. Damage to
system components could occur.
The hour meter, dependent on marketplace, can be
wired a number of different ways. Battery voltage is
always supplied from the key switch to the positive
terminal of the hourmeter. The negative terminal of
the hourmeter can go to seat switch to record seat
switch hours, or can be wired into the drive motor
armature through a diode assembly to record drive
motor hours.
DC-DC Converter
DC-DC Converter Circuit System
The DC-DC converter changes the lift truck battery
voltage to 12 volts. This 12 volts is used to power
accessories such as floodlights, brakes/side lights
and backup alarms.
The positive of the 12 volt output is common to the
positive of the battery voltage. The negative of the 12
volt output is pulsed to maintain a steady 12 volt
supply.
MicroController Control Systems
24
Systems Operation
Actuation Circuit
Actuation Circuit
When the battery is connected and the key switch is
closed, current flows from battery positive
through the key fuse, key switch, wire #5 to the logic
connector P1-1 and P1-2.
The logic connection to battery negative is at P1-19
and P1-20. The logic circuits are powered up
to accept voltage inputs and create voltage outputs
whenever the battery is connected and the key is
turned to ON.
NOTE: The circuit diagrams have shaded lines for
illustration of current flow in each circuit.
Other circuits can be activated at the same
time, but each one is shown separately to
illustrate current flow in each individual
circuit.
This circuit supplies power to the MicroController
Control System and the Central Vehicle Monitoring
System (CVMS). It must be activated before power
steering, hydraulics or drive will operate.
MicroController Control Systems
25
Systems Operation
The Central Vehicle Monitoring System (CVMS) is
also powered at this time. The CVMS first does
a “LCD test” which will light all the warning lights
through 6 shield wires, wire #101(5V) and wire #108
(B-) for approximately five seconds.
Hydraulic Pump Motor Circuit
Only one hydraulic pump motor (series winding) is
used for all power steering, lift, tilt and auxiliary
hydraulic functions. To activate the pump circuit, the
seat switch, key switch and line contactor must be
closed first as explained in the topic, Actuation
Circuit.
The logics will start to perform a set of “Run Time”
diagnostic checks. The letter “EE” will flash on the
CVMS display indicating the key is ON with no
operator in the seat.
When the seat switch is closed, current will flow from
the logic P2-7 through the seat switch to battery
negative. The logics then activates the line contactor
by allowing current to flow from P1-3 through the line
contactor coil and P1-4 back to battery negative.
Power Steering Circuit
With the line contactor tips closed the logics
continues its checks for any “Run Time” faults.
If no faults are detected the display will indicate the
battery charge level, the power steering (IDLE)
system operates, the pump and drive power circuits
receive battery voltage and the logics receives
battery voltage on wire #4 at P9-9.
Followings are standard PTR1 pulsing rates of the
signal at the logics.
The power steering (PS) circuit has two speeds
(PS idle and PS boost-up) independent of the lifting
speeds.
Motor Speed
PTR1 Pulsing Rate
Logic Pin#
IDLE
11%
–
POWER STEERING
17%
P2-1
TILT
50%
P2-2
LIFT1
35%
LIFT2
50%
LIFT3
95%
AUX.
45%
P2-3 & P2-4
P2-16
The above pulsing rate can be adjustable in
“Programmable Option Features”.
NOTE: The circuit diagrams have shaded lines for
illustration of current flow in each circuit.
Other circuits can be activated at the same
time, but each one is shown separately to
illustrate current flow in each individual circuit.
MicroController Control Systems
26
Systems Operation
Lift Circuit
Lift Circuit
When the lift lever is pulled to lift speed 1 the logics
will pulse the pump transistors PTR1.
If the streeing wheel is turned, hydraulic pressure
increases and a pressure switch (PRESSURE SW)
located in the steering gear load sensing hose, will
open. This causes the voltage at logic connector
P2-1 to change from a LOW (less than one volt) to a
HIGH (12 volts). When a HIGH is present the logics
knows that more hydraulic flow is required and will
supply a pulse from P9-3 to PTR1 at rate of 17%
“on-time” for 48 volt trucks. The pump motor speed
will increase.
MicroController Control Systems
As shown in the chart under Lift Control Circuit, if the
lift lever is pulled to lift speeds 2 through 3 the pump
transistors are pulsed with a higher percent “on-time”.
The pump motor armature will turn faster.
27
Systems Operation
Power Steering Idle
Transistor PTR1 Pulsing
TR6 Base Input Signal
logics is ON at TR6, TR6 will be ON.
When the base signal is OFF, TR6 will be OFF.
After the line contactor is closed the logics generates
a positive pulsing signal (approximately 0.7 volts) on
P9-3 to the base of transistor TR6. This is a rapidly
changing signal that can only be viewed on an
oscilloscope. Because TR6 is a NPN type transistor,
the positive signal into the base causes current flow
through the base/emitter junction. When current
flows through the base/emitter junction the transistor
turns ON and main current will flow through the
collector/emitter junction. If the base signal from the
MicroController Control Systems
28
Systems Operation
TR5 Base Input Signal, TR6 ON
When TR6 is ON, current flows through the
emitter/base junction of transistor TR5, through PR1
and TR6 to battery negative. Because TR5 is a PNP
type transistor, the current flow to battery negative
through the emitter/base junction causes TR5 to turn
ON. When TR6 is OFF, TR5 is OFF.
MicroController Control Systems
29
Systems Operation
PTR1 Base Input Signal, TR5 and TR6 ON
When TR5 is ON, current flows through TR5 into the
base of transistor PTR1. This puts a voltage signal at
the base of PTR1 causing PTR1 to turn ON.
With PTR1 ON, high amperage motor current can
flow through PTR1, motor armature and motor field
to battery negative.
When TR5 and TR6 are OFF, PTR1 is OFF.
The percent “on-time” of the signal at the logics is
also the percent “on-time” of PTR1.
PTR1 is pulsed at 11% “on-time” supplying 11% of
battery voltage to the pump motor (IDLE).
MicroController Control Systems
30
Systems Operation
Flyback Circuit
Flyback Circuit
PD is a flyback diode for the power steering and
hydraulic motor circuit. This circuit uses the current
created by the collapsing magnetic field of the field
windings in the pump motor to keep current flowing
when transistor PTR1 is OFF. When PTR1 is OFF all
current from the field goes through P2, PD, P1 and
pump motor armature (ARM) back to the field.
When PTR1 is pulsing the flyback circuit causes the
average pump motor current to be greater than the
average battery current through PTR1.
MicroController Control Systems
31
Systems Operation
Lift Control Circuit
1
Location of Components
(1) Valve Control Card.
This control panel accept a three speed lift control
signals and tilt/aux lever signals. The three speed lift
control system is controlled by valve control card (1)
mounted at the top of the control valve.
When the operator pulls the lift lever, magnet (3)
moves closer to the lift sensor (2). The sensor
detects the increasing magnetic field and sends an
increasing voltage to the valve control card. The
valve control card produces voltage changes which
input to the logics at P2-3 and P2-4 The logics uses
these changing voltages to determine what speed to
operate the pump motor. The logics then controls the
pump transistor PTR1. The pump motor lift speed as
shown in the chart.
The valve control card uses a hall-effect transducer
(LIFT SENSOR) and a magnet to sense lift lever
movement. The closer the magnet is to the
transducer the greater the hydraulic pump motor
speed.
2
Motor
Speed
P2-3
P2-4
PTR1
Remark
0
12V
12V
Steering
Variable
1
0.2V
12V
35% Pulsing
Variable
2
0.2V
0.2V
50% Pulsing
Variable
3
12V
0.2V
95% Pulsing
Preset
3
Location of Components
(2) Lift Sensor. (3) Magnet.
MicroController Control Systems
32
Systems Operation
Drive Circuit
Control Circuit
Drive Control Circuit
Selecting a direction will change the voltage from
HIGH to LOW on P2-5 for forward or P2-6 for
reverse. Depressing the accelerator pedal will cause
the accelerator analog voltage on P1-15.
With the forward direction selected current flows from
the logics P1-3 through forward direction
contactor coil to logics P1-5 and P1-7 back to battery
negative. The forward contactors tips close.
NOTE: The circuit diagrams have shaded lines for
illustration of current flow in each circuit.
With the actuation circuit complete the logics
supplies a HIGH voltage (12volts) to the direction
(F/R) switch at P2-5 and P2-6. A HIGH voltage is
also supplied to the power of accelerator at P1-16.
Releasing the park brake closes the park brake
switch and provides a path to battery negative.
MicroController Control Systems
33
Systems Operation
Power Circuit
TR2 and TR4 Base Input Signal
The logics generates a positive pulsing voltage
(approximately 0.7 volts) on P9-1 and P9-2, to the
base of transistors TR2 and TR4. These pulses turn
ON TR2 and TR4 which turn ON TR1 and TR3. A
more complete description of this transistor turn on
circuit can be found in : Hydraulic Pump Motor
Circuit under Power Transistor Pulsing.
NOTE: The circuit diagrams have shaded lines for
illustration of current flow in each circuit.
Other circuits can be activated at the same
time, but each one is shown separately to
illustrate current flow in each individual
circuit.
The high amperage current, which provides the
power and torque necessary to drive the lift truck,
flows in this circuit. The speed of the drive motor is
controlled separately from the pump motor
circuit by the MicroController Control System.
MicroController Control Systems
34
Systems Operation
Power Transistors, TR1, TR2, TR3 and TR4 all ON
The percent “on-time” of the voltage at logics P9-1
and P9-2 is also the percent “on-time” of the power
transistors. As the “on-time” increases, the average
voltage applied to the drive motor increases which
increases the speed of the lift truck. The percent
“on-time” out of the logics is determined by how far
the accelerator is depressed.
When TR1 and TR3 are ON, current flows through
TR1 and TR3 emitter/collector into the base of drive
power transistors (DTR1 and DTR2). This puts a
HIGH voltage at the base of the power transistors
causing them to turn ON. With the power transistors
ON, high amperage motor current can flow through
them, the field, forward contact tips, armatures,
forward contact tips and current sensors back to
battery negative. When TR1 and TR3 are OFF,
the power transistors are OFF.
MicroController Control Systems
35
Systems Operation
Flyback Circuit
Flyback Circuit
Because of this, the average drive motor armature
current will be greater than the average battery
current. Refer to following Average Current Flow
chart.
When the drive power transistors (DTR1 and DTR2)
are ON, battery current flows through the field
windings of the drive motor and a magnetic field is
created around the windings. When the power
transistors are turned OFF battery current through
the windings stops and the magnetic field collapses.
This collapsing magnetic field induces current which
is used to power the drive motor while the power
transistors are OFF (during pulsing). Induced current
flows from the field windings through the forward
contact tips, armature, forward contact tips, current
sensor and diodes DD1, DD3 back to the field
windings.
MicroController Control Systems
36
Systems Operation
Average Current Flow
Current Limit
through the sensor and will increase or decrease as
current changes. The logics uses this voltage to
monitor the current in the circult.
When the current has increased too high, the logics
decreases the pulse rate to the transistors to prevent
current higher than the preset value.
The logics monitors the current that flows through
DTR1 and DTR2 and limit this current flow to a
preset value. As this current flows through DTR1 and
DTR2 the drive motor and the current sensors, a
voltage is created by the sensor.
This voltage is proportional to the current flowing
MicroController Control Systems
37
Systems Operation
Bypass Circuit
Bypass Circuit Activated
The bypass circuit bypasses DTR1 and DTR2 and
connects the drive motor in series with the battery,
applying full battery voltage to the drive motor. If the
accelerator pedal is fully depressed, and the logics
has pulsed DTR1 and DTR2 through 92% “on-time”,
the logics will activate the BYPASS CTR after 1.5
seconds.
MicroController Control Systems
38
Systems Operation
Electrical Braking (Plugging)
Plugging Circuit (Transistor DTR1, DTR2 “ON”)
When DTR1 and DTR2 are ON, battery current flows
through DTR1 and DTR2, field windings, direction
contactor tips, armature, direction contactor tips and
current sensor back to the battery. Current energizes
the field and tries to turn the armature opposite the
rotation caused by the truck’s motion. The current
acts to electrically brake the truck. With the field
energized and momentum of the truck turning the
armature opposite the pulsed direction, the armature
generates current.
Plugging is an electrical braking mode which permits
the lift truck operator to slow, stop and change the
direction of travel electrically without using the
service brake.
Plugging begins when the operator selects a
direction opposite the lift truck’s motion, while
keeping the accelerator depressed. The logics will
deactivate the bypass contactor (if activated) and
change the direction contactors to the new direction
selected. The momentum of the truck causes the
drive motor to generate current, and the logics will
puise the transistors at a slow rate.
MicroController Control Systems
39
Systems Operation
Plugging Circuit (Transistor DTR1, DTR2 ”OFF”)
back to the field. This current continues the electrical
braking action. As long as the truck momentum is
turning the armature opposite the pulsed direction,
the motor continues to act as a generator with
armature generated current flowing through DD2,
DD4 back into the armature.
When the truck has come to a stop, the armature no
longer is turning opposite the pulsed direction. The
armature stops generating current and DD2, DD4 no
longer conducts. The logics no longer detects a more
negative voltage on plug sensing wire #32 than on
wire #1, so normal drive operation begins in the
opposite direction.
The generated current flows from the armature
through the direction contactor, current sensor and
diode DD2, DD4, back to the armature. When
armature generated current flows through DD2, DD4
wire #1 at P1-20 becomes a more positive voltage
than plug sensing wire #32 at P1-10, P1-11, due to
the voltage drop across DD2, DD4. The logics
detects the voltage change at P1-20 and P1-10, P111, then reduces the tansistor pulsing to stay below
the preset plugging current limit.
When DTR1 and DTR2 are OFF, flyback current
from the collapsing motor field flows through the
direction contactor tips, armature, direction contactor
tips, current sensor and diode DD1, DD3,
MicroController Control Systems
40
Systems Operation
Thermal Protection Circuits
Control Panel
Hydraulic Pump Motor
If the power transistors overheat, a thermal switch
mounted in the transistor heatsink will open at a
predetermined temperature. When it opens, voltage
at logic connection P2-11 will go HIGH (12 volts).
The Central Vehicle Monitoring System will display a
“Run Time” diagnostic symbol.
The logics will decrease the pulsing of the drive
system and restrict the hydraulic circuit pulsing to
50%. The amount of current allowed to flow through
the power transistors is decreased to permit them to
cool. When the heatsink cools off and the thermal
switch closes, the truck will return to normal
operation. Drive system bypass is not affected by an
overheated control panel, but due to the reduced
pulsing acceleration performance will be decreased.
An “Ec” is stored in memory.
If the hydraulic pump motor overheats a thermal
switch mounted in the pump motor housing will open
at a predetermined temperature. When it opens,
voltage at logic connection P2-13 will go HIGH. The
Central Vehicle Monitoring System will display a “Run
Time” diagnostic symbol. To decrease the amount of
current allowed to flow through the pump motor, the
logics will reduce the hydraulic pump motor to 50%
pulsing. When the hydraulic pump motor cools off
and the thermal switch closes, the truck will return to
normal operation.
An “EP” is stored in memory.
Failure Protection Circuit
If the logics detects an improper voltage at P9-5 wire
#L64 (left drive circuit) and/or P9-6 wire #R64 (right
drive motor) or P9-7 wire #74 (pump circuit), the line
contactor will be deactivated and a “Run Time”
diagnostic code (display = “F2” through “F7”) will
display.
Current is also monitored in the drive motor, and
should it exceed preset limits in either pulsing or
bypass the truck will shut down and display an “F0”.
The logics will monitor the four steering angle switch
signals, wires #50, 51, 52 and 1 to determine if there
is an out of sequence problem.
An “FA” will be displayed if this should occur.
If the battery voltage is mismatched, the “Fb” will
display.
The logics will monitor the two current sensor
signals, wires #L22 and #R22 to determine if there is
an wrong voltage pattern. An “F5” will be displayed.
Once a failure has been detected the truck must be
repaired before normal operation can resume.
Drive Motor
If the drive motor overheats a thermal switch
mounted in the drive motor housing will open at a
predetermined temperature. When it opens, voltage
at logic connection P2-12 will go HIGH.
The Central Vehicle Monitoring System will display a
“Run Time” diagnostic symbol. To decrease the
amount of current allowed to flow through the drive
motor, the logics will reduce the pulsing and disable
the bypass contactor. When the drive motor cools off
and the thermal switch closes, the truck will return to
normal operation.
Drive system acceleration performance and top travel
speed is affected by an overheated drive motor.
An “Ed” is stored in memory.
MicroController Control Systems
41
Systems Operation
Testing And Adjusting
Troubleshooting
NOTICE
Damage can be caused to the control panel. Do
not switch the direction lever from one direction to
the other (plug the lift truck) when the drive wheels
are off the ground and in rotation at full speed.
The following Troubleshooting Check List is an aid in
troubleshooting MicroController lift trucks. The
troubleshooting check list, “Run Time” diagnostic
indications, “Self” diagnostic tests, problem list and
problem flow charts will assist in:
1. Defining the problem and verifying a problem
exists.
Troubleshooting Check List
2. Performing the checks in a logical order.
1. Perform Preparation Tests and Checks.
3. Making the necessary repairs.
2. Correct any display problems and “Run Time”
diagnostic faults.
4. Verifying the problem has been resolved.
3. Correct the “Self” diagnostic faults.
4. Perform Operational Checks.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly.Battery voltage
and high amperage are present. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift both drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so the drive wheels are
free to turn. During any test or operation check,
keep away from drive wheels. Before any contact
with the control panel is made, disconnect the
battery and dis- charge HEAD CAP. Ring's,
watches and other metallic objects should be
removed from hands and arms when
troubleshooting, the MicroController Control
System.
5. Correct “Failure Code Problems” in the
Troubleshooting Problem List.
NOTICE
Damage can be caused to the test equipment.
Make resistance and continuity checks only after
the battery is disconnected.
1. Verify proper polarity at the battery connector and
the MicroController panel. Positive cable should be
at the line contactor and negative at the negative
heatsink.
6. Perform Operational Checks to verify repairs.
Preparation Tests and Check
Battery Tests
A weak battery can cause or contribute to problems
in the MicroController and power circuits.
Verify the battery is good before investigating other
possibilities.
2. If the lift truck is operational, perform a battery
load test.
3. If the truck is not operational and the battery is
suspected, perform a cell voltage or specific
gravity test.
NOTICE
Damage can be caused to the control panel. Do
not use steam or solvent to clean the controls. Use
pressure from an air hose with a maximum
pressure of 205 kPa (30 psi) to clean the control
panel when necessary. Make sure the air pressure
supply is equipped with a water filter.
MicroController Control Systems
42
Testing And Adjusting
Battery Load Test
Hydrometer Test
1. Turn the range switch on the multimeter to read
battery voltage.
Test each cell of the battery with a hydrometer. If the
specific gravity indication is below 1.140, the battery
must be charged. The battery is fully charged if the
indication is 1.265 to 1.285.
2. Connect the battery.
NOTE : The indication between cells should not differ
more than .020. If it does, the battery needs
an equalizing charge or needs to be
repaired.
2
Battery Maintenance
NOTE : It is important that all batteries be charged
and maintained according to the battery
manufacturers instructions.
1
The care and maintenance of batteries is most
important to maximize battery life and efficient truck
operation. Periodic inspection and service will
increase the life of batteries. Special attention should
be given to the rules that follow:
Battery Voltage Test.
(1) Positive cable connection.
(2) Negative cable connection.
1. Keep batteries clean at all times. Cleaning will
prevent corrosion, current leakage and shorts to
chassis. Tighten all vent plugs, wash the battery
with water and a brush, then dry with an air hose.
It may be necessary to use a baking soda solution
if water alone will not clean the top of the battery.
3. Connect the multimeter leads between positive (+)
cable connection (1), and negative (-) cable
connection (2).
4. In a safe area, operate the hydraulic system, (hold
tilt lever to maximum position momentarily) while
reading the voltage indicated on the multimeter.
2. Add enough water to cover the plates before
charging. This will ensure the proper chemical
reaction over the entire plate surface. After
charging is complete, add water until it is about
12.7 mm (.50 in) above the plates. Use distilled
water or water that has tested free from minerals.
5. If the indication is less than 44.2 volts, the battery
needs to be charged or repaired before continuing
to troubleshoot.
3. Charge the battery correctly. A battery should be
discharged to 80% of its capacity then fully
recharged. It should cool four to eight hours to
allow the voltage to stabilize before being put back
in use. The battery should have an equalizing
charge (an extra three or four hour charge at a low
finish rate) once a month to make sure all cells are
in a fully charged condition. Properly charged
batteries should be identified to prevent low
batteries from being installed in trucks.
Cell Voltage Test
With the truck powered up and the power steering
motor running, measure the voltage at each cell.
Normal voltage should be between 1.95V and 2.12V
per cell. If the voltage on each cell is below 1.95V the
battery must be charged or repaired before
continuing to troubleshoot.
NOTE : The indication between cells should not differ
more than 0.05 volts. If it does, the battery
must have an equalizing charge or be
repaired.
MicroController Control Systems
4. Operation with a low battery must be prevented.
Low battery operation may damage the battery
and will cause higher than normal current in the
electrical system. High current draw due to a low
battery will damage contactor tips and shorten
motor brush life.
43
Testing And Adjusting
5. The battery's maximum temperature is critical. The
electrolyte temperature should never exceed 43°C
(110˚F) either while operating or charging.
Overcharging a battery will cause over heating and
warp the battery plates. Maximum battery life will
result from maintaining 25˚C (77˚F) electrolyte
temperature. Most of the charging equipment is
fully automatic but should be checked periodically
to assure proper working order.
Resistance to Chassis Checks
Resistance between any point in the truck wiring and
the chassis should be a minimum of 10,000 ohms or
more.
Many malfunctions are caused by shorts to chassis.
Usually, two shorts must exist before a malfunction
will occur. But, since batteries can have chassis
leakage, only one short to chassis in the truck wiring
can cause problems. To prevent problems because
of shorts, do the following:
6. Keep accurate battery records. Regular battery
readings should be taken with a battery tester or
voltmeter and a written record kept. Specific
gravity and voltage of each cell should be checked
and recorded at least once each month. This
inspection should be made after an equalizing
charge. Readings should never be taken directly
after water has been added. Records of all battery
maintenance should be made and filed so it will be
known which batteries are being abused or
wearing out.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the HEAD
CAP.
2. Randomly measure any component connection or
wiring connection in respect to the lift truck chassis
for a minimum resistance of 10,000 ohms. Any test
point with low resistance must have the short to
chassis removed.
Repairs should be made immediately otherwise
the battery may become damaged. Batteries
stored in a discharged condition may be difficult to
recharge due to sulfate formation.
3. Always keep batteries clean to minimize current
leakage to the chassis.
4. Routinely clean the brush dust from the motors.
5. Be sure that all attachments, such as horns and
lights are designed for no chassis connection (a
two wire system).
Visual Checks
1. Verify all components and wires are in their proper
place. Check fuses, components, contactor tips,
wires and connections. Verify that they are not
burned, broken or loose.
Removal of Shorts to Chassis
When a short is found, it must be cleared even if the
machine has normal operation. It is necessary to
narrow the field of possible problem areas before
inspection of individual wires and components.
2. Verify there is no mechanical binding or
interference in the contactors.
3. Visually check the parking brake switch, the lift
switch and accelerator linkage for adjustment or
interference problems.
MicroController Control Systems
When a low resistance circuit is located, it should be
opened at various points. This will permit the shorted
wire or component to be pin-pointed for repair or
replacement.
44
Testing And Adjusting
Control and Power System
Operational Checks
All operational checks are to begin with the
battery connected, directional switch in neutral,
drive wheels off the ground and the accelerator
and parking brake released.
4. Depress the accelerator fully. The forward
contactors should remain activated. The bypass
contactors should activate. The drive wheels will
turn forward at full speed.
NOTE: Perform all operational checks before
returning to the Troubleshooting Check List.
Check 5: Reverse Drive Performance
Check 1: Key Switch, Seat Switch and Power
Steering
1. Select reverse direction and depress the
accelerator slightly. The reverse contactors should
activate and the drive wheels should turn in
reverse slowly.
1. Activate the key and seat switch. The line
contactor activate and the hydraulic pump motor
should turn on at slow speed (idle).
2. Slowly increase the amount of accelerator
depression. The reverse contactors should remain
activated. The drive wheels should turn in reverse
and slowly increase in speed.
2. Turning the steering wheel will increase the
hydraulic pump motor speed (boost-up).
3. Depress the accelerator fully. The reverse
contactors should activated. The bypass
contactors should activate. The drive wheels will
turn in reverse at full speed.
3. After five to ten seconds the line contactor
deactivates and the motor turns off.
Check 2: Lift Performance
Check 6: Electrical Braking (Plugging)
Performance
1. Pull the lift lever half way. The hydraulic pump
motor activates slowly to a preset speed.
2. Pull the lift lever to maximum. The hydraulic pump
motor activates full speed.
NOTICE
Do not perform this check with the lift truck in
bypass mode. Damage to the Drive Train can
result.
Check 3: Tilt and Auxiliary Performance
1. Slowly pull and push the tilt and auxiliary levers.
The hydraulic pump motor activates to one of the
preset speeds with each lever movement.
1. Select forward direction and depress the
accelerator to the point before bypass occurs.
While continuing to depress the accelerator,
change the direction switch to reverse. The
forward contactors should deactivate and the
reverse contactors should activate. There should
be a smooth deceleration of forward tire rotation.
After the forward tire rotation stops, there is a
smooth acceleration of reverse tire rotation.
Check 4: Forward Drive Performance
1. Engage the parking brake. Select forward direction
and depress the accelerator slightly. The forward
contactor should NOT activate and the drive
wheels should NOT turn.
2. Release the parking brake, select forward direction
and depress the accelerator slightly. The forward
contactors should activate and the drive wheels
should turn forward slowly.
2. Continue to depress the accelerator while in
reverse direction. Change the direction switch to
forward. The reverse contactors should deactivate
and the forward contactors should activate. There
should be a smooth deceleration of reverse tire
rotation. After the reverse tire rotation stops, there
is a smooth acceleration forward tire rotation.
3. Slowly increase the amount of accelerator
depression. The forward contactors should remain
activated. The drive wheels should turn forward
and slowly increase in speed.
MicroController Control Systems
45
Testing And Adjusting
Built-In Diagnostic Operation
The logics and the display provide built-in diagnostic
analyzer functions. Several diagnostic functions
occur while the lift truck is in operation. These are
called “Run Time” diagnostics. The other diagnostics
are called “Self” diagnostics. They are performed
when the lift truck is not in operation by using a
switch located in the logics.
Display =“Ec” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 20. Possible cause, control
panel thermal problem.
The overtemperature indication will display on LCD.
Display =“Ed” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 21. Possible cause, drive
motor thermal problem. The overtemperature
indication will display on LCD.
Central Vehicle Monitoring System (CVMS)
Problems
Display =“EP” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 22. Possible cause, pump
motor thermal problem.
The overtemperature indication will display on LCD.
If the display does not work, or it’s operation seems
incorrect see Troubleshooting Problems 1, 2, 3 and 4.
“Run Time” Diagnostics
(Lift Truck in Operation)
Display =“EL” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 23. Possible cause, low
battery voltage.
The diagnostic functions that follow would occur
during normal lift truck operation and are shown on
the seven segment display.
Display =“F0” Lift truck operates, then shuts down
during travel. See Troubleshooting Problem 32.
Possible cause, excessive currents in drive motor.
NOTE: Improper lift truck operation with normal
battery indication, should be checked with
“Self” diagnostics.
Display =“F2” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 33. Possible cause, a failed
left drive power transistor (DTR1).
Display =“F2” (Flashing) Lift truck will not operate,
see Troubleshooting Problem 34.
Possible cause, a failed right drive power transistor
(DTR2).
Display =“F3” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 35. Possible cause, a failed
pump power transistor (PTR1).
Display =“F4” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 36. Possible cause, failed
pump and drive power transistors.
Display =“F5” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 37. Possible cause, left
drive flyback diode DD1 failed.
Display Layout
Display =“EE” No Lift truck operation, see
Troubleshooting Problem 17. Possible cause, static
return to off.
Display =“F5” (Flashing) Lift truck will not operate,
see Troubleshooting Problem 38. Possible cause,
right drive flyback diode DD3 failed.
Display =“EE” (Flashing) Lift truck will not operate,
see Troubleshooting Problem 18. Possible cause,
seat switch open.
Display =“F6” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 39. Possible cause, pump
flyback diode PD failed.
Display =“E1” or “E2” Lift truck will operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 19. Possible cause, pump
or drive brush problem.
MicroController Control Systems
46
Testing And Adjusting
Display =“F7” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 40. Possible cause,pump
and drive flyback diodes (DD1,DD3 and PD) failed.
Display =“FA” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 41. Possible cause, steer
angle switch failure or harness problem.
Display =“Fb” Lift truck will not operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 42. Possible cause,
abnormal battery condition.
Display =“Fd” Lift truck will operate, see
Troubleshooting Problem 43. Possible cause,
pressure switch failure or harness problem.
MicroController Control Systems
47
Testing And Adjusting
“Self” Diagnostics
(Lift Truck not in Operation)
The diagnostic procedure should be used to aid in
troubleshooting after a problem occurs. It will
help to find the faulty circuit or component.
Complete all the tests before returning to the
MicroController Troubleshooting Check List.
Before testing, do the steps that follow :
3
1. Turn the key to off.
2
2. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor below 5 volts by holding the discharge
resistor in place for 10 seconds.
Removing Cover from Logic Unit (Logics)
(2) Screws. (3) Cover.
5. Loosen four screws (2) to remove logic cover (3).
4
Location of Fuse
(1) Line fuse.
3. Disconnect line fuse (1) to prevent lift truck
movement.
DIAG/RUN/SETUP Switch Location
(4) Switch.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Disconnect the battery and disconnect the line
fuse to prevent lift truck movement.
6. Move switch (4) to “DIAG” position. This places the
controller in diagnostics when the battery is
connected and key is turned to ON.
7. Connect the battery and turn key to ON.
4. Release the parking brake to close the park brake
switch.
MicroController Control Systems
48
Testing And Adjusting
Test 4 : Lift Switch Circuit
Display = “blank”
See Troubleshooting Problems 1 or 2.
Pull lift lever slowly.
Display now shows the speed that the lift lever is set
to. As lever is pulled back, 0 throngh 3 will be shown.
Display = “F”
Logics has a failure. Replace logics.
This indicates at what position the lift lever changes
the pump motor speed.
Display = “d”
Line fuse is not disconnected or discharge the head
capacitor. Return to step 2.
If still “A0” lift switch circuit defect, see
Troubleshooting Problem 10.
Display = “8b”
Direction lever is in the reverse position. Move
direction lever to neutral.
Test 5 : Tilt Switch Circuit
Pull tilt lever to maximum.
Display = “A6” Tilt switch circuit OK.
NOTE: This test does not check all the logics circuit,
so the logics may pass this test and still have
a failure.
Release tilt lever.
Display = “A0” Tilt switch circuit OK.
The LCD will display all symbols about 2 seconds.
Display = “A0” Ready for test 1.
If still “A0” or “A6”, tilt switch circuit defect, see
Troubleshooting Problem 11.
Test 1 : Seat Switch
Test 6 : Auxiliary Switch Circuit
Press seat to close seat switch.
Display = “A1” Seat switch circuit OK.
Pull auxiliary lever to maximum.
Display = “A7” Auxiliary switch circuit OK.
Release seat to open seat switch.
Display = “A0” Seat switch circuit OK.
Release auxiliary lever.
Display = “A0” Auxiliary switch circuit OK.
If still “A0” or “A1”, see Troubleshooting Problem 8.
If still “A0” or “A7”, auxiliary switch circuit defect, see
Troubleshooting Problem 12.
Release the park brake lever.
Test 2 : Reverse Direction Switch
Test 7 : Parking Brake Switch
Move direction switch from neutral to reverse.
Display = “A2” Direction switch circuit OK.
Pull park brake lever to maximum.
Display = “A9” Park brake circuit OK.
Move direction switch from reverse to neutral.
Display = “A0” Direction switch circuit OK.
Release Park brake lever.
Display = “A0” Park brake circuit OK.
If still “A0” or “A1”, see Troubleshooting Problem 9.
If still “A0” or “A9”, Park brake circuit defect, see
Troubleshooting Problem 13.
Test 3 : Forward Direction Switch
Move direction switch from neutral to forward.
Display = “A3” Direction switch circuit OK.
Move direction switch from forward to neutral.
Display = “A0” Direction switch circuit OK.
If still “A0” or “A3”, see Troubleshooting Problem 9.
MicroController Control Systems
49
Testing And Adjusting
Test 8 : Accelerator Control
Contactor Test
Press accelerator pedal to maximum.
Display = The speed symbols will increase from 0 to
10 on the LCD, Accelector circuit OK.
Test 9 through 14 may be activated in regular
sequence by movement of the DIAG/RUN/SETUP (4)
to “Run” then back to “Diagnostic” position, and “AC”
will display on the LCD.
Release accelerator pedal.
Display = The speed symbols will decrease from 10
to 0 on the LCD, Accelector circuit OK.
Test 9 : Line Contactor
Test 10 : Bypass Contactor
If the speed symbols is not full on the LCD, see
Troubleshooting Problem 14.
Test 11 : Left Forward Direction Contactor
Test 1 through 8 may be checked without sequence
and there are repeatable checkings to adjust
switches and levers.
Test 12 : Right Forward Direction Contactor
Test 13 : Left Reverse Direction Contactor
Test 14 : Right Reverse Direction Contactor
If the above actions do not occur, see
Troubleshooting Problem 15.
5
This completes the built-in diagnostic test.
Contactor test may be repeated contiune by
movement of the DIAG/RUN/SETUP to “Run” then
back to “Diagnostic” position.
After running through the contactor testing, pull tilt
lever and then release to netural position will access
the stored error codes. See Accessing Stored Error
Codes.
Contactor Locations
(5) Line contactor.
7
8
6
Contactor Locations
(6) Bypass contactor. (7) Right direction contactor.
(8) Left direction contactor.
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50
Testing And Adjusting
Accessing Stored Error Codes
Saving Service Records
The B18X series of trucks remembers the last 24
error codes. This is useful in case the truck has had
an intermittent problem, but the operator cannot
remember which code appeared on the display. Also
by analyzing the contents of the last 24 error codes,
it may be possible to determine what sort of
application the truck has been working in.
To save service records, the following procedures are
used at the end of self diagnostics and service
records are numbered from 1 to 9.
1. Access all of the error codes until display shows
static “E” on the LCD.
2. Move the direction lever to the forward then
display will show static “8d”.
The stored error codes are accessed at the end of
diagnostics by using the following procedure:
3. Move the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to “SETUP”
and back to “DIAG” two times.
1. Access the self diagnostics procedure as usual.
2. Either step through the self diagnostics procedure,
or override each test by moving the
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch from DIAG to RUN and
back to DIAG until the contactor testing is
completed.
4. Pull the tilt lever to maximum position and then
release.
3. Cycle the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch once more,
and cycle through the contactor testing again. After
the right reverse contactor drops out, now the
display will indicate a “AC”.
6. Wait until the display will show a flashing “8d”, the
display indicates that a service record have been
saved.
5. A saved service records will show for a few
second.
7. Turn OFF the key switch.
The error codes can now be accessed one at a time
by pulling tilt lever and then release. This will display
the most recent error code. By cycling the tilt lever
more times, more error codes will appear on the
display, up to a total of 24.
When the display shows a solid “E”, it will indicate
that all of the stored error codes have been
displayed. It is possible that the “E” will appear
immediately, indicating no error codes have been
encountered.
Erased Stored Error Codes
To erase all of the error codes, the following
procedures are used at the start of self
diagnostics.
1. Move the direction lever to the reverse and the
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to the DIAG position.
2. Turn on the key switch and wait until display
shows a solid “8b”, then move the
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to the SETUP position
and back to DIAG two times.
3. Move the direction lever to neutral.
4. Wait until the display will show a “A0”, the display
indicates that all error codes have been erased.
5. Turn off the key switch.
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51
Testing And Adjusting
Stored Error Codes
Quick Diagnostic Procedure
The following are possible error codes stored in
memory. Most error codes are identical to the ones
displayed during RUN.
An alternative method of entering diagnostics has
been programmed into the logics. This will enable
quick diagnostics of some of the components without
removing the controller room, line fuse, or placing the
DIAG/RUN/SET switch to the “Diagnostic” position.
Contactors and seat circuit will NOT be energized.
E1 : Drive motor brush problem.
E2 : Hydraulic motor brush problem.
Ec : Control panel thermal problem.
Ed : Drive motor thermal problem.
EL : Battery lock out.
EP : Pump motor thermal problem.
F0 : Excessive drive motor current in pulsing or
bypass operation.
F2 : Left drive problem, voltage on left drive transistor
emitter (wire #L64).
F2 (Flashing) : Right drive problem, voltage on right
drive transistor emitter (wire #R64).
F3 : Pump problem, voltage on pump transistor
emitter (wire #74).
F4 : Both F2 and F3 problems together.
F5 : Left drive problem, no voltage on left drive
transistor emitter (wire #L64).
F5 (Flashing) : Right drive problem, no voltage on
right drive transistor emitter
(wire #R64).
F6 : Pump problem, no voltage on pump transistor
emitter (wire #74).
F7 : Both F5 and F6 problems together.
FA : Steer angle problem.
Fb : Battery mis-match.
Fd : Pressure switch problem.
MicroController Control Systems
To enter quick diagnostics.
Open the seat switch and place the clirection lever to
forward and eusure that the park brake is released.
While depressing the accelerator to maximum
posistion other than OFF, and key switch to on.
Display will go to a solid “A3” and the speed symbols
will increase from 0 to 10 on the LCD, indicating that
you have entered diagnostics and you are ready for
Test: You can test the direction control lever, all
hydraulic levers, the park brake switch and the
accelerator.
See Built-In Diagnostic Operation on page 49-51.
NOTE : This test enables a salesman to demonstrate
some of the diagnostic procedure without
ever having to open up the controller room.
52
Testing And Adjusting
Troubleshooting Problem List
TROUBLESHOOTING PROBLEM LIST
Problem #
CENTRAL VEHICLE MONITORING SYSTEM (CVMS) PROBLEMS
1
CVMS does not work, with no lift truck operation.
2
CVMS does not work at all, lift truck operation normal.
Display portion of CVMS seems random or wrong.
3
4
Lift truck operation normal.
Display portion of CVMS works until seat switch is closed then blank,
no lift truck drive or pump motor operation.
“SELF” DIAGNOSTIC PROBLEMS
5
Display = “d”, no lift truck operation or “Self-diagnostics” operation.
6
Display = “F”, no lift truck operation.
7
Display = “8b”, no lift truck operation.
8
Seat switch circuit defect.
9
Direction switch circuit defect.
10
Lift switches circuit defect.
11
Tilt switch circuit defect.
12
Auxiliary switch circuit defect.
13
Park brake switch circuit defect.
14
Accelerator circuit defect.
15
Incorrect contactor operation.
16
Any contactor closes when key switch is activated.
“RUN TIME” DIAGNOSTIC PROBLEMS
17
Display = “EE”, no lift truck drive operation.
18
Display = “EE” (Flashing), no lift truck drive operation.
19
Display = “E1”, or “E2” lift truck operation normal.
20
Overtemperature is ON and display =
Lift truck accelerates slower than normal. Lifting speed is
slower than normal.
Overtemperature is ON and display =
21
Bypass contactor will not close.
Pump and steering operation normal. Acceleration slow.
Overtemperature is ON and display =
22
Lifting speed slow.
Drive and power steering operation normal.
23
Display = “EL”. No hydraulic (lift and tilt). Steering normal.
24
Hourmeter does not work.
25
Normal hydraulic operations, display is normal and no drive operations.
26
Current limit adjustment cannot be made.
27
Slow steering, but pump motor does turn. Drive system operation normal.
Pump motor runs continously when neutral is selected. Pump motor turns at high power steering
28
speed continuously.
Drive motor does not operate or operates with low power or is erratic.
29
30
Pump and power steering systems operation normal.
Horn does not function correctly. Lift and drive operation normal.
Auxiliary lighting and/or alarm does not function correctly.
31
Lift and drive operation normal.
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53
Testing And Adjusting
TROUBLESHOOTING PROBLEM LIST
Problem #
FAILURE CODE PROBLEMS
32
Display = “F0”, no lift truck operation.
33
Display = “F2”, no lift truck operation.
34
Display = “F2” (Flashing), no lift truck operation.
35
Display = “F3”, no lift truck operation.
36
Display = “F4”, no lift truck operation.
37
Display = “F5”, no lift truck operation.
38
Display = “F5” (Flashing), no lift truck operation.
39
Display = “F6”, no lift truck operation.
40
Display = “F7”, no lift truck operation.
41
Display = “FA”, no lift truck operation.
42
Display = “Fb”, no lift truck operation.
43
Display = “Fd”, lift truck operation normal.
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54
Testing And Adjusting
PROBLEM 1
Central Vehicle Monitoring System (CVMS) does
not work, with no lift truck operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Battery polarity not correct on control panel;
Key fuse open circuit; Key switch defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
With battery connected, check control panel battery connections for correct polarity.
Positive battery connected to line contactor and negative battery connected to negative heatsink.
If correct
If not correct
Push horn buttton to close horn switch.
Make correction to cables.
Horn work
Horn does not work
Does CVMS pass self test at actuation of key
and seat switches.
Yes
Disconnnect battery and check the horn
fuse for continuity.
NO
Continuity
See Problem 2, CVMS does not work,
lift truck operation normal.
Check for shorts and
replace fuse.
Check continuity from horn fuse holder to
control panel battery positive connection at
the line contactor. Also check continuity from
key fuse holder to wire #3 on key switch
Close key switch. Measure voltage on P1-1
and P1-2.
Battery
voltage
No continuity
Less than
Battery voltage
Continuity
Replace key switch or repair broken wire
#5 between key switch and P1-1 and P1-2.
Repair horn circuit.
No continuity
Repair or replace
open wire.
Check continuity from negative heatsink
to logics P1-19 and P1-20.
Continuity
Replace logics.
No continuity
Repair or replace open wire.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 2
CVMS does not work at all, lift truck operation normal.
If only part of CVMS works, replace the CVMS.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Disconnected logic connector P8; Open circuit from
P8-1 to CVMS connector PIN 1; Open circuit from
P8-8 to CVMS connector PIN 8; CVMS defect.
CHECKS
Make sure CVMS connector is connected to CVMS.
If connected
If not connected
Connect multimeter positive lead to P8-1
wire #101 and negative lead to P8-8 wire
#108. Measure the voltage.
5 volts
Replace the CVMS module.
MicroController Control Systems
Connect CVMS connector.
0 volt
Repair or replace open circuit between 8 wires
from logics to CVMS.
56
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 3
Display portion of the CVMS module seems random or wrong.
Lift truck operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Connection defect; Wiring defect; Logics defect; Display
defect.
CHECKS
Check continuity from logics to CVMS connector
(wire #101/WH/YL/GN/BU/BK/RD/108).
Continuity
No Continuity
Check for shorts to battery negative from
PIN 2 to PIN 7 on CVMS connector.
No shorts found
Repair or replace open wire.
Shorted
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Repair or replace shorted wire.
57
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 4
Display portion of CVMS works until seat switch is
closed then blank, no lift truck drive or pump motor
operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Line contactor defect; Line fuse open circuit; Wire #4
at P9-9 open circuit; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Does the line contactor close and remain closed ?
Yes
No
Check voltage at bottom of line fuse
with line contactor activated.
Battery voltage
See Problem 15. Incorrect
contactor operation.
Less than
Battery voltage
Check voltage at top of line fuse
with line contactor activated.
Battery voltage
Repair or replace line contactor
tips or power connections.
Less than
Battery voltage
Check voltage at logic connector
P9-9, wire #4 with line contactor
activated.
Battery voltage
Check for possible shorts in the power circuit
(Head Capacitor, diode, shorted cables) and
replace line fuse. If repeat failures occur,
check drive motor current limit and/or lift
truck application.
Less than
Battery voltage
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Repair open circuit between line
fuse and P9-9, wire #4.
58
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 5
Display = “d”, no lift truck or “Self-diagnostics” operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Logic DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch in DIAG position with
line fuse installed; Head capacitor not discharged
below 5 volts; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Trying to run
“Self-Diagnostics” ?
Trying to
operate lift truck ?
Disconnect battery, discharge head capacitor
below 5 volts, remove line fuse, set
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to DIAG position,
reconnect the battery and recycle key switch.
Display remains at “d”
Measure voltage on P9-9.
Disconnect battery, remove logic cover, set
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to RUN position,
reconnect the battery and recycle key switch.
“Self-diagnostic”
Operation OK
Display remains at “d”
Continue with “SelfDiagnostics” operation.
Replace logics.
Lift Truck
Operation OK
Place lift truck
into operation.
Below 5V.
Replace logics.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 6
Display = “F”, no lift truck operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
With the key on, check the voltage at logic P1-1 and
P1-2, wire #5.
Battery voltage
No voltage
Check continuity from control panel battery
negative to logic P1-19 and P1-20.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Repair or replace open wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace open wire.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 7
Display = “8b”, no lift truck operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Direction switch defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Does the DlAG/RUN/SETUP switch in “Diagnostic” position ?
NO
YES
Does the direction switch in neutral ?
YES
NO
Check continuity from logic P2-6 to
battery negative.
No continuity
Replace logics.
Move switch to “Run” position.
Move switch to neutral.
Continuity
Repair or replace short wire
or direction switch.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 8
Seat switch circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Seat switch defect; Wiring to seat defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery and remove logic cover.
Disconnect P2 connector. Check continuity from P2-7
harness connector to negative heatsink with multimeter in
diode test position. Should be closed circuit when
seat is pressed on and open circuit when seat is
released.
No continuity
Constant continuity
Disconnect seat switch connector. Push
on the seat and check the continuity
across the seat switch.
Continuity
No continuity
Replace seat switch.
Check OK
Replace logics.
Disconnect seat switch connector. Check
continuity from logic harness connector
P2-7 to control panel battery negative with
multimeter in diode test position.
Continuity
No continuity
Check continuity from terminal #1 of seat
switch to control panel battery negative.
Replace seat switch.
Continuity
No continuity
Repair or replace open wire
Check wiring for short circuits between
harness connector P2-7 and control
panel battery negative.
Repair any short circuit found.
Check continuity from terminal #2 of seat
switch to logic harness connector P2-7
with multimeter in diode test position.
Repair or replace open wire.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 9
Direction switch circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Direction switch defect; Wiring to direction
switch defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Release park brake. Disconnect the battery and
remove logic cover. Disconnect P2 connector.
Disconnect service brake switch connector.
Check continuity from control panel battery negative to
P2-5 logic connector; With direction lever in forward
should have a closed circuit, in neutral should be open.
Check OK
Check failed
Check continuity from control panel
battery negative to logic connector
P2-6. With direction lever in reverse
should have a closed circuit, in neutral
should be open.
Check OK
Disconnect direction switch connector.
Check continuity of wire #27.
Continuity
Check failed
Repair or replace wire.
Replace logics.
Check continuity from terminal #2 of
direction switch harness connector to
control panel battery negative.
Disconnect direction switch connector.
Check continuity of wire #28.
Continuity
No continuity
Continuity
No continuity
No continuity
Replace direction switch.
Repair or replace wire.
Repair or replace open wire.
Check continuity from terminal #2 of direction
switch harness connector to control panel
battery negative.
Continuity
No continuity
Replace direction switch.
MicroController Control Systems
Repair or replace open wire.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 10
Lift sensor circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Lift sensor not adjusted properly or defective;
Lift sensor wiring defect; Valve control card (board)
defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the tilt and auxiliary switch connectors.
Retest lift sensor circuit in self diagnostics.
Circuit passes
“Self-Diagnostics”
Perform Problem 11,12 Tilt or
auxiliary circuit defect.
Circuit fails
“Self-Diagnostics”
Disconnect PV connector at the valve control board.
Connect multimeter negative lead to PV-5 and the
positive lead to PV-2. Measure the voltage.
Battery Voltage
Measure each voltage from :
PV-1, PV-3 to battery negative PV-5.
All = 11.5 to 12.5
Any/All = 0V
0 Volt
Repair or replace broken wire
between key switch and PV-2
(wire #5) or between PV-5 and
battery negative(-).
Reconnect PV and adjust the lift sensor and
valve control card to specifications.
Measure each voltage from P2-3, P2-4
to battery negaive.
Display does not
change 0 to 3
All = 11.5 to 12.5
Display changes
0 to 3
Repair or replace broken wire
between P2 logic connector
and PV connector.
Perform “Self-Diagnostics”.
Lift circuit should work.
Measure each voltage from P2-3, P2-4 to
battery negative as the lever is pulled.
11.5 to 12.5 and .2v
Measured on each
Replace logics.
Any one or all 0V
Remove P2 logic connector. Check P2-3,
P2-4 for shorts to negative.
11.5 to 12.5 and .2V
NOT measured on each
If shorted
Replace valve Control Card.
Replace or replace wire.
No shorts
Replace logics.
NOTE : Before lift truck is placed into service, connect tilt and auxliary switches and verify proper adjustment.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 11
Tilt switch circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Tilt switch defect; Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery and remove logic cover.
Disconnect P2 connector. Pull tilt lever to maximum.
Check continuity from P2-2 logic connector to
control panel negative.
Continuity
No continuity
Replace logics.
Check continuity of wire #49.
Continuity
Check continuity from tilt switch terminal
of wire #1 to control panel negative.
Continuity
Replace tilt switch.
MicroController Control Systems
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
65
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 12
Auxiliary switch circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Auxiliary switch defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery and remove logic cover.
Disconnect P2 connector. Pull auxiliary lever to
maximum. Check continuity from P2-16 logic
connector to control panel negative.
Continuity
No continuity
Replace logics.
Check continuity of wire #46.
Continuity
Check continuity from Aux. switch terminal
of wire #1 to control panel negative.
Continuity
Replace Aux. switch.
MicroController Control Systems
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
66
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 13
Park brake switch circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Park brake switch defect; Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery. Check continuity from wire #71
to #1 on the park brake switch; With park brake released
should have a closed circuit; With park brake applied
should have an open circuit. Check park brake switch to
make sure it is activated by the park lever.
Check OK
Check failed
Check continuity from wire #1 on the park
brake to control panel battery negative.
Continuity
Replace park brake switch.
No continuity
Check continuity from wire #71
on the park brake switch to
logic P2-8
Continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Repair or replace wire.
67
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 14
Accelerator circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Accelerator defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
With the key switch on, the seat switch closed,
park brake released and connect multimeter
positive lead to P1-16, negative lead to P1-20.
Measure the voltage.
12 volts
Other voltage
Connect multimeter positive lead to P1-15,
negative lead to P1-20. Measure the voltage
accelerator pedal released : 0 volt.
Press accelerator pedal to max. : 9.6 to 11
volts.
Check OK
Replace logics.
Check failed
Disconnect P1 logic connector.
Check continuity of wire #18.
Continuity
Replace accelerator.
No continuity
Check continuity from terminal #1 of accelerator
harness connector to logic harness connector P1-16.
Continuity
No continuity
Check continuity from terminal #3 of accelerator
harness connector to logic harness connector P1-20.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Repair or replace wire.
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 15
Incorrect contactor operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Contactor defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
During the “Self-Diagnostic” test, which of the following occurs?
Contactor does not activate
or does not remain activated.
A contactor activates whenever the key
switch is closed through all tests.
Disconnect the battery. Check for free
mechanical movement of contactor tips
Movement OK
See Problem 16. “Any contactor
closes when key switch is closed”.
Movement not free
Remove logic cover. Disconnect P1. Check continuity
from P1-3 (wire #15) to terminal of the contactor
with incorrect operation.
Continuity
No continuity
Measure continuity from the appropriate P1 socket to
the coil terminal of the contactor that has incorrect
operation. Determine the P1 socket with respect to
the contactor that has incorrect operation as follows:
Line ....................................................P1-4, wire #33
Forward direction left .........................P1-5, wire #L34
Reverse direction left .........................P1-6, wire #L35
Forward direction right .......................P1-7, wire #R34
Reverse direction right .......................P1-8, wire #R35
Bypass ..............................................P1-9, wire #36
Continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Check the contactor coil resistance.
See Component Measurements in
Specifications section.
Check OK
Replace contactor.
Repair or replace wire.
Check not OK
Connect P1 and run “Self-Diagnostics”
again. If contactor does not close,
replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Replace contactor.
69
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 16
Any contactor closes when key switch is activated.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Connect the battery. Does the line contactor close
when the key switch is closed ?
Yes
No
Did the seat switch pass
“Self-Diagnostics”?
No
Yes
See Problem 8 Seat
Switch Circuit Defect.
With contactor closed ? Disconnect the battery. Remove
logic cover and disconnect logic P1 connector.
Check for a short circuit from control panel battery
negative to P1 harness connector socket.
Determine the P1 socket with respect to the contactor
that closed as follows:
Line................................................................P1-4
Forward direction left.....................................P1-5
Reverse direction left ....................................P1-6
Forward direction right ..................................P1-7
Reverse direction right ..................................P1-8
Bypass...........................................................P1-9
Short circuit
Repair or replace shorted wire.
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70
Open circuit
Replace logics.
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 17
Display = “EE”, no lift truck drive operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Static Return to Off (SRO) circuit activated by
improper operation sequence; Direction switch defect;
Accelerator linkage not fully released;
Accelerator control defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Check for SRO by release of accelerator, release
park brake, move the direction lever to neutral,
reselect direction and press the accelerator.
No change
Run “Self-Diagnostics” to find
faulty circuit or component.
Lift Truck Operation OK
Inform operator of correct start–up procedure.
Also, that the direction lever must be left
in neutral when leaving the truck.
If no faulty component is found,
replace logics.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 18
Display = “EE” (Flashing),
no lift truck drive operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
No opterator in seat; Seat switch defect;
Open wiring; Logics defect.
CHECKS
See Problem 8, seat switch circuit defect.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 19
Display = “E1”, or “E2” lift truck operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Worn brushes; Short wiring; Display defect.
CHECKS
If “E1” displays, drive motor brush wear.
If “E2” displays, hydraulic motor brush wear.
Disconnect the respective wire from the motor.
Wire #31 for drive motor or wire #72 for pump motor.
Connect the battery and close the key switch and
seat switch.
Does the LCD go out ?
No
Yes
Disconnect the battery. Check continuity of
the respective wires to the logics.
Continuity
Check the brushes and replace
as necessary.
No continuity
Replace or repair wires.
Disconnect logic P2 and check for shorts from
logic P2-14 and P2-15 to battery negative.
Shorted
Repair wires.
MicroController Control Systems
Opened
Replace logics.
73
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 20
Overtemperature is ON and Display =
.
Lift truck accelerates slower than normal. Lifting speed is
slower than normal. Power steering operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Control panel overheated; Control thermostat (thermal
switch) defect; Open wiring; Display defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Let the truck cool for 15 minutes.
Overtemperature indicator ON
Disconnect the battery. With the controller
at close to room temperature, disconnect the
control thermal switch connectors P10.
Check continuity of thermal switches.
Should have continuity below 69°C (156°F)
Continuity
Control panel was overheated, resume normal
operation. If repeats occur, check
drive and pump motors current draw or
operating cycle for excessive ramp
climbing, towing or excessive lifting.
No continuity
Replace thermal switch.
Check continuity of wire #69 between themostat
connector P10 and thermal SW
Continuity
No continuity
Check continuity of wire #1 at thermostat
to negative heatsink (control panel negative).
Continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Remove logic cover. Check continuity of wire
#69 at P10-7 to logic P2-11.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Normal display
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
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Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 21
Overtemperature is ON and Display =
.
Bypass contactor will not close. Pump and power steering
operation normal. Acceleration slow.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Drive motor overheated; Drive motor thermostat (thermal
switch) defect; Open wiring; Display defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Let the truck cool for 15 minutes.
Overtemperature indicator ON
Disconnect the battery. With the drive motor
at close to room temperature, disconnect the
drive motor thermal switch connector.
Check continuity of thermal switch.
Should have continuity below 123°C (253°F)
Continuity
Drive motor was overheated, resume normal
operation. If repeats occur, check drive motors
current draw or operating cycle for excessive
ramp climbing or towing.
No continuity
Replace thermal switch.
Check continuity of wire #43 between left and
right drive motor thermal switch.
Continuity
No continuity
Check continuity of wire #1 at left drive motor
thermal switch to negative heatsink.
Continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Remove logic cover. Check continuity of wire
#43 at right drive motor thermal switch to
logic P2-12.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Normal display
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
MicroController Control Systems
75
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 22
Overtemperature is ON and Display = .
Lifting performance slow. Drive and power steering
operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Pump motor overheated; Pump motor thermostat (thermal
switch) defect; Open wiring; Display defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Let the truck cool for 15 minutes.
Overtemperature indicator ON
Disconnect the battery. With the pump motor
at close to room temperature, disconnect the
pump motor thermal switch connector. Check
continuity of thermal switch.
Should have continuity below 123°C (253°F).
Continuity
Pump motor was overheated, resume normal
operation. If repeats occur, check
pump motor current draw or operating
cycle for excessive lifting and tilting.
No continuity
Repair or replace switch.
Check continuity of wire #1 at pump motor
thermal switch to negative heatsink.
Continuity
No continuity
Remove logic cover. Check continuity of wire
#42 at pump motor thermal switch connector to
logic P2-13.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Normal display
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
MicroController Control Systems
76
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 23
Display = “EL”. No hydraulic (lift and tilt).
Steering normal.
Battery discharge indicator (BDI) circuit defect.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Battery discharged or has a defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Connect battery, turn on key switch, close seat
switch and measure voltage from line contactor to
negative heatsink. Voltage must be greater than
45 volts.
Voltage OK
Voltage low
With key ON, seat switch and line contactor
closed, measure voltage at P9-9.
Battery voltage
Check battery connections;
Charge or replace battery.
Less than battery
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Repair shorted wire or high resistance
connection causing the improper voltage.
77
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 24
Hourmeter does not work.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
The hourmeter requires battery voltage to run.
Measure voltage at hourmeter to ensure that it is
battery voltage.
No voltage
Battery voltage
Check continuity from key switch to
hourmeter positive (+) terminal.
Continuity
Replace hourmeter.
No continuity
Check continuity from hourmeter negative (-)
to seat switch wire #45.
Continuity
Repair or replace wire.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
Check continuity from seat switch to battery
negative wire #1.
No continuity
Repair or replace wire.
MicroController Control Systems
78
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 25
Normal hydraulic operations, display is normal
and no drive operations.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Service brake switch shorted.
Short wires (#27, #28).
Charged head capacitor.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery connector and
discharge the head capacitor fully.
Check continuity from wire #27 (logic P2-5)
to wire #28 (logic P2-6).
Continuity
No continuity
Check service brake switch and wires #27, #28
from logics to service brake switch.
Check direction switch.
All checks OK
Replace logics.
Any checks failed
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Repair or replace wire or switches.
79
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 26
Current limit adjustment cannot be made.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Current sensor defect; Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Perform current sensor component check.
Check OK
Check failed
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Repair wiring or replace current sensor.
80
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 27
Slow steering, but pump motor does turn.
Drive system operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Steering pressure switch defect; Wiring defect;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Check the battery, close the seat and key switches.
Put the direction lever in forward.
Disconnect pressure switch connector.
Pump motor speed
remains the same
Pump motor speed
increases
Replace the pressure switch.
Disconnect pressure switch connector.
Check for a continuity between P2-1
and battery negative.
No continuity
Replace logics.
Continuity
Repair the wiring.
MicroController Control Systems
81
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 28
Pump motor runs continuously when neutral is
selected (no wait mode). Pump motor turns at
high power steering speed continuously.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Steering pressure switch defect; Pressure switch
connector disconnected; Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Check steering pressure switch connector for
proper connection.
Connected
Disconnected
Disconnect the pressure switch connector. Place jumper
wire between both pressure switch connector terminals.
With the key ON, seat switch closed and a direction
selected, the pump motor should run at slow speed.
Remains at high speed
Runs at slow speed
Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor. Check continuity from terminal #1
of pressure switch connector to the control
panel negative. Also check continuity from
terminal #2 of pressure switch connector to
logic connector P2-1.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Connect connector.
Replace the pressure switch.
No continuity
Repair or replace open wire.
MicroController Control Systems
82
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 29
Drive motor does not operate or operates with
low power or is erratic. Pump and power steering
systems operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Accelerator defect; Direction control circuit defect ;
Current limit set too low; Wiring defect ;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Perform self-diagnostics.
Passed
Does not pass
See respective problem for
defective circuit.
Readjust current limit to specifications.
Check DR1 and DR2 for correct resistance.
Resistance is 90Ω L 5%.
In specification
Not in specification
Check wire #L67, #L68, #R67 and #R68 for a good connection on DR1
and DR2.
Check wires #L63 and #R63 to base of transistors DTR1 and DTR2.
Check continuity of wire #L64 and #R64 from emitter of power
transistors to logics P9-5 and P9-6.
All OK
Defective wiring
Repair or replace defective wiring
or connection.
Check diode DD1, DD2, DD3 and
DD4 for shorts or open circuit.
Diode OK
Defective diode
Check drive motor, cables and contactor for open circuits.
Check OK
Replace logics.
Replace resistor.
Replace defective diode.
Open circuit
Repair open circuit or replace drive motor.
MicroController Control Systems
83
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 30
Horn does not function correctly. Lift and drive
operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Open fuse; Faulty wiring; Defective switch;
Horn defect.
CHECKS
With the faulty horn circuit activated, check for
voltage on the load side of the horn fuse.
Battery voltage
No voltage
Check for voltage on the load side of
the horn switch.
Battery voltage
Check for short circuits;
Replace horn fuse.
0 volt
Repair or replace open wire from fuse
or replace defective switch.
Check for voltage at the negative
connection of the load.
0 volt
Battery voltage
Repair or replace open wire from
the horn switch or replace horn.
MicroController Control Systems
Repair or replace open wire going to battery
negative.
84
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 31
Auxiliary lighting and/or alarm does not function
correctly. Lift and drive operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Open fuse; Faulty wiring; Defective switch; Shorted
load; Open load; Loss of input voltage to DC-DC
converter; Defective DC-DC converter.
CHECKS
Connect the battery and close the key switch.
Measure from the DC-DC converter 12V positive
terminal to the 12V negative terminal.
No voltage
output
Voltage
above 13V
Con’d
Next
Page
Voltage
below 11V
Con’d
Next
Page
Con’d
Next
Page
Voltage
11 to 13V
With the faulty auxiliary circuit
activated, check for voltage on
load side of the auxiliary fuse.
11 to 13 volts
Check for voltage on the load
side of the auxiliary switch.
11 to 13 volts
Check for short
circuits; Replace
auxiliary fuse.
0 volt
Check for voltage at the negative connection
of the load.
0 volt
No voltage
Repair or replace open wire from
fuse or replace detective switch.
11 to 13 volts
Repair or replace open wire from the
auxiliary switch or replace the
defective auxiliary component.
Repair or replace open wire going
to battery negative.
MicroController Control Systems
85
Troubleshooting
Problem 31 (continued)
No voltage output.
Measure the voltage from (POS INPUT) to (NEG INPUT).
Battery voltage
0 volt
Measure the voltage from (12V POS) terminal
of the DC-DC converter to battery negative.
Battery voltage
Measure the voltage from the battery positive
cable at the line contactor to the (NEG INPUT)
terminal of the DC-DC converter.
0 volt
Battery voltage
Measure the voltage from
(ENABLE) terminal of the
DC-DC converter to
battery negative.
Battery voltage
Replace
the DC-DC
converter.
0 volt
Check for open fuse or
wiring between the line
contactor and the (POS
INPUT) terminal of the
DC-DC converter.
0 volt
Repair open
negative
connection from
converter (NEG
INPUT) to battery
negative.
Open fuse Open wiring
Repair or replace open wiring
from the key sw to the (ENABLE)
terminal of the DC-DC converter.
Replace fuse and check
wiring for shorts. If no
shorts are found and the
fuse continues to fail,
replace the DC-DC converter.
Repair or replace
faulty wiring.
Test the fuse at the DC-DC converter for continuity.
Fuse good
Fuse open
Remove the load connections at the (12V POS) and (12V NEG)
terminals of the DC-DC converter. Measure the voltage from
the (12V POS) to the (12V NEG) terminals of the DC-DC converter.
11 to 13 volts
<11 or >13 volts
Replace the DC-DC
converter.
Check for a short circuit in each auxiary circuit.
No shorts found
Replace the DC-DC converter.
MicroController Control Systems
Replace fuse. If fuse
continues to fail, replace
the DC-DC converter.
Shorts found
Repair or replace faulty
wiring or components.
86
Troubleshooting
Problem 31 (continued)
Voltage bellow 11 volts.
Measure the voltage from (POS INPUT) or (+IN) terminal
to the (NEG INPUT) or (-IN) terminal of the DC-DC
converter.
36 volts or above
Below 35 volts
Remove all connections at the (12V POS) and(12V
NEG) or the (+OUT) and (-OUT) terminals
of the DC-DC converter. Measure the voltage
from (12V POS) to (12V NEG) or (+OUT) to
(-OUT).
11 to 13 volts
Check the battery and DC-DC converter
input connections from the battery.
Battery low
Poor connection
Below 11 volts
Charge or replace battery.
Repair or replace faulty wiring or
connections.
Check for a short or low resistance
in the auxiliary circuits and loads.
NOTE : Excessive loading places the
converter into current limit
(12A maximum).
DC-DC converter faulty.
Replace converter.
Voltage above 13 volts.
Remove all connections at the (12V POS) and (12V NEG)
or the (+OUT) and (-OUT) terminals of the DC-DC
converter. Measure the voltage from (12V POS) to
(12V NEG) or (+OUT) to (-OUT).
11 to 13 volts
Above 13 volts
Check the output load circuits for
incorrect wiring or shorts to battery
negative.
MicroController Control Systems
DC-DC converter faulty.
Replace converter.
87
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 32
Display = “F0”, no lift truck operation.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Logic potentiometers VR1 and VR6 out of adjustment.
Excessive drive motor currents due to pushing or ramp
application. Failed drive motor. Failed logics.
Weak or discharged battery.
CHECKS
Adjust current limit to specification :
48 V - 270 amps
OK
Still “F0”
Place lift truck into operation.
Determine when the “F0” occurs.
Before bypass
During bypass
Is there a steep ramp that the truck must stop on ?
If so the Excessive Drive Motor Current option may not
be applicable in this application.
Set option Programmable Feature 9 to Data Codes 3.
Determine if there is a steep ramp in the
application. Adjust VR6 so that current is
greater than maximum drive motor current
going up the ramp.
No ramp, or continues “F0”
No ramp, or continues “F0”
Does the “F0” occur due to excessive pushing or abuse. Ensure that the battery is not being deep
discharged, causing high currents. Inspect the battery for poor maintenance or bad cells.
Explain situation to the customer. If abuse continues, any drive failure will not be warranted.
Discussion : The logic card monitors the current in the drive motors, and prevents high currents that may
damage the drive motor, or possibly blow the line fuse. It uses two current limits settings for this purpose.
Potentiomenter VR1 sets current limit for transistor pulsing, and if drive motor current exceeds the VR1
current setting for longer than 3 seconds, it will failsafe and display an “F0”. Similary, if the bypass contactor
is closed, and the current exceeds the potentiometer VR6 setting for longer than 3 seconds, the truck will
failsafe in a similar manner. In addition, the bypass operation will be prevented if the drive motor currents
exceed the VR1 current limit.
MicroController Control Systems
88
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 33
Display = “F2”, no lift truck operation,
line contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Shorted DTR1; Welded bypass contactor tips ;
Open wiring; Driver board defect; Logics defect;
Frame voltage on LS1 drive motor cable.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery, check bypass contactor for
welded tips. Check contactor for free tip movement.
Not welded
Welded
Disconnect battery, remove logic cover, check
continuity and connections of wire #L64 at DTR1
emitter to P9-5 on logics.
Continuity
No continuity
Disconnect LS1 cable at
panel and retry.
Still “F2”
Repair or replace contactor tips.
Check BDI adjustment and battery
Check current limit adjustment.
Repair or replace
wiring or connection.
OK
Investigate voltage
present on LS1 cable.
Check DTR1 for failure
Test OK
Test driver board
(drive side only).
Test OK
Failed
Replace transistor.
Failed
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Replace driver board.
89
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 34
Display = “F2” (Flashing), no lift truck operation,
line contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Shorted DTR2; Welded bypass contactor tips ;
Open wiring; Driver board defect; Logics defect;
Frame voltage on RS1 drive motor cable.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery, check bypass contactor for
welded tips. Check contactor for free tip movement.
Not welded
Welded
Disconnect battery, remove logic cover, check
continuity and connections of wire #R64 at DTR2
emitter to P9-6 on logics.
Continuity
Repair or replace contactor tips.
Check BDI adjustment and battery.
Check current limit adjustment.
No continuity
Disconnect RS1 cable at
panel and retry.
Still “F2” (Flashing)
Repair or replace
wiring or connection.
OK
Investigate voltage
present on RS1 cable.
Check DTR2 for failure
Test OK
Test driver board
(drive side only).
Test OK
failed
Replace transistor.
Failed
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Replace driver board.
90
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 35
Display = “F3”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Shorted PTR1; Open wiring; Driver board.
defect; Open circuit pump motor or P1, P2 cables ;
Logics defect.
CHECKS
Connect the battery, close the seat and key switches.
Line contactor closes then
opens, pump motor does
not turn. Display = “F3”
Line contactor closes then
opens, pump motor turns a
small amount. Display = “F3”
Disconnect battery, remove logic cover, check
continuity of wire #74 at emitter connector of
PTR1 to P9-7 on logics.
No continuity
Check PTR1 for a short circuit.
Not failed
Failed
Continuity
Replace transistor.
Repair or replace
wiring
Check continuity from P1 to
P2 at panel.
Continuity
Replace logics.
Check driver board
(Pump side only).
Not failed
Failed
No continuity
Check motor and
cables and repair.
*
Replace logics.
Replace driver
board
(Pump side only)
*
* See Notice
NOTICE
Damage to the control panel could result. To prevent further damage, before PTR1 or driver
board are replaced, complete the following checks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
the diode PD for a failure.
Head capacitor for a failure.
PTR1 for a failure.
Driver board for a failure.
for continuity from PTR1 emitter (wire #74) to logics P9-7.
MicroController Control Systems
91
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 36
Display = “F4”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Bypass contactor tips shorted; Shorted DTR1, DTR2
and PTR1. Poor connection at logic P9 connector ;
Driver board defect.
CHECKS
See Problems 33, 34 and 35, Display = “F2” or “F2”
(Flashing) and “F3”. Do both procedures.
MicroController Control Systems
92
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 37
Display = “F5”, no lift truck operation, line contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Faulty wire connections; DTR1 failed; Current limit set to low; Failed DD1
or DD2; Failed driver board; Failed current sensor; Failed logics.
CHECKS
Disconnect the following wires, visually inspect them for burnt or discolored terminals; Loose
connections; Smashed or compressed connectors; Corrosion or foreign material. Wire #L65 at P9-1.
Wire #L64 at P9-5 and emitter bus bar of left drive power transistors. Wire #L67 and #L68 at resistor
DR1. Wires #L63 at DTR1. Wire #4 from driver board to positive heatsink. Wire #1 from driver board to
negative heatsink. Wire #L22 from logics P1-12 to current sensor. Wire #25 from logics P1-16 to current
sensor. Current sensor PIN3 to negative heatsink. Repair any defects then reconnect the wires.
Display = “F5”
Display normal
Test DTR1 for a failure.
Not failed
Return truck to operation.
Failed
Replace transistor.
Make sure that the connecter of current sensor is
connected. Measure the voltage at P1-12 with
the key switch closed. If the voltage is over than
10V, replace the current sensor.
*
Test diodes DD1 and DD2 for a failure.
Not failed
Failed
Measure voltage at P1-16 with the key switch closed.
Voltage = 11 to 12V
Any other voltage
Perform Rapid Turn-Up procedure for current limit (VR1).
Display “F5”
Replace logics.
Replace logics.
*
*
Display normal
Test driver board (drive) for a failure.
Not failed
Replace failed components.
Recalibrate current limit
to specifications.
Recalibrate current limit
adjustments to specifications.
Failed
Replace failed components. Recalibrate current limit to specifications.
*
* See Notice #1
MicroController Control Systems
93
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 38
Display = “F5” (Flashing), no lift truck operation, line contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Faulty wire connections; DTR2 failed; Current limit set to low; Failed DD3 or
DD4; Failed driver board; Failed current sensor; Failed logics.
CHECKS
Disconnect the following wires, visually inspect them for burnt or discolored terminals; Loose
connections; Smashed or compressed connectors; Corrosion or foreign material. Wire #R65 at P9-2.
Wire #R64 at P9-6 and emitter bus bar of right drive power transistors. Wire #R67 and #R68 at resistor
DR2. Wires #R63 at DTR2. Wire #4 from driver board to positive heatsink. Wire #1 from driver board to
negative heatsink. Wire #R22 from logics P1-13 to current sensor. Wire #25 from logics P1-16 to
current sensor. Current sensor PIN3 to negative heatsink. Repair any defects then reconnect the wires.
Display = “F5” (Flashing)
Display normal
Test DTR2 for a failure.
Not failed
Return truck to operation.
Failed
Replace transistor.
Make sure that the connecter of current sensor is
connected. Measure the voltage at P1-13 with
the key switch closed. If the voltage is over than
10V, replace the current sensor.
*
Test diodes DD3 and DD4 for a failure.
Not failed
Failed
Measure voltage at P1-16 with the key switch closed.
Voltage = 11 to 12V
Any other voltage
Perform Rapid Turn-Up Procedure for current limit (VR1).
Display “F5” (Flashing)
Replace logics.
Replace logics.
*
*
Display normal
Test driver board (drive) for a failure.
Not failed
Replace failed components.
Recalibrate current limit
to specifications.
Recalibrate current limit
adjustments to specifications.
Failed
Replace failed components. Recalibrate current limit to specifications.
*
* See Notice #2
MicroController Control Systems
94
Troubleshooting
NOTICE #1
Damage to the control panel could result. To prevent further damage, before DTR1 or driver
board are replaced, complete the following checks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
the diode DD1 and DD2 for a failure.
DTR1 for a failure.
Driver board for a failure.
Head capacitor for a failure.
for continuity from DTR1 emitter (wire #L64) to logics P9-5.
Current sensor for a failure.
NOTICE #2
Damage to the control panel could result. To prevent further damage, before DTR2 or driver
board are replaced, complete the following checks:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
Check
the diode DD3 and DD4 for a failure.
DTR2 for a failure.
Driver board for a failure.
Head capacitor for a failure.
for continuity from DTR2 emitter (wire #R64) to logics P9-6.
Current sensor for a failure.
MicroController Control Systems
95
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 39
Display = “F6”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Failed Fuse - line
Faulty wire connections; PD, PTR1 failed;
Failed driver board ; Failed logics.
CHECKS
Check the continuity of Fuse - line.
Disconnect the following wires, visually inspect them for burnt or discolored terminals,
loose connections, smashed or compressed connectors, corrosion or foreign material.
Wire #75 at P9-3. Wire #77 and #78 at resistor PR1.
Wire from driver board to positive heatsink.
Wire #1 from driver board to negative heatsink.
Wire #73 at base of transistor PTR1.
Repair any defects then reconnect the wires.
Display = “F6”
Display normal
Check diode PD for a failure.
Return truck to operation.
Not failed
Failed
Check transistor PTR1 for
a failure.
OK
*
Replace transistor.
*
Replace driver board.
*
Failed
Check driver board
(Pump side only).
Not failed
Replace failed diode.
Failed
Replace logics.
* See Notice
NOTICE
Damage to the control panel could result. To prevent further damage, before PTR1 or driver
board are replaced, complete the following checks:
1. Check the diode PD for a failure.
3. Check PTR1 for a failure.
2. Check Head capacitor for a failure.
4. Check Driver board for a failure.
5. Check for continuity from PTR1 emitter (wire #74) to logics P9-7.
MicroController Control Systems
96
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 40
Display = “F7”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Failure in both the drive and pump circuits.
Incorrect wiring of wires #L67, #L68, #R67, #R68,
#77 and #78.
CHECKS
See Problem 37, 38 and 39, Display = “F5” or “F5”
(Flashing) and Display = “F6”. Do both procedures.
MicroController Control Systems
97
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 41
Display = “FA”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Faulty wire connections; Failed steer angle
switch; Failed logics.
CHECKS
Disconnect steer angle switch connector.
Check continuity of wires #50, #51, #52 and #1
from logic P2-17 ~ 20 to steer angle switch connector.
Continuity
Not continuity
Repair or replace wires.
Check continuity wire #1 at steer angle
switch connector to negative heatsink.
Continuity
No continuity
Repair or replace wires.
Put steer wheel in straight position.
Key switch ON.
Logic P2-17~20 should be low voltage.
Low volt
High volt
Replace failed switches.
Check steer angle switch operation by
steer wheel position. (See steer angle
control - page 23)
Check OK
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Failed
Adjust steer angle switches.
98
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 42
Display = “Fb”, no lift truck operation, line
contactor closes and opens.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Battery defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect battery, measure voltage at battery
connector terminal. Voltage must be higher
than 40 volts and lower than 60 volts.
Voltage OK
Wrong voltage
Check battery connections;
Replace battery.
With key on, seat switch and line
contactor closed, measure voltage at logic
P9–9.
Battery voltage
No battery voltage
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Repair or replace wire.
99
Troubleshooting
PROBLEM 43
Display = “Fd”, lift truck operation normal.
POSSIBLE CAUSE
Pressure switch defect; Wiring defect; Logics defect.
CHECKS
Disconnect the battery. Check continuity from wire
#41 to #1 on the pressure switch.
Continuity
No continuity
Check continuity from wire #1 on the pressure
switch to control panel battery negative.
Continuity
No Continuity
Check continuity from wire #41 on
the pressure switch to logic P 2-1
Continuity
Repair or replace wires.
No Continuity
Replace logics.
MicroController Control Systems
Repair or replace wires.
Repair or replace wires.
100
Troubleshooting
System Tests and Adjustments
Potentiometer Adjustment Tool -Trimmer
Test Equipment
Available from most electronic suppliers, this
insulated tool allows for fast and easy adjustments of
potentiometers.
Hydrometer
Hydrometers are usually available from any battery
supplier. Battery maintenance is a crucial part of
maintaining the electric vehicle. The ability to
measure specific gravity and adjust the battery
discharge indicator to match battery manufacturers
specifications is an important part in the total
maintenance of the electric vehicle.
Discharging Head Capacitor
(HEAD CAP)
There are various pieces of electric truck test
equipment that Daewoo recommends for all service
personnel. This equipment is available from a
number of world wide manufacturers and local
electronic suppliers. Contact your Daewoo dealer or
the factory for further recommendations.
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
Handheld Multimeter
A digital multimeter that measures DC voltage,
resistance, and has a diode tester, is required. It is
recommended that a high quality meter that is drop
protected, or comes with a drop proof case, be
purchased. Autoranging features, fast becoming an
industry standard, are convenient for the service
personnel, but are not required for servicing the lift
truck. A variety of miniature test leads, alligator clips,
and needle probes are also useful, and some of
these usually come with the multimeter.
Clamp-on Current Probe
The electric lift truck testing and adjusting procedures
require the measurement of average DC currents.
Currents in excess of 600 amps may be present, so
a clamp-on meter that will exceed this level is
required. It is also highly recommeded that a device
that has a voltage output, as well as a visible display,
be used. This makes viewing and adjusting currents
from the operator's seat possible. The jaws of the
current probe should be able to accept at least a
19mm (.75 inch) cable diameter.
2
1
Discharging Head Capacitor (HEAD CAP)
(1) Positive heatsink.
(2) Negative heatsink.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
2. Put a 82 ohm, 80 watt resistor Part No. 929315, in
position between the positive (1) and negative (2)
heatsinks. Hold the resistor in position for 10
seconds. This will discharge the capacitor below 5
volts.
MicroController Control Systems
101
Testing And Adjusting
Logics Removal
8
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
7
Logics Removal
(7) Nuts. (8) Logics.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
5. Remove screws (7) which hold logics (8) to control
panel.
6. Remove logics and replace logic cover to prevent
damage.
2
“Run Time” Tests
1
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present. Injury
to personnel is possible. Disconnect the battery and
discharge the head capacitor (HEAD CAP) before any
contact is made with the control panel.
Component Location
(1) Screws. (2) Logic Cover.
2. Loosen screws (1) that hold logic cover (2).
3. Remove the logic cover.
WARNING
3
6
5
The lift truck can move suddenly. Battery voltage
and high amperage are present. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift both drive wheels off the floor. Put
blocks of wood under the frame so the drive
wheels are free to turn. During any test or
operation check, keep away from drive wheels.
4
Key ON, No Operator Warning, Display =“EE”
(Flashing)
1. Connect the battery.
2. Turn key to ON with no one on the seat.
Connector Re4moval
(3) Connector P1. (4) Connector P2. (5) Connector P8.
(6) Connector P9.
3. The display should show the letter “EE” flashing on
and off.
4. Disconnect connectors P1(3), P2 (4), P8 (5) and
P9 (6). When disconnecting connectors pull on
plastic connector housing, not on the wires.
MicroController Control Systems
4. With an operator on the seat or by pressing on the
seat the letter “EE” should stop flashing.
102
Testing And Adjusting
Overtemperature Protection
Static Return to Off (SRO), Display = “EE”
1. Connect the battery and sit on the seat.
2. Select a direction before turning key to ON.
3. Turn key to ON. An “EE” should appear on the
display and the drive system should not operate.
4. Return the direction lever to neutral, then back to
forward or reverse. The “EE” should disappear
from the display and the drive system should
operate.
5. Turn key to OFF. Depress and hold the accelerator
pedal.
To turn on overtemperature indicator.
6. Turn the key to ON. An “EE” should appear on the
display and the drive system should not operate.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
7. Release the accelerator padal. The “EE” should
disappear from the display and the drive system
should operate.
2. Disconnect the control panel thermal switch
connector.
3. Connect the battery, close the seat switch and turn
the key ON. The overtemperature indicator and
“Ec” should be truned on. The drive and hydraulic
speed will be reduced. “Ec” stored.
Steps 1 through 3 can be repeated for the drive and
pump motor thermal switches, the results should be:
Drive – Drive pulse ratio reduced, bypass operation
prevented, and “Ed” stored.
Pump – Lifting performance reduced, and “EP”
stored.
MicroController Control Systems
103
Testing And Adjusting
Logic Unit Quick Reference Voltage
Check
Component Tests
The chart that follows is a quick reference of the
expected voltages at the logic pin connectors. All
voltage measurements are made with respect to
battery negative.
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels.
NOTICE
Do not use steam or solvent to clean the controls.
Damage can be caused to the control panel. Use
pressure from an air hose with a maximum
pressure of 205 kPa (30 psi) to clean the control
panel when necessary. The air supply must be
equipped with a water filter.
1. Put blocks of wood under the frame so both drive
wheels are free to turn.
2. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
NOTE: When control wires and power cables or bus
bars are to be connected to the same bolt or
stud, place all control wires together on the
top of the bus bar or power cable.
3. Remove the logic cover.
Use the electrical schematic referred to by name and
number in the procedures that follow. All wires must
be located as shown on the schematic.
5. Connect the multimeter negative lead to control
panel battery negative.
4. Set the multimeter to the 200 volt DC range.
6. Use the multimeter positive lead with an Needle
Tip to measure the voltages under normal and
activated conditions as shown in the Logic Voltage
Reference chart.
Make sure the chart matches the control
system being tested.
1
4
3
2
Connector Layout
(1) Connector P1.(2) Connector P2. (3)Connector P8.
(4) Connector P9.
MicroController Control Systems
104
Testing And Adjusting
LOGIC VOLTAGE CHECKS
Normal
Activated
Voltage
Voltage
Logic
Terminal
P1-1
P1-2
Wire
No.
P1-3
15
P1-4
P1-5
P1-6
P1-7
P1-8
P1-9
P1-10
P1-11
P1-12
P1-13
P1-14
P1-15
33
L34
L35
R34
R35
36
L32
R32
L22
R22
18
Battery (+) from
key switch
Battery (+) to all
CTR coils
Line CTR coil
Left-FWD coil
Left-REV coil
Right-FWD coil
Right-REV coil
Bypass CTR coil
Left Plug sensor
Right Plug sensor
Left drive CT
Right drive CT
Not used
Accelerator
P1-16
25
12 Voltage (+)
P1-17
P1-18
P1-19
P1-20
–
–
Not used
Not used
1
Battery Negative
P2-1
P2-2
P2-3
P2-4
P2-5
P2-6
P2-7
41
49
47
48
27
28
45
Pressure switch
Tilt switch/AUX 1.Switch
Lift 1 Switch
Lift 2 Switch
FWD switch
REV switch
Seat switch
Low
High
High
High
High
High
High
High
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
P2-8
71
Park brake switch
Low
High
P2-9
P2-10
20
24
High
High
Low
Low
P2-11
69
Low
High
P2-12
43
Low
High
P2-13
42
Low
High
P2-14
31
High
Low
P2-15
72
High
Low
P2-16
P2-17
P2-18
P2-19
P2-20
46
50
51
52
1
Height 1 switch
Height 2 switch
Control thermal
switch
Drive motor
thermal switch
Pump motor
thermal switch
Drive brush wear
indicator sensor
Pump brush wear
indicator sensor
AUX. switch
ANGLE SWITCH 1
ANGLE SWITCH 2
ANGLE SWITCH 3
Battery Negative
High
High/Low
High/Low
High/Low
Low
Low
High/Low
High/Low
High/Low
Low
5
Function
MicroController Control Systems
B (+)
B (+)
B (+)
B (+)
B
B
B
B
B
B
(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)
0
0
0 to 0.03
0 to 0.03
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
Low
-0.8 to -0.2
-0.8 to -0.2
0.03 to 12
0.03 to 12
0 to 0.89
0.9 to 12
11 to 13
11 to 13
0
0
105
Test Function
Procedure
0V: key switch OFF,
B (+): key switch ON.
B (+) to all coils with key ON,
0V key OFF.
B (+): Line CTR open, 0V: closed
B (+): Left FWD open, 0V: closed
B (+): Left REV open, 0V: closed
B (+): Right FWD open, 0V: closed
B (+): Right REV open, 0V: closed
B (+): Byp. CTR open, 0V: closed
Voltage exchanges 0 to negative
Voltage exchanges 0 to negative
Voltage increases with current
Voltage increases with current
Activate pedal from full up to full down
0V = key switch OFF,
12V = key switch ON
Logic board negative
Activate steering wheel
Activate lever from OFF to ON
Activate by lever position
Activate by lever position
Activate lever from OFF to ON
Activate lever from OFF to ON
High: switch open, Low: closed
Low: Park brake activated
High: Park brake released
Activate lever from OFF to ON (OPT)
Activate lever from OFF to ON (OPT)
Activated by overtemperature of
control panel
Activated by overtemperature of
drive motor
Activated by overtemperature of
pump motor
Activated by brush wear of
drive motor
Activated by brush wear of
pump motor
Activate lever from OFF to ON
Turn steer wheel lock to lock
Turn steer wheel lock to lock
Turn steer wheel lock to lock
Testing And Adjusting
LOGIC VOLTAGE CHECKS
Logic
Wire
Normal
Activated
Test Function
Terminal
No.
Voltage
Voltage
Procedure
P8-1
101
LCD: DC 5 Volt (+)
4.5 to 5.5
4.5 to 5.5
Key switch OFF: 0V, ON: 5V
P8-2
WH
LCD: DATA
0
High / Low
0V: segment OFF, High: On
P8-3
YL
LCD: DATA-bar
0
High / Low
0V: segment ON, High: OFF
P8-4
GN
LCD: CLOCK
0
High / Low
0V: segment OFF, High: On
P8-5
BU
LCD: CLOCK-bar
0
High / Low
0V: segment ON, High: OFF
P8-6
BK
LCD: LOAD
0
High / Low
0V: segment OFF, High: On
P8-7
RD
LCD: LOAD-bar
0
High / Low
0V: segment ON, High: OFF
P8-8
108
Battery negative
0
0V
P9-1
L65
0
0.1 to 1.3
Activated as drive TR pulses (Left TR)
0
0.1 to 1.3
Activated as drive TR pulses
P9-2
R65
P9-3
75
P9-4
–
P9-5
L64
P9-6
R64
P9-7
74
P9-8
–
P9-9
4
Function
Logic board negative
Pulse drive TR
base (Left motor)
Pulse drive TR
base (Right motor)
(Right TR)
Pulse pump main
TR base
0
0.1 to 1.3
0
1.5 to B (+)
0
1.5 to B (+)
0
1.5 to B (+)
Activated as pump TR pulses
Not used
Drive TR emitter
sensor (Left)
Voltage increases as drive TR pulses
Drive TR emitter
sensor (Right)
Voltage increases as drive TR
Pump main TR
emitter
Not used
faster (Left TR)
pulses faster (Right TR)
Voltage increases as pump TR
pulses faster
0
B(+) from positive
heatsink
0
B (+)
B (+) with line contactor closed
NOTE : “Normal” ; battery connected, key switch and park switch closed.
High voltage signal should be 9 to 12 volts. Low voltage signal should be 0 to 0.9 volt.
MicroController Control Systems
106
Testing And Adjusting
Conductor and Switch Continuity
1. Set the multimeter to the 200 Ω range.
2. Use the multimeter to perform the continuity test. lf
continuity exists, the measurement will be less
than 1 ohm. lf the measurement is more than this,
continuity does not exist and the problem will have
to be repaired.
Capacitor (Head)
WARNING
1
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
2
5
4
3
Location of Components
(1) Positive connection point. (2) Positive cable.
(3) Negative connection point. (4) Negative cable.
(5) Capacitor.
4. Disconnect positive cable (2) from the positive
connection point (1).
NOTICE
Damage can be caused to the head capacitor. Do
not remove bolts from capacitor to perform tests.
Remove capacitor connecting cables at heatsink
connections.
5. Disconnect negative cable (4) from the negative
connection point (3).
6. Set the multimeter to the 20 KΩ range. Connect
the multimeter positive lead to positive cable (2) of
head capacitor (5). Connect the multimeter
negative lead to negative cable (4) of head
capacitor (5).
lf the capacitor fails the Head Capacitor Test, then
replace capacitor.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
7. The meter must increment to above 10 KΩ.
2. Visually inspect the capacitor for bulges at the
terminals.
8. If the head capacitor fails this test, then capacitor
should be replaced.
3. Verify the plastic top is not melted around the
terminals and that the blow plug is not leaking.
See Head Capacitor in Specifications section for
proper assembly order of the head capacitor
connections and bolt torque specifications.
WARNING
Head Capacitor “blow plug” will rupture with
reverse polarity. Vapors and contents of Head
Capacitors are toxic, flammable and corrosive.
Personal injury can be caused from breathing the
fumes or if its contents make contact with the
skin. Be sure to always connect the positive wire,
from the positive heatsink, to the positive terminal
of the Head Capacitor.
MicroController Control Systems
107
Testing And Adjusting
Contactors
Contactor Components
WARNING
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that
turn.
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
NOTICE
Damage can be caused to the control panel. Do
not switch the direction lever from one direction to
the other (plug the lift truck) when the drive wheels
are off the ground and in rotation at full speed.
Coil Suppression Diodes
1. Connect the battery and close the seat switch.
1 35
2. Turn the key to ON and release the parking brake.
The line contactor will close.
3. Select a direction and rapidly depress the
accelerator pedal all the way to the floor.
246
4. Measure and record the time it takes the bypass
contactor to close. This should be 1.5 to 2.5
seconds after the accelerator is fully depressed.
5. If the recorded value from Step 5 is less than 1.0
seconds, the logics may need to be replaced.
(During normal operation this time will vary with
the load on the truck).
Suppression Diodes
(1) D3-Line. (2) D4-Left Forward. (3) D5-Left Reverse.
(4) D6-Right Forward. (5) D7-Right Reverse.
(6) D8-Bypass.
6. If the recorded value from Step 5 is more than 2.5
seconds, check the bypass contactor tips for free
movement. Check wiring for bad connections, and
check current limit.
2. Disconnect the logic connector P1.
3. Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
NOTE : The bypass contactor will not close if the
accelerator linkage is not adjusted correctly.
4. Connect positive multimeter lead to anode, and
the negative multimeter lead to cathode of diode in
the logics.
5. The multimeter must indicate .3 to .9 volts.
6. Reverse the leads (positive multimeter lead to
cathode and negative multimeter lead to anode).
The meter must indicate OL.
MicroController Control Systems
108
Testing And Adjusting
Contactor Tips
Coil Resistance
2. Disconnect all leads to both terminals of the coil.
3. Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range.
4. Measure the resistance of the coil at both
teminals. If must be within specifications. See
Component Measurements in Specifications
section.
5. If the coil is not within specifications, the contactor
assembly will be replaced.
Coil Pulsing
Checking Contactor Tip Gap
2. With the contactor coil leads and suppression
assembly leads connected, set the multimeter to
the 200 volts DC range.
2. Visually inspect the tips to verify they are not
welded, melted, burned, or pitted.
3. Pull and release the tips quickly to verify there is
no binding.
3. Connect the multimeter negative lead to the
negative coil terminal wire #33 and the meter
positive lead to the coil positive terminal wire #15.
4. Visually inspect the contactor assembly.
Verify foreign objects don't interfere with normal
contactor operation.
4. Connect the battery and activate the controls
necessary for the contactor to be activated.
5. Check contactor tip gap with a feeler gauge as
shown. Refer to Specifications section for correct
settings.
5. After the contactor activates the multimeter must
indicate 24 to 36 volts. If the voltage is not correct
and the contactor passed the Coil Suppression
Diodes test and the Coil Resistance test, the logics
must be replaced.
MicroController Control Systems
109
Testing And Adjusting
Current Sensor
4. Check continuity from harness connector PIN2
wire #L22 to logic P1-12 (3) and connector PIN2
wire #R22 to logic P1-13 (4). Repair or replace
any defective wires.
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery. The head capacitor (HEAD CAP) must be
discharged before any contact with the control
panel is made. Disconnect the battery and
discharge HEAD CAP.
5. Set the multimeter to the 200V DC range. With
connector P1 disconnected, connect the
multimeter positive lead to logic P1-16 (5).
Connect the multimeter negative lead to control
panel battery negative.
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor, and remove the logic cover.
6. Connect the battery and turn the key to ON. The
measurement must be 11 to 13 volts. If the
measurement is not correct replace the logics.
7. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor. Connect P1.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that
turn.
2
1
8. Set the multimeter to the 200V DC range and
connect the positive lead to logic P1-12 (3) or P113(4)
Location Of Components
(1) Current Sensor - Right. (2) Current Sensor - Left.
2. Disconnect current sensor connector.
9. Connect the battery and turn the key to ON. The
measurement must be 0 volts.
3. Make sure wire #1 from current sensors is
connected to the negative heatsink.
3
10. Move the direction lever to forward and depress
the accelerator. The voltage being measured
should increase. If there is no voltage measured
or the voltage being measured does not change,
the current sensor must be replaced.
4 5
NOTE: If the current sensor is replaced current limit
must be adjusted.
P1 Connector Locations
(3) P1-12. (4) P1-13. (5) P1-16.
MicroController Control Systems
110
Testing And Adjusting
Diodes
Diode Replacement
WARNING
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
10 7 9
11
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
8
2. Remove the logics.
3. Disconnect the lead wire and remove the diode.
1
2
6
1
5
3
4
Location of Comporrents
(1) DD1. (2) DD1cathode lead wire. (3) DD2.
(4) DD2 cathode lead wire. (5) DD3.
(6) DD3 cathode lead wire. (7) DD4.
(8) DD4 cathode lead wire. (9) Battery negative heatsink.
(10) PD. (11) PD cathode lead wire.
Diode installation
(1) Contact surfaces.
4. Wipe clean contact surfaces (1). Put a small
amount of D557047 Thermal Joint Compound on
contact surfaces (1), but not on the threads.
DD1 (1) is shown in the procedure that follows.
Use a similar procedure for the other diodes. DD1
(1), DD2 (3), DD3 (5), DD4 (7) and PD (10) have a
cathode lead wire.
5. lnstall the diode and tighten to the specification
listed in the chart that follows.
Diode
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
Torque
DD1,DD2,DD3,DD4,PD 9 to 11 N•m (81 to 99 lb•in)
2. Disconnect DD1 cathode lead wire (2).
6. Connect all wires that were removed.
3. Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
4. Connect the negative multimeter lead on DD1
cathode lead wire (2). Connect the positive
multimeter lead to battery negative (9). The
multimeter should indicate .3 to.9 volts.
5. Reverse the multimeter leads. The multimeter
should indicate OL. If any of the measurements
are not correct, replace the diode.
MicroController Control Systems
111
Testing And Adjusting
Driver Board (On Vehicle)
NOTE: Driver board components are soldered
parallel to each other. The tests that follow
may not be typical of individual components
tests. The driver board must be replaced if
any incorrect test results are obtained.
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
Drive Side Tests
Refer to Driver Board Components and Connections.
If any of the measurements that follow are incorrect
the driver board must be replaced.
NOTICE
Damage to the control panel could result. To
prevent further damage before the Driver Board is
replaced, complete the check list that follow;
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor.
2. Disconnect CONN A from driver board - main.
3. Resistor R2 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range. Connect the
positive lead to CONN A-8. Connect the negative
lead to CONN A-9. The measurement must be 7.1
to 7.9 ohms.
1. Check head capacitor for a failure.
If the drive circuit failed:
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check diodes DD1, DD2.
Check diodes DD3, DD4.
Check transistors DTR1, DTR2.
Check continuity of current sensor wires.
Check continuity from DTR1 emitter (wire #L64)
to logic connector P9-5 and DTR2 emitter (wire
#R64) to logic connector P9-6.
4. Resistor R5 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range. Connect the
positive lead to CONN A-1. Connect the negative
lead to CONN A-2. The measurement must be 7.1
to 7.9 ohms.
5. Transistor TR1 (collector/emitter) and ZD1 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-8. Connect
the negative lead to positive heatsink.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
If the hydraulic pump circuit failed:
2. Check diode PD.
3. Check transistor PTR1.
4. Check continuity from PTR1 emitter (wire #74)
to logic connector P9-7.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
NOTE: Visually inspect the following connections to
ensure proper connection and lack of
corrosion.
6. Transistor TR3 (collector/emitter) and ZD2 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-1. Connect
the negative lead to positive heatsink.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
1. Wire #L63 to the base of DTR1.
2. Wire #R63 to the base of DTR2.
3. Wire #73 to the base of PTR1.
4. Wire #74 to the emitter of PTR1.
5. Wire #4 to the positive heatsink.
6. Wire #1 to the negative heatsink.
7. Wires #L67 and #L68 to DR1.
8. Wires #R67 and #R68 to DR2.
9. Wires #77 and #78 to PR1.
10. Wires #L65, #R65 and #75 to connector P9–1,
P9-2 and P9-3.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
7. Transistor TR1 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-8. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-10.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
MicroController Control Systems
112
Testing And Adjusting
15. Transistor TR2 (emitter/base) and R3 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-12.
Connect the negative lead to CONN A-7.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts as
above
8. Transistor TR3 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-1. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-3.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be almost same as
above.
9. Transistor TR1 (emitter/base) and R1 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range.
Connect the positive lead to positive heatsink.
Connect the negative lead to CONN A-10.
The measurement must be 3.5 to 4.3 ohms.
16. Resistor R3 test.
Set the multimeter to the 2 KΩ range. Connect
the positive lead to CONN A-7. Connect the
negative lead to CONN A-12. The measurement
must be 1000 to 1400 ohms.
10. Transistor TR3 (emitter/base) and R4 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range.
Connect the positive lead to positive heatsink.
Connect the negative lead to CONN A-3.
The measurement must be 3.5 to 4.3 ohms.
17. Transistor TR4 (emitter/base) and R6 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-5. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-5.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
11. Transistor TR2 (collector/emitter) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-7. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-11.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be almost same as
above.
18. Resistor R6 test.
Set the multimeter to the 2 KΩ range. Connect
the positive lead to CONN A-7. Connect the
negative lead to CONN A-5. The measurement
must be 1000 to 1400 ohms.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
12. Transistor TR4 (collector/emitter) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-7. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-4.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
19. Connect all disconnected connectors.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
13. Transistor TR2 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-12.
Connect the negative lead to CONN A-11.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
14. Transistor TR4 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-5. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-4.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
MicroController Control Systems
113
Testing And Adjusting
8. Transistor TR5 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN B-1. Connect
the negative lead to CONN B-4.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Hydraulic Pump Side Tests
Refer to Driver Board Components and Connections.
If any of the measurements that follow are incorrect
the driver board must be replaced.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor.
9. Transistor TR5 (emitter/base) and R7 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200 Ω range.
Connect the positive lead to positive heatsink.
Connect the negative lead to CONN B-4.
The measurement must be 3.5 to 4.3 ohms.
2. Disconnect CONN A, CONN B from driver board main.
3. Transistor TR6 (collector/emitter) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN A-7. Connect
the negative lead to CONN B-5.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
10. Resistor R8 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200 Ω range.
Connect the positive lead to CONN B-1. Connect
the negative lead to CONN B-2.
The measurement must be 7.1 to 7.9 ohms.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
11. Connect all disconnected connectors.
4. Transistor TR5 (collector/base) test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN B-6. Connect
the negative lead to CONN B-5.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
5. Transistor TR6 (emitter/base) and R9 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN B-6. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-7.
The measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be almost same as
above.
6. Resistor R9 test.
Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range.
Connect the positive lead to CONN B-6. Connect
the negative lead to CONN A-7.
The measurement must be 1000 to 1400 ohms.
7. Transistor TR5 (collector/emitter) and ZD3 test.
Set the multimeter to the diode test position.
Connect the positive lead to CONN B-1. Connect
the negative lead to positive heatsink. The
measurement must be .3 to .9 volts.
Reverse the test leads.
The measurement must be OL.
MicroController Control Systems
114
Testing And Adjusting
Driver Board (Off Vehicle)
Driver Board – Main
2
1
9
7
8
5
6
3
4
Driver Board Components and Connections
(1) CONN A. (2) CONN B. (3) TR1. (4) TR2. (5) TR3. (6) TR4. (7) TR5. (8) TR6. (9) Positive heatsink.
MicroController Control Systems
115
Testing And Adjusting
DRIVER BOARD TEST (OFF VEHICLE)
Component
Multimeter Range
+ Lead
- Lead
Result
DRIVE SIDE
TR1 (C to E)
Diode
#R63-A8
+HEATSINK
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR1 (C to E)
Diode
+HEATSINK
#R63-A8
OL
TR1 (C to B)
Diode
#R63-A8
#R67-A10
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR1 (C to B)
Diode
#R67-A10
#R63-A8
OL
TR1 (E to B) AND R1
200Ω
+HEATSINK
#R67-A10
3.5 to 4.5 ohms
R2
200Ω
#R63-A8
#R64-A9
7.1 to 7.9 ohms
TR2 (C to E)
Diode
#1-A7
#R68-A11
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR2 (C to E)
Diode
#R68-A11
#1-A7
OL
TR2 (C to B)
Diode
#R65-A12
#R68-A11
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR2 (C to B)
Diode
#R68-A11
#R65-A12
OL
TR2 (E to B) AND R3
Diode
#R65-A12
#1-A7
0.3 to 0.9 ohms
R3
200Ω
#R65-A12
#1-A7
1000 to 1400 ohms
TR3 (C to E)
Diode
#L63-A1
+HEATSINK
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR3 (C to E)
Diode
+HEATSINK
#L63-A1
OL
TR3 (C to B)
Diode
#L63-A1
#L67-A3
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR3 (C to B)
Diode
#L67-A3
#L63-A1
OL
TR3 (E to B) AND R4
200Ω
+HEATSINK
#L67-A3
3.5 to 4.3 ohms
R5
200Ω
#L63-A1
#L64-A2
7.1 to 7.9 ohms
TR4 (C to E)
Diode
#1-A7
#L68-A4
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR4 (C to E)
Diode
#L68-A4
#1-A7
OL
TR4 (C to B)
Diode
#L65-A5
#L68-A4
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR4 (C to B)
Diode
#L68-A4
#L65-A5
OL
TR4 (E to B) AND R6
Diode
#L65-A5
#1-A7
0.3 to 0.9 ohms
R6
200kΩ
#L65-A5
#1-A7
1000 to 1400 ohms
PUMP SIDE
TR5 (C to E)
Diode
#73-B1
+HEATSINK
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR5 (C to E)
Diode
+HEATSINK
#73-B1
OL
TR5 (C to B)
Diode
#73-B1
#77-B4
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR5 (C to B)
Diode
#77-B4
#73-B1
OL
TR5 (E to B) AND R7
Diode
#77-B4
+HEATSINK
0.3 to 0.9 ohms
R8
200kΩ
#73-B1
#74-B2
1000 to 1400 ohms
TR6 (C to E)
Diode
#1-A7
#78-B5
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR6 (C to E)
Diode
#78-B5
#1-A7
OL
TR6 (C to B)
Diode
#75-B6
#78-B5
0.3 to 0.9 volts
TR6 (C to B)
Diode
#78-B5
#75-B6
OL
TR6 (E to B) AND R9
200Ω
#1-A7
#75-B6
3.5 to 4.3 ohms
R9
200Ω
#1-A7
#75-B6
7.1 to 7.9 ohms
MicroController Control Systems
116
Testing And Adjusting
1. Check head capacitor for a failure.
Transistors DTR1,DTR2 and PTR1
If drive circuit failed:
WARNING
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Check DD1,DD2 for a failure.
Check DD3,DD4 for a failure.
Check DTR1,DTR2 for a failure.
Check driver board (drive side) for a failure.
Check continuity from DTR1,DTR2 emitter bus
bar (wire #L64, #R64) to logic P9-5, P9-6.
7. Perform Current Sensor test.
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor
(HEAD CAP) before any contact is made with the
control panel.
If the pump circuit failed:
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor and remove the logics.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2. Remove wires and bus bars from base and emitter
terminals of the transistors to be tested.
1
2
E
B
Check PD for a failure.
Check PTR1 for a failure.
Check driver board (pump side) for a failure.
Check continuity from PTR1 emitter (wire #74)
to logic P9-7.
Transistor Replacement DTR1,
DTR2 and PTR1
E
3
3
WARNING
BX
Battery voltage and high amperage are present. Injury
to personnel is possible. Disconnect the battery and
discharge the head capacitor (HEAD CAP) before any
contact is made with the control panel.
D557003 (927566) Transistor
(1) Emitter. (2) Base. (3) Collectror.
9
TRANSISTOR SPECIFICATIONS
Multimeter
(+)
(-)
D557003
Setting
Test Lead
Test
Results
8
7
Resistance
Emitter
Base
45 to 135 Ω
Diode
Base
Collector
.3 to .9V
Diode
Collector
Base
OL
Diode
Emitter
Collector
.3 to .9V
Diode
Collector
Emitter
OL
4
6 5 3
1
2
Location of Components
(1) Bolt. (2) Bar. (3) Emitter wire #L64.
(4) Base wire #L63. (5) Transistor DTR1. (6) Screw. (7) Screw
(8) DTR2. (9) PTR1.
NOTICE
Damage to the control panel could result.
To prevent further damage before a power transistor
is replaced, complete the check list that follows:
DTR1,DTR2 and PTR1 are all replaced in the same
way. DTR1(5) is shown in the procedure that follows.
MicroController Control Systems
117
Testing And Adjusting
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor, and remove the logics.
Resistors (DR1, DR2 and PR1)
2. Remove bolt (1), bar (2) and emitter wire #L64 (3).
WARNING
3. Remove screw (6) and base wire #L63 (4).
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
4. Remove mounting bolts (7).
NOTE : Look for visual breaks or cracks on resistors.
1. Disconnect the battery, discharge the head
capacitor, and remove the logics.
8
Transistor Removal
(8) Contact surface.
2
4
6
1
3
5
8
5
Transistor Removal
(5) DTRI transistor, (8) Contact surtace.
Location of Components
(1) DR1. (2) Wire #L67. (3) DR2.
(4) Wire #R67. (5) PR1. (6) Wire #77.
5. The contact surface (8) of transistor (5) is coated
with D557047 Thermal Joint Compound. Carefully
remove the transistor.
2. Disconnect wire #L67 (2) from resistor DR1 (1)
and disconnect wire #R67 from resistor DR2 (3)
and disconnect wire #77 from resistor PR1 (5)
6. To Replace the transistor, wipe clean contact
surfaces. Put a small amount of D557047 Thermal
Joint Compound on the contact surface (8). Coat
transistor so that compound covers only the
contact area.
3. Set the multimeter to the 200Ω range. Connect the
multimeter leads to terminals on resistor (1) to
check the resistance of DR1. Connect the
multimeter leads to terminals on resistor (3) to
check the resistance of DR2. Connect the
multimeter leads to terminals on resistor (5) to
check the resistance of PR1.
7. Install transistor (5) with mounting bolts (7). See
Specifications section for proper torques.
4. The measurement for each resistor must be: 85 to
95 ohms.
8. Install base wire #L63 (4) with screw (6). See
Specifications section for proper torques.
5. If the measurement is not correct, the resistor
must be
9. Install bar (2) and emitter wire #L64 (3) with bolts
(1). See Specifications section for proper torques.
MicroController Control Systems
118
Testing And Adjusting
Thermal Switch
The Thermal Switch (1) will open circuit if the
temperature is 81 to 89°C (178 to 192°F) and close
circuit at 69 to 77°C (156 to 171°F).
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery and discharge the head capacitor (HEAD
CAP) before any contact is made with the control
panel.
If the thermal switch is removed from the heatsink, it
can be tested in an oven.
See Troubleshooting Problem 20. Possible cause,
pump or drive transistors overtemperature.
Pump Motor and Drive Motor
NOTICE
Damage to the thermal switch will occur. Do not
heat the thermal switch over an open flame.
The Thermal Switch (1) will open circuit if the
temperature is 144 to 156°C (291 to 313°F)
and close circuit at 123 to 137°C (253 to 279°F).
If the thermal switch is removed from the motor, it
can be tested in an oven.
Control Panel
See Troubleshooting Problems 21 and 22. Possible
cause, drive or pump motors overtemperature.
1
Location of Components
(1) Thermal switch.
MicroController Control Systems
119
Testing And Adjusting
Electrical System Adjustments
Accelerator Control Linkage
Parking Brake Switch
Method A (Mechanical)
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that
turn.
1
4
63
2
3
2
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
3
2. Adjust length of lever (1) to 63 L 2 mm and
tighten the nut (2). Fully depress accelerator pedal
(4) until stopped by accelerator stopper (3).
1
4
3. Release accelerator pedal (4). Check for
dimension.
Parking Brake Switch Adjustment
(1) Switch. (2) Plate. (3) Bolts. (4) Bracket.
1. Close the seat switch and turn the key to ON.
Method B (Electrical)
2. Release the parking brake and put the truck in
forward.
1. Enter diagnostics, through the specified procedure,
the display is an “A0”.
3. Reposition plate (2) so the switch (1) actuator is
against the bracket. Tighten bolts (3).
2. Depress the accelerator slowly to stop. The speed
symbols will increase from 0 to 10 on LCD.
4. Engage the parking brake and the park brake
symbol will be displayed. Repeat the procedure
until adjustment is correct.
3. Release the accelerator, the display will be “A0”,
disconnect the battery, and place the
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch back to RUN, and
reinstall the line fuse.
MicroController Control Systems
120
Testing And Adjusting
Lift Sensor
Valve Control Card Adjustment
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor.
1
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safety lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that turn.
3
1. Verify the lift sensor clearance is adjusted
correctly.
4
2
2. Disconnect all tilt and auxiliary switch connectors.
3. Place the lift truck in “Quick” or “Self” diagnostics
so that the display is flashing the lift speed.
Lift Sensor Adjustment
(1) Lift Sensor(transducer) (2) Magnet. (3) Screw.
(4) Setscrew. (A) 1.0 mm (.039 in) Clearance.
NOTICE
Lift sensor may be damaged. Do not allow the magnet
(2) to make contact with the plastic bracket when the
lift lever is activated.
1
2. Loosen setscrew (4).
3. Adjust screw (3) to make clearance (A) 1.0mm
(.039 in) between lift sensor (1) and magnet (2)
when the lift lever is activated fully (pulled all the
way back).
2
Valve Control Card Adjustment
(1) P1 Potentiometer. (2) P2 Potentiometer.
4. Turn potentiometer P1 (1) fully counterclockwise
unitl a clicking sound is heard (roughly 20 turns).
4. Tighten setscrew (4). Check lift sensor circuit. The
valve control card may need adjusting.
5. Turn potentiometer P2 (2) fully counterclockwise
until a clicking sound is heard (roughly 20 turns).
6. Turn potentiometer P2 (1) 15 full turns clockwise.
7. Position the lift lever just prior to the hydraulic
valve opening. Adjust P1(1) clockwise until a
flashing “1” is obtained on the display.
MicroController Control Systems
121
Testing And Adjusting
8. Pull the lift lever all the way back. A flashing “3”
must be displayed.
Tilt and Auxiliary Switches
9. If a flashing “3” is not displayed, adjust P2 (2)
clockwise until it is.
Because each tilt and auxiliary switch can turn on the
pump motor, it is recommended that only one be
connected to start with. After adjusting the first switch
proceed with the next one.
10. Release the lift lever and adjust P1
counterclockwise until a “0” is displayed.
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor. Disconnect all but one switch connector.
11. Repeat steps 9 and 10 until “0” to “3” speeds
correct.
12. Put the lift truck back in the run mode so the
actual hydraulics can be tested.
13. Connect the battery, close the seat switch and
turn the key to ON.
14. Pull the lift lever back until the pump motor turns
on. The forks must not move. Adjust P1 so the
motor starts just before the valve opens.
1
If the valve opens before the motor turns on, adjust
P1 (1) clockwise.
2
If the motor turns on too far in advance of the valve
opening, adjust P1 (1) counterclockwise.
Tilt and Auxiliary Switch Adjustment
(1) Screw. (2) Screws.
2. With valve spool in neutral position, loosen screws
(2) and adjust screw (1) to center the switch roller
on cam.
3. After adjusting switch in or out to obtain correct
switch point, tighten screws (1) and (2) to lock
switch into position.
4. Connect the battery, close the seat switch and turn
the key to on. Readjust switch if needed, so that
the pump motor turns on before the control valve
opens.
This must be adjusted for each lever direction
(pushed or pulled).
5. Connect the next switch and repeat this proccdure.
MicroController Control Systems
122
Testing And Adjusting
3) VR6 : Bypass Dropout Current Potentiometer
Rapid Tune-Up Procedure
Fully counterclockwise (CCW) and then
slowly turn VR6 (20 full turns) clockwise
(430A).
5
4) VR8 : Electrically assisted brake current limit
potentiorneter.
Fully counter clockwise (CCW) and then
solwly turn VR8 (5 full turns) clockwise
(170A).
4
3
2
1
4. Make the final adjustments as specified in each of
the Testing And Adjusting procedures before
putting the truck into service. Perform these
procedures in the order listed below:
Lacation of Potentiometers
(1) Current limit potentiometer VR1.
(2) Plugging Current limit potentiometer VR2.
(3) BDI adjustment potentiometer VR5.
(4) Bypass drop out adjustment potentiometer VR6.
(5) EAB adjustment potentiometer VR8
1) Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI)
2) Current Limit
The rapid tune-up procedure establishes a starting
point for logic card adjustments. The following
procedure allows the truck to run without damage to
the truck or its components.
3) Plugging Current Limit
4) Electrically Assisted Brake Current Limit.
5. Turn off the key switch.
WARNING
Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI)
Adjustment
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that turn.
1. Turn off the key switch.
1
3
2. Place direction lever to reverse or forward or seat
switch open.
2
3. Turn on the key switch and then wait until display
“EE” (SRO) or “EE” flashing shows on the LCD
and the line contactor will be opened.
Logic Board Layout
(1) Jumper JP1. (2) Jumper JP2. (3) Potentiometer VR5
1) VRI : Drive Motor Current Limit
Potentiometer
Accurate adjustment of the BDI is only possible with
a battery of the same voltage that the truck is going
to operate at, and at a voltage within the range of the
display. If a lift interrupt has occurred, with a “EL” on
the display, it may be necessary to reprogram
Feature “10” to select TYPE1, and then make the
necessary adjustments.
If 48 volt European tubular batteries are used, it is
recommended that logic board is programmed
TYPE1 on Programmable Feature “10”.
Fully counterclockwise (CCW) and then
slowly turn VR1 (9 full turns) clockwise
(270A).
2) VR2 : Plugging Current Limit Potentiometer
Fully counterclockwise (CCW) and then
slowly trun VR2 (8 full turns) clockwise
(250A).
MicroController Control Systems
123
Testing And Adjusting
Battery Table of the Closed Circuits
BDI Adjustment
Battery Terminal Voltage
1. Disconnect the battery and discharge the head
capacitor. Remove logic cover and verify the
DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch is in the RUN position.
Bar Symbols
Display
2. Make sure the jumper connector is in the correct
place for the lift truck battery used. Place the
jumper on the following.
JP1=36V, JP2=48V
3. Set the multimeter to measure battery voltage.
Connect the multimeter positive lead to the battery
positive cable at the line contactor. Connect the
multimeter negative lead to the battery negative
cable.
4. Put the direction lever in neutral and connect the
battery.
Type 1(OPT) : Closed Voltage
36V
48V
6
above 37.2
above 49.1
5
36.8 to 37.2
48.6 to 49.1
4
36.4 to 36.7
48.0 to 48.5
3
36.0 to 36.3
47.5 to 47.9
2
35.6 to 35.9
47.0 to 47.4
1
35.2 to 35.5
46.5 to 46.9
1*
25.8 to 35.1
33.8 to 46.4
0/EL
below 25.8
below 33.8
1*=Display is flashing
5. Close the seat switch and turn the key to ON. The
BDI display must show the correct bar for the
voltage measured. To correct values are shown in
the charts that follow.
Battery Terminal Voltage
Bar Symbols
Display
Type 1(STD) : Closed Voltage
36V
48V
EXAMPLE: If the measurement is 49.1 volts for a 48
volt battery, the bar display should be at “5”.
6
above 37.2
above 49.1
5
36.8 to 37.2
48.4 to 49.1
6. If the display is not correct, turn the key to OFF
and make an adjustment to potentiometer VR5.
Turn VR5 clockwise to increase and
counterclockwise to decrease the bar display.
Approximately a 1/2 turn of VR5 will change the
display one bar. Turn the key to OFF between
adjustments otherwise the display WILL NOT
CHANGE.
4
36.4 to 36.7
47.7 to 48.3
3
35.9 to 36.2
47.1 to 47.6
2
35.4 to 35.8
46.4 to 47.0
1
35.0 to 35.3
45.9 to 46.3
1*
34.5 to 34.9
45.0 to 45.8
0/EL
below 34.5
below 45.0
1* = Display is flashing
7. If the voltage was 49.1V, VR5 should be turned to
find the transition point between 6 and 5 on the
bar display. This will assure that the BDI is
calibrated at a high 5.
6 : The highest position
Battery Terminal Voltage
Bar Symbols
Display
: Max. Charged Status
5:
4:
3:
2:
1:
: (A) Not flashing
(B) Flashing - 80%
discharge warning
MicroController Control Systems
Type 1(OPT) : Closed Voltage
36V
48V
6
above 37.2
above 49.1
5
36.9 to 37.2
48.3 to 49.1
4
36.6 to 36.8
47.4 to 48.2
3
35.3 to 36.5
46.6 to 47.3
2
35.9 to 36.2
45.7 to 46.5
1
35.6 to 35.8
44.9 to 45.6
1*
35.3 to 35.5
44.0 to 44.8
0/EL
below 35.3
below 44.0
1* = Display is flashing
124
Testing And Adjusting
NOTE: Closed Voltage means that line contactor
close and idle operation in hydraulic system.
7. If the voltage is higher than 49.1V, adjust the BDI
as example.
EXAMPLE: If the measurement is 50.7V, adjust bar
display at a low 6 and then turn VR5 to 1
TURN CW. (1 TURN CW = 1.6V
increase)
BDI Adjustment with display at “EL”
If the logics has already gone into lift interrupt
(display = “EL”) it is not possible to adjust the BDI
until a battery above a certain programmed voltage is
connected to the vehicle.
The factory default setting to reset the lift interrupt is
any voltage equivalent to a bar display of 3 or higher.
This level can be adjusted.
See Program Feature “3”.
By reprogramming Feature “3”, from the factory
default code of 3, to a temporary code of 0, it will
become possible to adjust the BDI with a battery with
a voltage less than a 3 on the bar display .
After adjustment of the BDI, reprogram Feature “3”
back to the default setting of 3.
MicroController Control Systems
125
Testing And Adjusting
Current Limit Test and Adjustment
4. Engage the park brake. Connect the park brake
connector of harness to hold the closed circuit.
5. Connect the battery. Close the seat switch and
turn the key to ON.
6. Select a direction and depress the service brake
so that the wheels do not turn. Depress the
accelerator to 80% pulsing.
To prevent bypass operation ensure that the
accelerator is not depressed all the way down. To
get an accurate current reading the wheels must
not slip.
1
Ammeter Connection
(1) Digital Ammeter.
NOTICE
Damage to the drive motor will result. Do not stall
the drive motor for longer than absolutely
necessary. To protect the drive motor from
excessive currents, and “F0” can occur during
current limit setting. Allow for the motors to cool
between stalls, and let the motor run between
stalls.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that
turn.
7. The current measurement must be within
specification. Adjust logic potentiometer VR1
clockwise to increase the current and
counterclockwise to decrease the current.
48V between 265 and 275 amps.
NOTE : Current limit is preset at the factory and
should not be adjusted unless the truck
malfunctions, or the logic board is replaced.
Only qualified service personnel with the
correct instrumentation should adjust current
limits.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until setting is correct.
9. Don’t forget to re-engage the service brake switch
and park brake switch prior to putting the vehicle
back into operation.
1. Put blocks of wood under the frame so both drive
wheels are free to turn.
2. Connect clamp-on ammeter (1) around the LA1
cable to measure drive motor current. Use
multimeter to read current remotely from the
operator’s seat. Ensure that option feature “9” is
default setting to prevent bypass operation.
3. Remove the floor plate, and disconnect the service
brake switch connector.
MicroController Control Systems
126
Testing And Adjusting
Electrically Assisted Braking (EAB)
Electrical Braking (Plugging)
Current Test and Adjustment
Refer to Program Feature #2. This is Default Setting.
1. Make sure current limit is adjusted to specification
before adjusting EAB current.
2. Connect clamp-on current probe (1) around LA1
cable to measure drive motor current. Use
multimeter to read current remotely from the
operator’s seat.
3. Move the lift truck FORWARD at full speed. Just
release the accelerator pedal.
1
4. The current measured during the Electrically
Assisted Braking must be 170 ± 10 amps.
Ammeter Connection
(1) Digital Ammeter.
5. If the correct current is not measured, adjust
potentiometer VR8. Turn the potentiometer
adjustment screw counterclockwise to decrease
this current.
General Plugging with Direction Lever
1. Make sure current limit is adjusted to specification
before adjusting Electrical Braking current.
NOTE : This EAB current should be lowerer than
above General Plugging current 250 amps.
2. Connect clamp-on current probe (1) around LA1
cable to measure drive motor current. Use
multimeter to read current remotely from the
operator’s seat.
Bypass Dropout Adjustment - Stall
Protection
3. Move the lift truck FORWARD at full speed. Keep
the accelerator pedal fully depressed and change
the direction to REVERSE.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Injury to
personnel or damage to the lift truck is possible.
Safely lift the drive wheels off the floor. Put blocks
of wood under the frame so both drive wheels are
free to turn. Keep away from drive wheels that turn.
4. The current measured during the electircal braking
(plugging )must be 250 ± 10 amps.
5. If the correct current is not measured, disconnect
the battery and discharge the head capacitor.
Remove the logic cover and adjust potentiometer
VR2. Turn the potentiometer adjustment screw
counterclockwise to decrease the plugging current.
The stall protection feature helps protect the drive
motor from abuse, and can also prevent unnecessary
line fuse failures. Adjustment or checking of this current
setting is not recommended unless drive motor or fuse
failures have occurred, or an “F0” occurs during bypass
operation. Factory settings are as follows:
NOTE : Though the plugging distance
(Recommended plugging distance is
approximately 5 meters) is an application
specific adjustment, plugging current should
not exceed 250 amps. If the recommended
current produces a short stopping distance,
the distance may be lengthened by turning
potentiometer VR2 counterclockwise to
reduce plugging current.
MicroController Control Systems
48V between 420 and 440 amps
Fully counterclockwise (CCW) and then slowly turn
VR6 (20 full turns) clockwise (430A).
If “F0” occurs during bypass operation, the application
should be investigated for incorrect operation, and
maximum currents should be measured. Adjusting VR6
clockwise will increase the maximum current allowed in
bypass. For maximum motor protection, VR6 can be
adjusted counterclockwise, until a “F0” occurs in
bypass, then adjust the potentiometer clockwise 1 turn.
127
Testing And Adjusting
Programmable Features
There are 17 programmable features that effect the
operation of the lift truck. A table of these features,
the default setting, the minimum setting and the
maximum setting are shown below:
With the desired Feature Number being shown, move
the direction lever to forward or reverse and then
neutral. The display will flash the preset data value.
To increase the value, cycle the direction lever to
forward and then back to neutral. The display will
increment number. Repeat this cycle until the
desired value for this feature is flashed.
Feature Minimum Maximum Default
Number Setting
Description
Setting Setting
0
1
5
4
Creep Speed
1
1
6
2
Maximum Steering Speed
2
0
2
1
Electrically Assisted Braking
3
0
6
3
Discharged Battery Reset Value
4
0
5
0
Top Travel Speed Limit
5
-
-
P
Not Used
6
0
4
2
Wait Timer (seconds)
7
1
2
1
Discharged Battery Drive Speed
8
1
5
4
Acceleration Travel Speed Time
9
1
3
1
Excessive Drive Motor Current
10
1
3
2
Battery Type Selection
11
1
6
3
Maximum Idle Speed
12
1
6
3
Maximum Lift1 Speed
13
1
6
1
Maximum Lift2 Speed
14
1
6
3
Maximum Tilt Speed
15
1
9
4
Maximum Auxiliary Speed
16
1
5
3
Hydraulic Ramp Timer
To save a new setting, pull the tilt lever to
maximum position and then release slowly while
holding a wanted setting.
The display will show the next feature number.
3. Repeat again on the above NO.2 until static
display, 16 will show.
A “PE” indicates the end of the feature list and can
be cycled to return to the beginning of the feature
list.
Activating Default Settings
All of the programmable features can be set to
the factory default settings by the following
procedure.
1. Turn the key switch to OFF.
Setting Procedure Option Features
2. Seat switch must be open.
The programming procedures are described on the
following.
3. Move the direction lever to reverse.
4. Place the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to SETUP.
1. Initial conditions
5. Park brake must be released.
Move the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to “SETUP”
and then turn on the key switch.
6. With depressing the accelerator pedal to
maximum.
Wait until display “0” shows on the LCD. This code
indicates that truck is in the SETUP mode.
7. Turn the key switch to ON.
2. Programming methods
8. After the display performs the LCD test, a “d”
(Flashing) will be displayed. This indicates that the
default settings have been programmed.
To change the Programmable Feature Numbers,
pull the tilt lever to maximum position and then
release once. The display will show Feature
Number 1.
Cycling the tilt switch advances the display to the
next Feature Number. Cycle the tilt switch until the
Feature Number of the parameter to be
programmed is shown on the display.
MicroController Control Systems
128
Testing And Adjusting
Programmable or Settable Option Features
The logics contains a number of features which are either settable or programmable.
The following is a list of the features, however the “Service Manual” or your Daewoo Dealer should be consulted
in determing which options may be beneficial to the application.
Note : Marked
means default setting.
FEATURE NO.
DESCRIPTIONS
• • Creep Speed
•B
•
0
Creep Speed Selection provides for slower creep speed control, especially at high mast
application. Depending on truck chassis configuration and customer preference, the
creep speed can be selected. The default setting of 2 gives improved creep speed
control, especially at higher mast. The higher “number” makes more faster creep speed.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
On-Duty (%)
20
23
26
29
32
• • Maximum Steering Speed
•B
•
This can be used to limit the maximum steering speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
1
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
17
20
23
26
29
32
• • Electrically Assisted Braking
•B
•
2
To automatically activate plugging braking when the service brake is activated or
accelerator pedal is released.
Data Codes
0
1
2
Comments
Not used
Release Accel or Activate
Service Brake
Activate Servrice Brake
• • Discharged Battery Reset Value
•B
•
3
This feature sets the level of battery charge required to enable the hydraulics after
a lift interrupt occurs. The battery discharge indicator (BDI) must read a level
greater than the value set in this feature to enable the hydraulics after a lift interrupt
occurs.
(1* = Display is flashing)
Data Codes
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
1*
1
2
3
4
5
6
• • Top Travel Speed Limit
•B
•
4
The value of this feature is set to select the drive motor top speed.
Values between 1 and 5 allow for varying speeds, 1 being the slowest and 5 being
the fastest without using the bypass contactor.
0 being the normal travel and bypass operation.
Data Codes
0
1
2
3
4
5
Speed(%)
100 : Bypass operation
43
50
60
75
90
MicroController Control Systems
129
Testing And Adjusting
FEATURE NO.
DESCRIPTIONS
• • Auto plugging
•B
•
5
If selected this feature will automatically activate auto plugging braking when the
accelerator released during driving
Data Codes
P
Time (Sec)
Pass
• • Wait Timer
•B
•
6
This feature varies the time before the line contactor drops out after the truck has
been inactive (wait mode-no operator requests, and direction lever in neutral).
The delay may be set in 6 second increments between 0 and 12 seconds.
Data Codes
0
1
2
3
4
Time (Sec)
0
3
6
9
12
• • Discharged Battery Drive Speed
•B
•
7
This feature sets the drive motor top speed during lift interrupt, battery lock-out. If
the display shows “EL”, the logics limits the drive motor top speed to the value set
in this feature.
Data Codes
Comments
1
2
1. Max.speed=70%
1. Normal operation.
2. No bypass operation.
2. Bypass operation.
• • Acceleration Travel Speed Time
•B
•
8
This feature allows for varying amounts of time until the bypass contactor close
when accelerator pedal has been depressed from zero to max. position.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
Time (Sec)
Slowest
Slower
Normal
Faster
Fastest
• • Excessive Drive Motor Current
•B
•
9
This prevents the truck from entering bypass when the truck is in current limit, thus
extending the life of the bypass contactor tips, reducing line fuse failures, and
extending drive motor brush life.
If the motor is stalled for longer than the timer is set for, the vehicle will failsafe to
prevent motor damage and an “F0” will be displayed.
Data Codes
Comments
1
2
3
This is to protect drive
This is to protect drive
motor from excessive
motor from excessive
current in either pulsing
current in only bypass
or bypass modes.
modes.
Not used
• • Battery Type Selection
•B
•
10
Due to different voltage characteristics of battery technologies, specifically
european tubular designs, it may be necessary to use a battery voltage chart with a
reduced voltage range.
Data Codes
1
2
3
Battery Voltage (Volt)
Max.49.1/Min.33.8
Max.49.1/Min.45.0
Max.49.1/Min.44.0
MicroController Control Systems
130
Testing And Adjusting
FEATURE NO.
DESCRIPTIONS
• • Maximum Idle Speed
•B
•
11
This can be used to limit the maximum idle speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
7
9
11
13
15
17
• • Maximum Lift 1 Speed
•B
•
12
This can be used to limit the maximum lift 1 speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
25
30
35
40
45
50
• • Maximum LIft 2 Speed
•B
•
13
This can be used to limit the maximum lift 2 speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
50
60
70
80
90
95
• • Maximum Tilt Speed
•B
•
14
This can be used to limit the maximum tilt speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
Data Codes
15
1
2
3
4
5
6
On-Duty (%)
30
•
•B
• • Maximum Auxiliary Speed
40
50
60
70
80
This can be used to limit the maximum aux. speed of the truck.
These values are on-duty ratio of the pump main transistor base.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Time (Sec)
30
35
40
45
55
65
75
85
95
• • Hydraulic Ramp Timer
•B
•
16
When the hydraulic switches are activated, the time which is to take to maximum
pulsing can be adjusted.
Data Codes
1
2
3
4
5
On-Duty (%)
Slowest
Slower
Normal
Faster
Faster
MicroController Control Systems
131
Testing And Adjusting
SB4100E00
Sep. 2003
Specifications
Systems Operation
Testing & Adjusting
Disassembly & Assembly
Lift Trucks Power Train
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2 (36V)
EMOD4-00001~UP
EMOD5-00001~UP
EMOD6-00001~UP
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2 (48V)
EMOFB-00001~UP
EMOFC-00001~UP
EMOFD-00001~UP
EMOD7-00001~UP
Important Safety Information
Most accidents involving product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety
rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an
accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary
training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, Iubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result
in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any Iubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read and
understood the operation, Iubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are
not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or other persons.
The hazards are identified by the "Safety Alert Symbol" and followed by a "Signal Word" such as "WARNING" as
shown below.
WARNING
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows :
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The Message that appears under the warning, explaining the hazard, can be either written or pictorially
presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in this
publication.
DAEWOO cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in
this publication and on the product are therefore not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating
technique not specifically recommended by DAEWOO is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and
others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or made unsafe by the operation, Iubrication,
maintenance or repair procedures you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information available at the
time it was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other
items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service given to the product.
Obtain the complete and most current information before starting any job. DAEWOO dealers have the most
current information available.
1
Index
Specifications
Brake ......................................................................15
Drive Motor............................................................... 7
Final Drive ................................................................ 9
General Tightening Torques ..................................... 5
Motor and Transmission ..........................................13
Wheel Mounting...................................................... 11
Systems Operation
Drive Motor ..............................................................18
Final Drive ...............................................................20
General Information.................................................17
Testing And Adjusting
Brake ......................................................................36
Connecting The Brake Cable .............................36
Connecting The Hydraulic Brake System ..........36
Replenishing With Transmission Fluid ...............37
Drive Motor ..............................................................27
Armature Terminal Test ......................................32
Armature Tests ...................................................28
Brush Holder Test...............................................32
Brush Lift Estimate .............................................33
Commutator Inspection .....................................30
Field Coil and Terminal Tests .............................31
Motor Brushes ....................................................27
Thermal Switch Tests .........................................33
Motor and Transmission ..........................................34
Motor Transmission Unit and Vehicle Frame ..........35
Troubleshooting .......................................................22
Checks During Operation...................................22
Drive Motor....................................................22
Transmission .................................................26
Visual Checks.....................................................22
Disassembly and Assembly
Drive Axle ................................................................38
B15/18/20T-2(36V)
Disassemble Drive Axle ................................38
Assemble Drive Axle .....................................41
B13/15/18/20T-2(48V)
Disassemble Drive Axle ................................49
Assemble Drive Axle .....................................55
Special Service Tools ..............................................65
Power Train
3
Index
Specifications
General Tightening Torques
General tightening torque
for bolts, nuts and taperlock studs
The following charts give the
standard torque values for bolts,
nuts and taperlock studs of SAE
Grade 5 or better quality.
Exceptions are given in other
sections of the Service Manual
where needed.
thread
size
inches
1/4
5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2
9/16
5/8
3/4
7/8
Use these torques for
bolts and nuts with
standard threads
(Conversions are approximate)
1
1-1/8
1-1/4
1-3/8
1-1/2
standard thread
Use these torques for
bolts and nuts on
hydraulic valve
bodies.
Use these torques for
studs with taperlock
threads.
taperlock stud
standard torque
lbIft
9L3
18 L 5
32 L 5
50 L 10
75 L 10
110 L 15
150 L 20
265 L 35
420 L 60
640 L 80
800 L 100
1000 L 120
1200 L 150
1500 L 200
NIm*
12 L 4
25 L 7
45 L 7
70 L 15
100 L 15
150 L 20
200 L 25
360 L 50
570 L 80
875 L 100
1100 L 150
1350 L 175
1600 L 200
2000 L 275
5/16
3/8
7/16
1/2
5/8
13 L 2
24 L 2
39 L 2
60 L 3
118 L 4
20 L 3
35 L 3
50 L 3
80 L 4
160 L 6
1
5
3
7
1
9
5
3
7
5L2
10 L 3
20 L 3
30 L 5
40 L 5
60 L 10
75 L 10
110 L 15
170 L 20
260 L 30
320 L 30
400 L 40
480 L 40
550 L 50
7L3
15 L 5
30 L 5
40 L 10
55 L 10
80 L 15
100 L 15
150 L 20
230 L 30
350 L 40
400 L 40
550 L 50
650 L 50
750 L 70
1
1-1/8
1-1/4
1-3/8
1-1/2
*1 newton meter(NIm) is approximately the same as 0.1 mkg.
Power Train
5
Specifications
Metric fasteners
metric ISO thread
[Usually, material strength identification on bolt
head is with numbers (i.e., 8.8, 10.9, etc.)]
The chart on the right gives the torque for bolts and
nuts with Grade 8.8.
NOTICE : Caution must be taken to avoid mixing
metric and standard (customary) fasteners.
Mismatched or incorrect fasteners can result in vehicle
damage or malfunction, or possible personal injury.
Original fasteners removed from the vehicle should
be saved for assembly when possible. If new ones
are required, caution must be taken to replace with
one that is of same part no. and grade or better.
thread
size
(mm)
(NIm)*
M6
M8
M10
M12
M14
M16
M18
M20
M22
M24
M27
M30
M33
M36
12 L4
25 L7
55 L10
95 L15
150 L20
220 L30
325 L50
450 L70
600 L90
775 L100
1150 L150
1610 L200
2000 L275
2700 L400
torque
(lbIft)
9 L3
18 L5
40 L7
70 L10
110 L15
160 L20
240 L35
330 L50
440 L65
570 L75
840 L110
1175 L150
1450 L200
2000 L300
ISO-International Standard Organization
Hose clamps-worm drive band type
intitial assembly
torque on new hose
clamp
width
(NIm)*
13.5 mm (.531 inch)
7.5 L0.5
4.5 L0.5
7.9 mm (.312 inch)
0.9 L0.2
15.9 mm (.625 inch)
(lbIft)
65 L5
40 L5
8 L2
reassembly or
retightening torque
(NIm)*
4.5 L0.5
3.0 L0.5
0.7 L0.2
(lbIft)
40 L5
2 L5
6 L2
*1 newton meter(NIm) is approximately the same as 0.1 mkg.
Power Train
6
Specifications
Drive Motor
(36V)
2
1
(48V)
2
1
Power Train
7
Specifications
Drive Motor
1
Model
BxxT-2
Voltage
36V
48V
New Brush
Thickness B Width B Length
2
Minimum
New Commutator
Brush Length*
Diameter
12.5 mm B 32 mm B 35 mm
(.49 in. B 1.25 in. B 1.37 in.)
18 mm
(.70 in.)
80 mm
(3.14 in.)
Minimum
Commutator Diameter**
78 mm
(3.07 in.)
*As measured on longest side.
**All rough edges (burrs) must be removed after the commutator is machined.
Machine chamfer on the commutator bars
...................................................... 0.40 mm (.016 in.)
Maximum difference between commutator high and
low point (out of round) ......... 0.03 mm (.001 in.) TIR
Torque for the terminal bolts (not shown) that hold
cable connections ............................. 12 NIm (9 lbIft)
Maximum difference between bar to bar
.......................................... 0.005 mm (.0002 in.) TIR
Depth of the insulation below commutator bars
.......................................................... 1.5 mm (.05 in.)
Thermal switch
Opening temperature.......... 155 L 4°C (311 L 10°F)
Width of the insulation below commutator bars
........................................................ 0.8 mm (.031 in.)
Power Train
Closing temperature ........... 145 L 6°C (293 L 11°F)
8
Specifications
Final Drive
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
IHPS002S
(1) Tightening bolt. (2) Socket head bolt. (3) Tightening nut. (4) Hexagon bolt. (5) Plug. A. Clearance.
(4) Torque for hexagon bolt that hold spring holder
and disk carrier .......................... 34 NIm (25 lbIft)
(1) Torque for bolt that hold wheel shaft
................................................. 9.6 NIm (7.1 lbIft)
(5) Torque for fluid filling plug........... 22 NIm (16 lbIft)
(2) Torque for socket head bolt that hold toothed disk
................................................... 67 NIm (49 lbIft)
(6) Gear ratio.................................................. 18.2 : 1
(3) Torque for nut that hold motor shaft
....................................................55 NIm (41 lbIft)
(A) Brake lever setting clearance
................................... 0.4~1.0 mm (.016~.039 in)
Power Train
9
Specifications
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
5
1
0
E
2
3
9
11
4
E
6
7
8
10
E E
(1) Nut. (2) Flat head bolt. (3) Socket head loolt. (4) Socket head bolt. (5) Socket head bolt. (6) Air breather.
(7) Socket head bolt. (8) Plug-oil level. (9) Plug. (10) Drain plug. (11) Socket head bolt.
(1) Apply LOCTITE NO.277 (or 271) Thread Lock to
thread of nut.
Torque for nut that holds drive shaft
............................. 200 L 20 NIm (148 L 15 lbIft)
(2) Apply LOCTITE NO.277 (or 271) Thread Lock to
threads of bolts.
Torque for flat head bolts that hold end plate
....................................8 L 3 NIm (5.9 L 2.2 lbIft)
(3) Apply LOCTITE NO.277 (or 271) Thread Lock to
threads of bolts.
Torque for socket head bolts that hold carrier
cover .............................30 L 7 NIm (22 L 5 lbIft)
(4) Apply LOCTITE NO.277 (or 271) Thread Lock to
threads of bolts.
Torque for socket head bolts that hold ring gear
stopper plate ...............55 L 10 NIm (41 L 7 lbIft)
Power Train
(5) Apply LOCTITE NO.277 (or 271) Thread Lock to
threads of bolts.
Torque for socket head bolts that hold housing
......................................25 L 7 NIm (18 L 5 lbIft)
(6) Torque for air breather 70 L 10 NIm (52 L 7 lbIft)
(7) Apply LOCTITE NO.277 (or 271) Thread Lock to
threads of bolts.
Torque for socket head bolts that hold housing
......................................30 L 7 NIm (22 L 5 lbIft)
(8) Apply LOCTITE NO.572 to thread of oil level plug.
Torque for plug ............70 L 10 NIm (52 L 7 lbIft)
(9) Torque for plug that holds piston rod
....................................70 L 10 NIm (52 L 7 lbIft)
(10) Apply LOCTITE NO.572 to thread of drain plug.
Torque for plug ..........70 L 10 NIm (52 L 7 lbIft)
(11) Apply LOCTITE No.277 (or 271) Thread Lock to
thread of socket head bolt.
Torque for bolt that holds nut
...................................8 L 3 nIm (5.9 L 2.2 lbIft)
10
Specifications
Wheel Mounting
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
1
2
IHPS003S
(1) Nut. (2) Bolt.
(1) Torque for drive wheel mounting nut
............................................... 180 NIm (133 lbIft)
(2) Torque for bolt that hold housing to frame
............................................... 135 NIm (100 lbIft)
Power Train
11
Specifications
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
2
1
IOPS002I
(1) Nut. (2) Bolt.
(1) Torque for drive wheel mounting nut
............................................... 180 NIm (133 lbIft)
(2) Torque for bolt that hold housing to frame
............................................... 200 NIm (148 lbIft)
Power Train
12
Specifications
Motor and Transmission
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
2
1
4
3
IHPS004S
(1) Lock nut. (2) Screw. (3) Hexagon screw. (4) Motor
(1) Torque for nut that hold drive pinion to drive motor
shaft ............................................ 55 NIm(41 lbIft)
(2) Torque for screw that hold transmission and drive
motor ........................................... 23 NIm(17 lbIft)
(3) Torque for hexagon screw that hold transmission
and drive motor ........................... 23 NIm(17 lbIft)
(4) Axial run-out of the motor mating serface relative
to the motor shaft ...............not to exceed 0.04mm
(0.0015 in)
Power Train
13
Specifications
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
1
IOPS003I
(1) Socket head bolt
(1) Torque for socket head bolts that hold
transmission and drive motor ..... 55 NIm (41 lbIft)
Power Train
14
Specifications
Brake
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
Actuating stroke for the hand brake cable
a. in the operating condition
b. limit of wear
120˚
dia. 3
M 10
B
1
10
77
1
54
a 5.7
12.2
b
2
3
All dimensions in mm
IHPS005S
(1) Bleeder valve. (2) Brake line (hydraulic line). (3) Brake cable. (a) In the operating condition. (b) Limit of wear.
(1) Torque for bleeder valve ............. 50 NIm (37 lbIft)
(2) Torque for brake line................... 50 NIm (37 lbIft)
(3) Torque for brake cable................ 50 NIm (37 lbIft)
(a) Stroke in the operating condition
.................................................... .22 in (5.7 mm)
(b) Limit of wear............................ 0.48 in (12.2 mm)
Power Train
15
Specifications
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
Actuating stroke for the hand brake cable
a. in the operating condition
b. limit of wear
1
2
3
mm
(1) Bleeder port. (2) Brake line (hydraulic line). (3) Brake cable. (a) In the operating condition. (b) Limit of wear.
(1) Torque for bleeder port ............... 50 NIm (37 lbIft)
(2) Torque for brake line................... 50 NIm (37 lbIft)
(3) Torque for brake cable................ 50 NIm (37 lbIft)
(a) Stroke in the operating condition
........................................3 ~ 5 mm (0.12~0.20 in)
(b) Limit of wear ...................................8 mm (0.31 in)
Power Train
16
Specifications
Systems Operation
General Information
2
1
IOPS005S
Power Flow
(1) Final drive. (2) Drive motor.
The power train for the BT-2 MODEL Lift Trucks
consist of two main components; drive motors (2)
and final drives (1).
Electric storage batteries are used as a power source
for the drive motors (2). The drive motor turns final
drive (1), which turn the drive wheels.
Power Train
17
Systems Operation
Drive Motor
(36V)
2
3
1
6
5
7
4
8
3
(48V)
2
9
1
4
10
6
5
7
8
Drive Motor
(1) Input gear. (2) Brush cover. (3) Thermal switch (thermostat). (4) Commutator. (5) Armature. (6) Field coils.
(7) Frame. (8) Brush holder. (9) Fan. (10) Bearing.
Power Train
18
Systems Operation
Drive motor is protected from overheating by a
thermal switch (thermostat) (3). The thermal switch
opens at 154 L 4°C (311 L 10°F). It closes at 145 L
6°C (293 L 11°F). When the normally closed thermal
switch is open, the amount of current through the
motor is limited to allow the motor to cool. The motor
has a fan for cooling.
The drive system is operated by a direct current
(DC)motor. Electric storage batteries are the source
of power for the DC motor.
The drive motor is a series wound motor and uses a
high temperature insulation. The field and armature
circuits are in series, which provides a single path for
the current.
Armature (5) is mounted with single row ball bearings
at each end. The ball bearings are permanently
lubricated with a high temperature lubricant.
The drive motor is activated when the parking brake
is released, the key and seat switch are closed, a
direction is selected and the accelerator pedal is
depressed.
The electrical connections to the motor are made at
corrosion resistant terminals on motor frame (7). On
the outside of the motor frame is the brush cover (2)
that can be removed for easy access to the brushes
and the commutator. Field coils (6) are fastened to
the inside of the motor frame.
The drive motor powers the power transfer group
through input gear (1).
The four motor brushes are held in four brush
holders (8). A spring holds each of the brushes
against commutator (4) as the brushes wear.
Power Train
19
Systems Operation
Final Drive
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
1
11
3
4
6
10
7
5
2
11
9
8
12
IHPS008S
(1) Transmission housing. (2) Drain plug. (3) Breather. (4) Wheel shaft. (5) Helical gear. (6) Drive pinion.
(7) Friction disc carrier. (8) Planetary gear. (9) Planetary carrier. (10) Internal gear. (11) Brake lever.
(12) Friction and steel disc.
When motor shaft turns, the helical pinion(6)
connected on the motor shaft turns helical gear(5).
Helical gear(5) is jointed to sun gear of planetary
gear set and the sun gear turns three planetary
gears(8). Three planetary gears turn planetary carrier
which is inserted into inner hole of planetary
gears(8). The planetary carrier is connected to wheel
shaft(4) and wheel shaft turns rim mounted on wheel
shaft flange.
This transmission is a helical and planetary gear
transmission unit with an integrated, hydraulically and
mechanically actuated wet disk brake.
This transmission consists of two assembly groups.
1. Helical gear transmission with connection for
electric motor and helical gear step.
2. Basic transmission with planetary step, gear shaft
and integrated brake.
Power Train
When hydraulic pressure is supplied to the cylinder
of brake lever(11), the brake lever push parallel pin
that is contacted on the end of brake lever(11). The
wet disc brake is actuated by the force from parallel
pin. The brake lever can be moved by cable
mechanically as same as hydraulically for parking
brake actuation.
20
Systems Operation
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
6
11
7
8
1
12
2
3
10
E
4
5
5
10
13
15
9
E
E E
14
(1) Pinion gear. (2) Helical gear. (3) Friction disc carrier. (4) Steel ball. (5) Lever plate. (6) Ring gear. (7) Planetary gear.
(8) Drive shaft. (9) Planetary carrier. (10) Brake cylinder. (11) Transmission housing. (12) Air breather. (13) Piston rod.
(14) Drain plug. (15) Friction and steel plate.
When motor shaft turns, the helical pinion(1)
connected on the motor shaft turns helical gear(2).
Helical gear(2) is jointed to sun gear of planetary
gear set and the sun gear turns three planetary
gears(7). Three planetary gears turn planetary carrier
which is inserted into inner hole of planetary
gears(7). The planetary carrier is connected to drive
shaft(8) and drive shaft turns rim mounted on drive
shaft flange.
This transmission is a helical and planetary gear
transmission unit with an integrated, hydraulically and
mechanically actuated wet disk brake.
This transmission consists of two assembly groups.
1. Helical gear transmission with connection for
electric motor and helical gear step.
2. Basic transmission with planetary step, gear shaft
and integrated brake.
Power Train
When hydraulic pressure is supplied to the brake
cylinder(10), piston rod(13) rotates lever plate(5). As
the lever plate is contacted to steel ball (4), it is
moved towards friction and steel plates(15) by
rotation. Then wet disc brake is actuated by this
force. The lever plate can be moved by cable
mechanically as same as hydraulically for parking
brake actuation.
21
Systems Operation
Testing And Adjusting
WARNING
If an electrical failure or an overload of the motor is
present, personnel must not breathe the toxic fumes
which are a product of the burnt insulation. All power
must be disconnected from the motor before any
inspection is made to find the failure. The area around
the motor must be well ventilated (air flow) and the
motor is to be cooled before any repair work is done.
Water must not be used on any electrical equipment
because of the danger of electric shock. If a fire is
present, disconnect the electrical power and use a
carbon dioxide extinguisher to put the flame out.
Troubleshooting
Visual Checks
Make a visual inspection of the truck to check for
problems. Operate the truck in each direction.
Make a note of the noises that are not normal and
find their source. If the operation is not correct, make
reference to the Check List During Operation for
"Problems" and "Probable Causes".
Do not operate the drive motors without a load, as too
much speed may cause damage to the motor and
injury to personnel.
Checks During Operation
Drive Motor
Problem 1 : Drive Motor Will Not Operate.
Before an analysis is made of any electric drive
motor problem, always make reference to the
Troubleshooting section of the MicroController
System Operation module.
probable Cause :
1. Switch not closed (battery connector, key switch,
seat switch, direction switch or parking brake
switch) :
Close the switch. If it still does not operate test
for power to the control panel and power flow
through each switch with a voltmeter.
But the service brake switch should be opened.
WARNING
The lift truck can move suddenly. Battery voltage and
high amperage is present. Injury to personnel or
damage to the lift truck is possible. Safely lift both
drive wheels off the floor. Put wood blocks or jack
stands of the correct capacity under the frame so the
drive wheels are free to turn. During any test or
operation check, keep away from the drive wheels.
The head capacitor (HEAD CAP) will have to be
discharged before any contact with the control panel
is made. Disconnect the battery and discharge the
HEAD CAP. Rings, watches and other metallic objects
should be removed from hands and arms when
troubleshooting the MicroController Control System.
To prevent personal injury, never use air pressure
that is more than 205 kPa (30 psi), and wear protective
clothing and a face shield.
2. Bad connection. Fuse blown :
Check battery connections. Check connections
at battery connector. Check fuses, drive and
logics. Replace fuse if blown.
Check the Drive motor and control panel for
possible reasons for a blown fuse. Some causes
are :
a. Operation under excessive transistor load, too
high current limit (C/L).
b. Operation under stall conditions.
c. Possible short circuit in drive motor, see
Probable Causes 5, 6 and 7.
3. Low battery voltage:
Check battery terminal voltage. If too low, charge
the battery.
Check all the cells for one or more that have
defects.
Check the specific gravity of each cell. The
maximum density difference from the highest to
the lowest cell must not be more than .020 SG
(specific gravity).
NOTICE
To prevent damage to electrical components, make
sure the air line is equipped with a water filter when
they are cleaned with air.
4. Control panel operation not correct :
See the MicroController System Operation
module.
Power Train
22
Testing And Adjusting
Problem 3 : Neither traction or hydraulic will last
through a complete normal work period.
5. Brushes are worn:
Inspect the drive motor commutator for burnt
marks or scoring (scratches). Make corrections
or make a repair of the armature commutator
and replace the brushes as necessary.
See Armature Commutator Inspection and Brush
Inspection in Testing And Adjusting.
Make reference to Problem: Sparks At The
Commutator And/Or Rapid Brush Wear.
Probable Cause :
1. Too small a battery equipped in the lift truck :
Use a larger battery for the complete work cycle
and normal work period.
2. Battery not being fully charged or equalized during
the battery charging operation :
Check the battery cells for an equalization
charge(a charge to make the specific gravity the
same in all cells). Check the battery charger for
defects.
6. Check for open circuits in the field coils :
Test coils according to procedures in Testing And
Adjusting. If there are open circuits, make a
replacement of the field assembly.
7. Check for a short circuit in the armature windings :
Loose field winding pole ends, make the
necessary repairs.
Failed armature bar insulation.
Repair or rebuild the insulation or make a
replacement of the armature.
3. Battery change interval is too long or changed
battery cooling time is too short. This decreases
the capacity and the ability of the battery :
Decrease the battery work duration before a
change. Increase the battery cooling time after a
charge before it is put to use.
8. Static return to off circuit (S.R.O.) actuated:
If the static return to off is activated, the control
will not start again until the accelerator is
released and the directional control lever is
returned to neutral.
4. Battery has one or more defective cells which
results in less than the rated capacity and ability of
the battery :
Replace the battery.
5. Traction system draws (makes a consumption of)
too much battery power because of traction
system faults. Operation of the duty cycle
(complete working cycle) condition is not correct :
Check the brake adjustment according to the
procedures in Testing And Adjusting in the
Vehicle Systems module. Check the mechanical
components such as wheel bearings, axles, etc.,
for corrections to eliminate the faults. Change to
a tire with less friction.
Problem 2 : Traction will not operate through a
normal work period, but hydraulic operation is
normal.
Probable Cause :
1. Brakes have a defect, cause a resistance(lack of
free movement). Heat increases, which causes the
motor to stall :
Check the brake adjustment according to the
procedures in Testing And Adjusting in the
Vehicle Systems module.
6. Hydraulic system draws too much battery power
because of lifting and tilting arrangements, or
hydraulic conditions are not correct for the duty
cycle:
Decrease hydraulic relief valve setting to the
capacity that only will be used.
Change to a smaller hydraulic pump.
Check the mast for restriction during operation.
2. Too much heat in MicroController control panel
because:
a. Extra heavy traction loads.
Decrease the duty cycle load.
b. Faulty thermal switch.
See the MicroController System Operation
module.
c. Too high current limit (C/L) setting.
Lower the setting on the C/L adjustments.
7. Lift truck working more than the capacity of its
design with no available power after one work shift :
Have available an extra (exchange) battery.
Decrease the speed and work load required to
complete the work shift.
These can cause transistors to become defective,
control panel failure or drive fuse to go bad.
Power Train
23
Testing And Adjusting
Compare spring force with a new brush spring.
Check the brush holder for oversize (larger
size than for brush).
Replace the brush spring if necessary.
Problem 4 : Sparks at the commutator and/or
rapid brush wear.
Probable Cause :
d. Loose brush leads or motor bus bar
connections.
Loose cable connections at motor terminals.
Results are :
1. Worn brushes:
Replace the brushes. See New Brush Installation
And Brush Inspection in Testing And Adjusting.
2. Overheating (too much heat) of the traction motor :
Check for an overload motor or a motor with
defects. See Armature Commutator Inspection in
Testing And Adjusting.
Decrease the current limit (C/L) adjustmemts if
set too high. See the MicroController System
Operation module.
Test the plugging rate, if set too short it will
cause arcing and wear at the brushes.
The duty cycle is too heavy, change the duty
cycle.
(1) High resistance and heating.
3. Defective drive motor :
See Armature Commutator Inspection in Testing
And Ajusting.
f. Possibly heavy working condition that causes
too much motor heat and rapid brush wear:
Make a replacement of the brushes and make
sure the brushes are seated. See New Brush
Installation and Brush Inspection in Testing
And Adjusting.
Check the brush springs for the correct
installation and for the correct spring usage.
Too strong a spring rate will increase current
draw and brush wear rate. Prevent operation
in stall condition. Excessive (too much) duty
cycle which increases motor temperatures
and rapid brush wear.
(2) Faster brush wear.
Check brushes for tight connections. Replace
the brushes if leads are loose in brush
material. Check all cable and wire
connections for tightness.
e. Wrong grade of brushes installed that are not
adaptable to the motor :
Make sure all the brushes are of DAEWOO
standards. Do not use other brands of brushes.
a. Commutator bars burnt in two or more positions at
180° apart because:
(1) Armature bars open.
Replace the armature.
(2) Motor was stalled against a heavy load while
power discharged and caused the two bars, in
contact with the brushes, to burn.
4. Overload of the drive motor such as: towing,
constant ramp operation, chiseling (hydraulic
actions that are not practical) and dragging (pull or
push loads on the ground) :
Operator training for better working practices.
Add an auxiliary cooling to the drive motors.
NOTICE
Too heavy a load can stall the motor, and result in a
failure to the drive motor.
(3) Short circuit in the armature.
See Armature Tests in Testing And Adjusting.
5. Current limit (C/L) set too high that causes too
much current consumption through motors in the
transistor range :
Decrease the current limit (C/L) adjustment to
the correct setting, see the MicroController
System Operation module.
(4) Armature not in balance, out of round, off center
or with high commutator bars. This causes the
brushes to bounce (move up and down).
Make sure the diameter is the same all the
way around and is in center line with the
shaft. See Specifications.
6. Drive motor, armature or field windings have a
defect that results in high current draw at low
torque output:
See Armature Tests and Field Coil and Terminal
Tests in Testing And Adjusting.
b. Dirty motor that has a metallic or carbon dust.
This dust is a conductor which causes electrical
shorts, increase current draw and decrease
drive motor output :
Remove any dirt with air pressure.
7. Restriction caused by components :
Correct and make adjustments to wheel brakes
and parking brakes that drag.
Changes to tire with less friction.
Check and correct wheel bearing torques.
c. Brush movement causing arcing and brush
wear:
Check the brush springs for cracks, and
overheat signs (blue).
Power Train
24
Testing And Adjusting
Problem 5 : Low resistance to ground [battery
polarity either positive (+) or negative (–) or a
medium voltage is in direct contact with truck
frame (body) or drive motor body].
Problem 7 : Lift truck moves faster in one
direction than the other direction with the same
amount of accelerator pedal movement in Bypass
mode (speed).
Probable Cause :
Probable Cause:
1. Dirty battery, electrolyte on top of cells and is in
contact with the frame. Current flows through
battery box, which places a voltage on the truck
frame :
Clean the battery with baking soda and water
solution.
1. Motor brushes not located in the correct electrical
position (brush neutral settings) :
If the holes in the brush holder are not extended,
make them longer so that brush holder can have
a little rotation. When the holder is in the correct
position, lift truck speed will be the same in both
directions.
2. Battery or control panel wire connections in
contact with truck frame :
Make a continuity test and move the wire from
contact.
Remove wires in sequence until the fault is
cleared.
The fault will be in the wire last disconnected.
2. One directional contactor worn more than the
other or loose connection on one contactor :
Check contactor for wear and tighten any loose
connections.
Problem 8 : Lift truck will not get to top speed.
3. Dirty motor :
Remove metallic or carbon dust with air
pressure.
Probable Cause :
1. Battery not fully charged or battery has bad cells :
Charge the battery. Check for bad cells. Replace
battery if necessary.
4. Wet motor :
To dry the motor, heat it to 90°C (194°F).
2. A fault either in the drive motor, control panel or
drive train :
Check lift truck speed in both directions. If the
MicroController control panel needs to be tuned
up, make adjustments as shown in the
respective MicroController System Operation
module. If the drive motor is at fault, make the
tests of the motor components in Testing And
Adjusting.
Problem 6 : Commutator surface has grooves or
abnormal wear.
Probable Cause :
1. Brushes are worn too low, brush wires caused
arcing on the commutator :
Replace the brushes. See Brush Inspection in
Testing And Adjusting and the method to make
the Brush Life Estimate in Testing And Adjusting.
Problem 9 : Lift truck does not have enough
power to position itself under a load. Lift truck
does not have enough power on ramps or towing
trailers.
2. Dirty motor ; and possibly salt water got inside :
Disassemble motor, remove the debris with air
pressure. If necessary, dry the motor with heat to
90°C (194°F).
Probable Cause:
3. Grades of brushes mixed :
Make sure all the brushes are of DAEWOO
standards. Do not use other brands of brushes.
Power Train
1. Current limit (C/L) set too low :
Set current limit (C/L) to specification in the
MicroController System Operation module.
2. Current limit (C/L) circuit has a defect :
Test the MicroController control panel as stated
in the respective service module. Repair or
replace components as necessary.
3. Unpolished or improperly positioned forks :
Install tapered and polished forks. Position forks
correctly for load being lifted.
4. Lift truck equipped with tires that have poor
traction :
Install tires that have good traction per
recommendation from DAEWOO Inc.
25
Testing And Adjusting
5. Lift truck work load is too heavy or the duty cycle
too long :
Decrease the work load and/or duty cycle.
Problem 5 : Long brake pedal stroke.
Problem 10 : Lift truck has slow acceleration.
Probable Cause:
1. Excessive lining wear :
Check the stroke of brake piston rod. Keep the
stroke within 3~5 mm by adding shim.
1. Drive control overheated and the thermal switch
opens :
2. Failure of brake master cylinder :
Change the seals in the brake master cylinder.
NOTE : The lift truck will still go into the bypass
mode, but current limit will be cut back in the
transistor mode if the thermal switch opens.
Allow the MicroController control panel to cool so the
thermal switch will close.
Problem 6 : Decreased oil level in brake oil
reservoir or leakage through brake piston rod.
Probable cause :
Probable cause :
1. Damage on seals of brake piston rod :
Change the quad ring, back up ring and wear
rings on piston rod.
NOTE : The thermal switch will open if the
temperature is 150 L 6°C (302 L 11°F) and close
at 130 L 7°C (266 L 13°F).
2. Scratch on brake piston bore :
Replace transmission housing cover with new one.
Transmission
Problem 7 : Noise during brake application.
Problem 1 : Abnormal movement of drive shaft to
axial direction.
Probable cause :
1. Using wrong transmission oil specification :
Check the transmission oil with specified one
and keep the drain interval.
Probable cause :
1. Lock nut loosening :
Check if lock nut and socket head bolt for
stopping lock nut are loosened. Tighten lock nut
and socket head bolt with Loctite No.277.
2. Insufficient soaking hour of friction discs. After a
few days, problem will disappear.
Problem 8 : Poor brake performance.
Problem 2 : Rattle noise during coasting and
cornering.
Probable cause :
Probable cause :
1. Abnormal wear on tire tread :
Change tires with new tires.
Rattle noise could be improved by change tires
left and right each other.
1. Damaged brake friction disc and steel plate by
excessive heat :
Check if parking cable is released. Change
friction discs and steel plates. Keep the drain
interval of transmission oil.
Problem 3 : Gear noise during driving.
Problem 9 : Leakage from drive shaft.
Probable cause :
Probable cause :
1. Damaged tooth or excessive wear of bearing :
Check gears and bearings and change the
damaged gear and bearing of excessive wear.
Keep the oil drain interval and use specified oil.
1. Faulty oil seal of drive shaft :
Check oil seal and drive shaft for damages in the
sealing area.
Problem 10 : Transmission overheats.
Problem 4 : Leakage through air breather.
Probable cause :
Probable cause :
1. Transmission oil level is either too high or too low :
Check oil level.
1. Excessive oil level :
Check the oil level and keep the specified oil level.
2. Failure of air breather :
Change air breather with new one.
Power Train
2. Wheel bearings with an excessive prestress :
Check rolling torque of drive shaft.
26
Testing And Adjusting
Drive Motor
Motor Brushes
Brush Inspection
1. Measure the radial length of brush.
1
P0004332
Install Brushes
(1) Brushes.
NOTICE
Installation of the wrong brushes can cause early
motor failure. Always make sure the correct DAEWOO
brushes are installed.
P0004329
Brush Measurement
5. Install new brushes(1). Make sure the brushes
move freely in the brush holders. Use a piece of
plain bond paper to remove brush material if there
is a restriction of brush movement.
2. If the brush length is less than 18 mm (.7 in) on
the longest side, replace the brushes.
New Brush Installation
NOTE : Installation of new brushes is a two person
operation.
2
1. Disconnect the batteries.
2. Lift the truck and put blocks under the chassis it so
that the drive wheels are off the ground.
3. Discharge the head capacitor.
P0004331
4. Remove the brush covers.
Loosen two screws of the brush and BWI wires.
Pull out the old brushes from the brush holder by
lifting up the brush springs.
Install Springs
(2) Spring.
6. Place carefully the brush spring(2) on the top of
brush and make sure they fasten into the brush
holder box.
7. Pull up on the two wires of each brush until the
contact end of the brush moves away from the
commutator. Release the wires to see if the brush
moves smoothly back into contact with the
commutator. If it is too difficult to pull out, or it does
not move smoothly in the brush holder box,
remove the spring and brush. Make an inspection
to find and correct the cause of the problem.
8. Connect the batteries to the battery connector.
Power Train
27
Testing And Adjusting
WARNING
NOTICE
Never use air pressure that is more than 205 kPa (30
psi). Make sure the line is equipped with a water filter.
Wear eye protection when seating, polishing or
cleaning the motor with air pressure. During the
seating and polishing procedure, keep fingers
away from components in rotation. For prevention
of injury to fingers, do not use a commutator
cleaner or brush seater stone that is shorter than
63.5 mm (2.50 in.).
12. After the brushes have the correct seat contact
surface, operate the motor at slow speed. Use
compressed (pressure) air to remove all dust and
abrasive grit.
Armature Tests
Tools Needed
3
A
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
1
Growler Tester
1
Test For Short Circuit
P0004333
1
4
5
Brush Seating
(3) ZLX –0036 Brush seater stone.
9. Put ZLX–0036 Brush Seater Stone (3) on the
commutator and operate the motor at a slow
speed.
NOTICE
Do not let stone(3) stay in contact with the commutator
bar too long. This causes more wear than is necessary
to the brushes and the commutator.
P0004322
3
2
Short Circuit Test
(1) Glowler. (2) Armature. (3) Hacksaw blade.
(4) Green light. (5) Red light.
10. Move stone (3) across the commutator at the
backe edge of the brushes for a short time. This
will take the shiny finish off the commutator and
seat the new brushes.
1. Turn the growler (1) on.
11. Turn the key switch to the OFF position and
disconnect the batteries. Check the contact
surface of each brush. At least 85% of the brush
contact surface of each brush must show wear. If
necessary, do Steps 8 through 11 again until the
correct wear can be seen on the brush contact
surface.
3. If the windings are shorted, the green light (4) will
be on. The red light (5) will be on if the windings
do not have a short.
Power Train
2. Slowly turn the growler on the armature (2) while a
hacksaw blade (3) is held over the windings.
The odor of burned insulation from the drive motor
while it is in operation is an indication of a short in
the armature.
28
Testing And Adjusting
Open Circuit Test
Ground Test
A
P0004321
P0004320
Ground Test.
Open Circuit Test
(1) Armature. (A) Multimeter.
A digital multimeter can also be used to test for
grounds. Put the Function/Range Switch on the 2M
resistance (A) scale. When the test probes are put
on the commutator and the shaft, the meter must
give an indication of over load (OL). This means that
the resistance is more than 2 megohms.
1. Put the digital multimeter Function / Range Switch
on the 200 ohm resistance (A) scale.
2. Put one test lead on one commutator bar. Put the
other test lead on an adjacent (next to) bar and
there must be less than one ohm resistance.
This test can also be done with an instrument,
such as a Kelvin Double Bridge, that can make a
measurement of very low resistance. Do the test
the same as above and make a comparison of the
resistance measurements.
NOTICE
Never use air pressure that is more than 205 kPa (30
psi). Make sure the air line has a water filter.
Two burned areas on opposite sides of the
commutator are indications of an open armature
winding. These burned areas can cause very rapid
brush wear.
If there is an indication of a ground in the above test,
remove any dirt or debris form the armature with
compressed (pressure) air.
Do the test for grounds again. If there is still an
indication of a ground, make a replacement of the
armature.
Power Train
1
29
Testing And Adjusting
Commutator Inspection
Surfaces of Commutators that need Replacement
IHPS010P
Grooves on the Commutator Surface
IHPS008P
Grooves on the commutators surface are caused by
a cutting material in the brush or atmosphere.
Marks on the Commutator Surface
Marks on the commutator surface are an indication
that metal has moved from the commutator surface
to the carbon brushes. Marks will cause fast brush
wear.
IHPS011P
Copper Drag on the Commutator Surface
Copper drag is an extra amount of commutator
material at the back edge of the commutator bars.
IHPS009P
Threads on the Commutator Surface
Threads (grooves that look like threads) on the
commutator surface, will also cause fast brush wear.
Power Train
30
Testing And Adjusting
Ground Test
1
P0004328
2
Ground Test
(1) Field Terminal. (2) Motor housing.
IHPS012P
Pitch Bar–Marks on the Commutator Surface
1. Put the digital multimeter Function/Range Switch
on the 20M resistance (A) scale.
Pitch bar–marks cause low or burnt marks on the
commutator surface.
2. Put one test lead to either outer field terminal (1)
and the other test lead to the motor housing (2).
There must be more than one megohm resistance.
Field Coil and Terminal Tests
Tools Needed
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
3. If there is a measurement of less than one
megohm, it can be caused by wet insulation on the
field windings or excessive brush dust in housing.
Heat the motor at 88°C (190°F) until the resistance
goes above one megohm. If the resistance does
not go above one megohm, the shell and field
assembly must be replaced.
A
1
Open Circuit Test
P0004327
Open Circuit Test
1. Put the digital multimeter Function/Range Switch
on the 200 ohm resistance (A) scale.
2. Put one test probe to each outer field terminal
(S1,S2).
3. The resistance must be less than one ohm. If the
resistance is too high, it is an indication of
corrosion on the terminals or an open field coil.
Power Train
31
Testing And Adjusting
1. Put the digital multimeter Function/Range Switch
on the 20M resistance (A) scale.
Armature Terminal Test
Tools Needed
A
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
2. Put one test lead to an outer Armature terminal (1)
and the other test lead to the motor housing (2).
There must be more than one megohm resistance.
1
Test for Continuity
3. Do the test again with one test lead on the other
outer brush terminal.
1
Brush Holder Test
Tools Needed
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
A
A
1
1
EX00005
Brush Test
(1) Test lead.
1. Put the digital multimeter Function/Range Switch
on the 200 ohm resistance (A) scale.
2
2. Put one test lead to an outer Armature terminal (1)
and the other test lead to each brush lead that
connects to that terminal. There must be less than
one ohm resistance.
P0004319
Brush Holder Test
(1) Brush holder. (2) End bell. (A) Multimeter.
3. Do Step 2 again with the other outer Armature
terminal (A1, A2) and brush leads.
1. The brush holders are mounted on the rocker at
the commutator end of the motor. Make a visual
inspection of the brush holders and the rocker.
4. Too much resistance is an indication of corrosion
at the connection to the terminal.
2. Put digital multimeter Function/Range Switch (A)
on the 200 ohm resistance (A) scale. Put one test
lead to a brush holder (1) and the other test lead
to the end bell (2). The meter must show overload
(OL).
Ground Test
1
3. Check each brush holder. If meter reading is low,
the brush holder is grounded. Replace the rocker.
2
EX00006
Ground Test
(1) Armature terminal. (2) Motor housing.
Power Train
32
Testing And Adjusting
Thermal Switch Tests
Tools Needed
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
Brush Life Estimate
1. Before installation of new brushes, make an
inspection of the armature commutator, see
Armature Commutator Inspection in Testing and
Adjusting.
A
1
2. Do the steps and procedures for New Brush
Installation in Testing and Adjusting.
Open Circuits Test
3. Make the initial (first) inspection of brush wear
between 250 smh and 500 smh. The reason for
this initial inspection is to see if the brush wear
rate is normal and not too fast. The measurement
will help make an estimate of the length of brush
life to be expected.
NOTE : If there is an indication that brush wear is too
fast, see Troubleshooting, Problem: Sparks at the
commutator and/or rapid brush wear; for probable
causes of this problem.
P0004325
Open Circuit Test
4. Inspect all brushes in the motors. Measure and
record each brush length (see Specification for
each new brush length and minimum brush
length).
1. Put the digital multimeter Function/Range Switch
on the 200 ohm resistance (A) scale.
2. Put one test lead to each side of the thermal
switch harness.
5. Estimate expected brush life (hours). Use the
shortest measurement from Step 4 and the
following Sample Procedure:
3. The resistance must be less than one ohm.
Length of new brush...................35 mm (1.387 in.)
Minimum length of brush..............18 mm (.708 in.)
New brush length [35 mm (1.387 in.)] – Minimum
brush length [18 mm(.708 in.)] = Total amount of
usable brush wear [17 mm(.67 in.)].
Ground Test
Length of shortest brush at 500 smh is 32.5 mm
(1.279 in.).
New brush length [35 mm (1.378 in.)] – Length of
shortest brush at 500 smh [32.5 mm (1.279 in.)] =
Amount of brush wear at 500 smh [2.5 mm (.10 in.)].
1. Put the digital multimeter Function/Range Switch
on the 20M resistance (A) scale.
Amount of brush wear at 500 smh [2.5 mm (.10
in.)] ÷ Total amount of usable brush wear [17 mm
(.67 in.)] = Portion of brush used at 500 smh (.1).
Service Meter Hours (smh) at brush wear
measurement (500 smh) ÷ Portion of brush used
(.1) = Approximate total brush life of a new brush
(5000 smh).
2. Put one test lead to either of the plug prongs. The
other test lead must be grounded to the motor
housing.
There must be more than one megohm resistance.
Approximate total brush life of a new brush
(5000smh)–Amount of smh at brush life estimate
(500 smh) = Remainder of usable brush life (4500
smh).
P0004326
Ground Test
Power Train
33
Testing And Adjusting
6. The smh estimate of brush life can be used if the
machine is to work at the same rate (duty cycle),
the battery is not discharged too much or the
battery cells have not become damaged. If the
machine is made to work harder, the battery is
discharged too much, or the battery cells become
damaged, the motor temperature will get hot very
fast. This will cause rapid wear of the brush.
5. Place the motor carefully on the transmission and
join the gearings of motor pinion and helical gear
carefully.
WARNING
Do not knock with the drive pinion against the
helical gear while installing the motor. This can
cause knocking noise.
7. It is important to check brush length and brush
condition at a specific time, such as during the
preventive maintenance check. If an inspection
shows that brush life will not extend to the next
preventive maintenance check, install new brushes.
NOTE : When joining the gearings, turn the motor
shaft carefully until the drive pinion engages into the
helical gear.
Motor and Transmission
6. Turn motor so that bore pattern of transmission
lines up with that of motor.
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
IHPS009S
IHPS010S
(1) Motor shaft. (2) Drive pinion. (3) Woodruff key.
(4) Nut. (5) O–ring.
(1), (2) Hexagon bolts.
1. Clean motor shaft (1) and taper bore of drive
pinion (2) carefully with Loctite No. 706.
7. Screw motor and transmission together with three
hexagon bolts (1) and (2). Tighten the bolts to a
torque of 23 NIm (17 lbIft)
NOTICE
The taper connection must be free from grease and
oil. Note faultless seat of the taper connection
2. Insert woodraff key (3) into motor shaft and push
drive pinion on.
3. Screw a new lock nut (4). Tighten the nut to a
torque of 55 NIm (41 lbIft).
4. Coat O–ring (5) slightly with transmission fluid and
push it onto centering seat of motor.
Power Train
34
Testing And Adjusting
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
Motor Transmission Unit and
Vehicle Frame
1
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
All dimensions in mm
max. motor dia. 225mm
max. motor dia. 210mm
7 hexagon bolts M14
3
2
R37
A
.5
.92
min
5˚
5˚L
A=4
A
Min. Sparing of frame
for brake lever
Installation position,
differences must be approved
IOPS003I
(1) Socket head bolt. (2) Drive motor. (3) Transmission
1. Place the drive motor (2) carefully on the
transmission (3) and join the gearings of motor
spline and pinion gear carefully.
Check the frame surface for damage and
irregularities. The maximum admissible irregularity in
the area of the transmission contour is 0.10 mm
(.004 in).
Screw drive unit with 7 hexagon bolts and shims to
the vehicle frame. Tightening the bolts to a torque of
135 NIm (100 lbIft).
NOTE : When joining the splines, turn the motor
shaft carefully until the motor spline engages into the
pinion gear.
2. Turn motor so that bore pattern of transmission
lines up with that of motor.
The fitting angle influences strongly the quantity of
fluid which can be filled into the transmission as well
as the maintenance procedure. There are 2 oil filling
and draining plugs (A) in the housing. The fluid filling
hole defines the fluid level (overflow). Remove the
plug which is at lowest level for draining the fluid.
3. Screw motor and transmission together with three
socket head bolts (1). Tighten the bolts to a torque
of 55 NIm (41 lbIft).
Power Train
35
Testing And Adjusting
Brake
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
10
7
1
Actuating stroke for the hand brake cable
a. in the operating condition
b. limit of wear
120˚
Actuating stroke for the hand brake cable
a. inthe operating condition
b. limit of wear
dia.3
M10 X 1
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
54
a 5.7
12.2 b
2
1
3
2
3
All dimensions in mm
IHPS005S
(1) Bleeder valve. (2) Brake line (hydraulic line).
(3) Brake cable. (a) In the operating condition.
(b) Limit of wear.
14mm
a(3~5mm)
b(8mm)
Connecting the hydraulic brake system
Connect the bleeder valve (1) to the top threaded
hole and the brake line (hydraulic line) (2) to the
bottom threaded hole according to the assembly
position.
Tightening torque of bleeder valve (1) and brake line
(2) is 50 NIm (37 lbIft).
When placing the hydraulic lines, the bending radii
should be kept as large as possible to keep the
resistance against the restoring forces for lifting the
brake as small as possible.
4
(1) Bleeder port. (2) Brake line (hydraulic line).
(3) Brake cable. (4) Shim. (a) In the operating condition.
(b) Limit of wear.
Connecting the hydraulic brake system
Connect the bleeder tube to the bleeder port (1) and
the brake line (hydraulic line) (2) according to the
assembly position.
Tightening torque of bleeder port (1) and brake line
(2) is 50 NIm (37 lbIft).
Connecting the brake cable
Screw the brake cable (3) into the third threaded hole
to a torque of 50 NIm (37 lbIft).
Connecting the brake cable
Check and maintain the installation dimensions when
the installation has been finished
Screw the brake cable (3) to a torque of 50 NIm (37
lbIft).
Check and maintain the installation dimensions when
the installation has been finished.
If the measured value is larger than installation
dimension, insert shims (4) in the shown location to
meet installation dimension.
Power Train
36
Testing And Adjusting
Replenishing With
Transmission Fluid
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
Approx. 0.5L
0.3
5L
1
2
3
2
1
EHPS018B
(1) Filling plug. (2) Sealing ring.
IOPS006I
Use a funnel with a hose for easier filling.
Maximum outside diameter of hose to be 13mm (.52
in). The correct fluid level and amount of fluid has
been reached when the level can be seen at the
opening. When filling the fluid in, make sure that no
air bubbles are formed in the transmission. Turn the
wheel shaft to remove them.
(1) Air breather. (2) Sealing washer. (3) Oil level plug.
Loosen air breather (1).
Use a funnel with a hose for easier filling.
Maximum outside diameter of hose to be 10mm (0.4
in). The correct fluid level and amount of fluid has
been reached when the level can be seen at hole for
oil level plug (3). When filling the fluid in, make sure
that no air bubbles are formed in the transmission.
Turn the wheel shaft to remove them.
Screw the fluid filling plug (1) with the sealing (2).
Tighten the plug to torque of 22 NIm (16 lbIft).
Bleed the brake system after filling of brake fluid.
Refer to Brake System Air Removal of Lift Trucks
Vehicle System.
Screw the air breather (1) with the sealing washer
(2). Tighten the air breather to torque of 70 L 10 N•m
(52 L 7 lbIft).
Apply LOCTITE No.572 to thread of drain plug (3)
and tighten to a torque of 70 L 10 N•m (52 L 7 lb•ft).
Bleed the brake system after filling of brake fluid.
Refer to Brake System Air Removal of Lift Trucks
Vehicle System.
Power Train
37
Testing And Adjusting
Drive Axle
6
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
5
Disassemble Drive Axle
Tools Needed
A
Gear puller (3”)
1
8
Start By :
IHPD003P
7
a. Remove drive axle.
3
4. Disassemble the brake lever assembly (3) as
follows :
a. Remove cap (5) from the brake lever.
b. Remove brake piston (6) from the brake lever.
c. Check the condition of sealing ring (7). If they
are worn or damaged, replace with new one.
d. Remove spring (8).
1
2
10
9
IHPD001P
1. Remove two snap rings (1) and parallel pin (2)
from brake lever.
2. Remove brake lever assembly (3) from the cover.
IHPD004P
NOTE : Before unscrewing the countersunk bolts (9)
slight impacts on them are necessary to loosen the
Loctite-connection.
4
5. Remove eight screws (9). Remove gear and
housing cover assembly (10) from drive axle
housing.
6. Check the condition of shaft seal and replace with
new one if needed.
IHPD002P
3. Remove pin (4) from the cover assembly.
Power Train
38
Disassembly And Assembly
10
11
12
17
IHPD005P
IHPD008P
7. Remove six bolts (11) and spring holder (12) from
gear and housing cover assembly (10).
10. Carefully extrat the helical gear (17) together with
the bearing from the cover seat by using 2
jackbolts.
14
18
13
15
IHPD006P
IHPD009P
8. Remove three springs (13), internal disk carrier
(14) and pressure disk (15).
11. Remove axial-friction bearing (18).
NOTICE
Avoid any damages of the bearing surface and notice
the direction for reassembly.
16
IHPD007P
9. Remove snap-ring (16) located on the cover seat.
Power Train
39
Disassembly And Assembly
19
20
IHPD010P
21
IHPD013P
15. By using a copper pin and a hammer drive out
the wheel shaft of the housing together with the
inner taper bearing ring and remove.
12. Remove four outer disks (19), three inner disks
(20) and pressure disk (21) from internal gear.
22
25
IHPD011P
IHPD014P
13. Carefully pull the three planet gears (22) with tool
(A). Be sure to pull off the planet gears (22)
complete with the bearing.
16. Remove the planetary carrier (25) together with
the inner race of tapered roller bearing from the
housing.
NOTE : Check the condition of needle bearings and
replace with new ones if needed.
27
24
23
26
IHPD015P
IHPD012P
17. Remove ten bolts (26) from toothed disk.
18. Remove internal gear assembly (27). The internal
gear (27) needs to be disassembled or
assembled only if the teeth are damaged. For this
reason, this operation will not be dealt with at
greater length in the section describing the
assembly.
14. Fix the wheel shaft to avoid its turning. Loosen
the four bolts (23) and the disk (24) from the
wheel shaft.
Power Train
40
Disassembly And Assembly
29
34
36
35
30
37
27
28
IHPD016P
IHPD019P
22. Remove NILOS-ring (34) and GAMMA-ring (35)
from the housing.
19. Disassemble the internal gear assembly (27) as
follows:
a. Remove FEY-ring (28) from the internal gear.
b. Remove snap-ring (29) and toothed disk (30)
from the internal gear.
23. Remove cup bearing (36) and shims from the housing.
24. Remove Lip-seal (37) from the housing.
25. Check the conditions of ring and seal.
Assemble Drive Axle
Tools Needed
Fitting Punch
Peening Punch
Dial Gauge
31
A B C
1
1
1
NOTE : Before the assembly, carry out the following
operations :
IHPD017P
a. Thoroughly clean all parts and remove all residual
Loctite.
b. Check all the parts for wear and damage.Replace,
if necessary.
c. Finish the mating surface of sealing with an oil
stone or a fine finishing file.
d. Lubricate the cleaned antifriction bearings before
installing.
e. Be sure to replace all the sealing elements.
f. Be sure to use mastic sealants (such as Loctite) only.
20. Remove cup bearing (31) from the housing.
32
33
WARNING
IHPD018P
Make sure corrosive detergents do not come in
contact with the skin. Do not swallow them or inhale
their vapors. Be sure to wear protective gloves and
goggles. If any detergent has been accidentally
swallowed, seek medical attention immediately.
Scrupulously observe the manufacturer’s instructions.
21. Remove cone bearing (33) from the wheel shaft
assembly (32).
Power Train
41
Disassembly And Assembly
33
32
IHPD018P
1. Install cone bearing (33) onto the wheel shaft
assembly (32).
29
30
IHPD001S
5. For preadjustment insert the disassembled set of
shims (1) into the bearing seat again. By means of
a copper pin drive the outer race(2) into the
bearing seat of housing. Make sure outer race has
even contact with shims. Repeat same procedure
on opposite side of housing.
27
28
IHPD016P
2. Put the teethed disk (30) into the intenal gear and
install snap ring (29) that hold teethed disk (30) on
interal gear.
NOTE : 1) Do not use damaged shims.
2) Do not install the radial shaft seal ring
between the tapered roller bearings
before bearing adjustment.
3. Install FEY-ring (28) onto the internal gear.
38
27
26
IHPD020P
IHPD015P
6. place the preassembled wheel shaft (38) onto the
outer race of bearing in the housing. Secure the
wheel shaft against sliding and turning.
4. Put the internal gear assembly (27) into the
housing and install bolts (26) that hold internal
gear assembly (27) in the housing
NOTE : Be sure to secure the bolts (26) with Loctite
No.243 and torque them to 67 N•m (50 lb•ft).
Power Train
42
Disassembly And Assembly
36
34
35
37
IHPD021P
IHPD019P
7. The planetary carrier will be carefully contrived into
the teethed wheel shaft bore. Drive the planetary
carrier by means of a copper mandrel to seat.
11. Install new wheel shaft oil seal (37) into the
housing.
12. Install cup bearing (36) and shims into the
housing.
NOTE : Make sure to apply LOCTITE 270 onto the
internal teeth of the planetary carrier after
pretensioning.
13. Install NILOS-ring (34) and GAMMA-ring (35) on
the housing.
32
24
23
IHPD018P
IHPD012P
8. Insert the disk (24) into the bore of the planetary
carrier. Wheel shaft, planetary carrier and disk will
be fitted together by screwing the four hexagonal
bolts (23). Use the torque of 9.6 NIm (7.1 lbIft).
14. Lubricate the wheel shaft assembly (32) by
applying Shell-Alvania R3 grease to the inner ring
of taper roller bearing and the space between the
rollers.
NOTE : Tighten the hexagonal bolts evenly and
crosswise!
9. Turn the wheel shaft repeatedly to permit taper
rollers in the bearing inner races. The bearing
pretention should be 0.025 to 0.075 mm(0.001 to
0.003 in). There must be no measurable bearing
clearance. But it should be possible to turn the
shaft by hand. The correct pretension is obtained
by a friction moment of 4.5 to 6.5 NIIm (3.3 to
4.8 lbIIft).
NOTE : If the friction moment is not within the
specified range, the adjustment needs to modify.
Therefore it is necessary to reduce or to increase the
thickness of the shim set.
10. When the required adjustment is obtained,
dismount the wheel shaft and the outer race of
bearing again to assemble the sealing ring.
Power Train
43
Disassembly And Assembly
24
23
25
IHPD014P
IHPD012P
15. Lubricate the planet carrier (25) by applying
sheel-Alvania R3 grease to the inner ring of taper
roller bearing and the space between the rollers.
17. Put the planetary carrier (25) on the wheel shaft
assembly (38). Screw wheel shaft and planetary
carrier with the disk (24) by using the four bolts (23).
Tighten the bolts evenly and crosswise.
38
22
IHPD020P
IHPD023P
16. Join the preassembled wheel shaft assembly (38)
to the outer ring of the taper roller bearing of the
housing. Make sure that the wheel shaft
assembly (38) can not slide away or rotate.
18. Position the planet gear (22) straight on the axle
stub of the planet carrier, making sure the gear
(22) is not tilted. Then use Tool (A) to press the
gear (22) down until it sits on the abutment.
NOTICE
Be sure to employ Loctite No.270 when mounting the
planet carrier (25) on the wheel shaft assembly (38).
Loctite No.270 may be applied to the internal teeth of
the planet carrier (25) only.
NOTICE
Pay attention to the correct fitting position of the
planet gear (22). Make sure that the radius of inner
ring rests on the axle stub abutment.
19. Apply the same procedure for two remaining
planet gears (22).
Power Train
44
Disassembly And Assembly
Step1
•If the set need to be changed due to wear, use the
old pressure disk (21) furthermore.
•Insert the disks as follws :
-pressure disk (21).
-external disk (19), internal disk (20), ext. disk, int.
disk, ext. disk, int. disk and at the end again an
external disk.
22
Radius
IHPD005S
IHPD002S
20. Secure the three planet gears (22) against
slipping by using Tool (B). For this purpose,
widen the rim of the pocket hole until the inner
bearing ring of the planet gears (22) can no
longer be moved.
The sinusoidal internal disks need to be aligned in a
way that ensures opposite waviness.
The alignment with the help of an internal disk carrier
which is not used for installation, constitutes a fast
and accurate method for this purpose.
19
14
20
IHPD010P
21
21. The assembly of the disk set needs the following
two steps.
IHPD003S
Put the internal disk carrier (14) into the proper fitting
position. Turn several times the internal disk carrier
very carefully to permit the disks to the final position.
Now carefully remove the internal disk carrier from
the fitting position. In doing so, make sure that the
position of the disks is unaltered.
Power Train
45
Disassembly And Assembly
<Table 1>
Step2
Dimension Z
Pressure disk thickness C
5.58 to 6.10
4.8 mm
6.10 to 6.70
5.3 mm
6.70 to 7.22
5.8 mm
The required dimension C for example above is 4.80
mm
15
18
2
IHPD009P
IHPD004S
22. Install the axial-friction bearing (18) into the
housing cover.
If more parts need to be changed e.g.the ring gear,
then it is necessary to find the correct thickness of
the pressure disk (21) by following steps.
NOTE : Pay attention to the correct fitting position of
the axial-friction bearing (18).
This method is to be used for calculating the required
thickness of the pressure disk (21)
Dimension X = Distance between plain surface of
the cover flange to the plain surface
of the pressure disk (15).
Dimension Y = Thickness of the complete disk set.
Dimension W = calculated by following formula
W=X+Y
Dimension V = Distance between plain surface of
housing and contact surface of
pressure disk (21) in the ring gear
Dimension Z = calculated by following formula
Z=V-W
16
17
IHPD007P
23. Slide the helical gear (17) onto the bearing seat
of cover and secure it with the snap-ring (16).
Example :
X=23.23mm measured at the cover surface
Y=12.6mm measured thickness of disk set
W=23.23+12.60=35.83mm
V=41.93 mm measured at housing surface
Z=41.93mm-35.83mm=6.10mm
In table 1 the thickness of the washer will be shown
in relation to the dimension Z
Power Train
46
Disassembly And Assembly
14
10
9
15
13
IHPD006P
IHPD004P
24. Fit the pressure disk (15) on the helical gear.
28. Put the cover (10), assembled as a complete
unit, on an even surface and apply Loctite No.574
onto the sealing surface of the cover.
25. Fit the internal disc carrier (14) on the helical
gear and insert three compression springs (13)
into the holes of the internal disc carrier.
NOTE : Due to the transmission contours, the sealing
surface of the cover is quite irregular. The impression of
the old sealing surface visible on the cover during the
disassembly process can be very helpful in this respect.
11
29. Drive the cover (10) into the basic transmission
unit. For this purpose, move the cover lightly and
tap on it with a plastic hammer.
12
30. Use Loctite No. 243 to secure the countersunk
bolts (9) employed to fasten the cover (10) and
torque them to 9.6 NIm (85 lbIin).
IHPD005P
6
26. Position the spring holder (12) on the internal
disk carrier and align it with the gearing, making
sure that the holder (12) does not interfere with
the cover assembly operation.
5
27. Use Loctite No. 243 to secure the bolts (11)
employed to fasten the internal disc carrier and
torque them to 34 NIm (25 lbIft).
8
IHPD003P
7
31. Assemble the brake lever assembly (3) as follows :
a. Put the spring (8) into the piston (6).
b. Install the piston (6) with sealing ring (7) into
the brake lever.
c. Install the cap (5) onto the brake lever.
Power Train
47
Disassembly And Assembly
4
IHPD002P
32. Install the pin (4) into the cover assembly.
IHPD007S
4
1
Dimension for
Assembly
0.4+0.6 (Dim.A)
IHPD028P
3
d. After lever mounting check the dimension “A”
and adjust if necessary. The dimension “A”
needs to be between 0.4-1.0mm.
Check the dimension by using a dial gauge.
Therefore adjust the lever gauge to the
specified measuring point on the head of the
brake lever, and “0” indication gauge. Move the
lever smoothly against the cover by hand.
Read the dial gauge. The measured value is
the dimension “A”. If the adjustment is not in
accordance with the specified value, the thrust
pin (4) needs to be changed or shortened.
Therefore different pins are available. If the pin
needs to be changed, the brake lever will be
disassembled again.
2
IHPD006S
33. Install the brake lever assembly (3) as follows :
a. Insert the brake lever assembly (3) into the
cover mount. Pay attention to the correct fitting
position.
b. Drive in the straight pin (2) and the brake lever
(3) simultaneously into the mount.
c. Secure the straight pin with the two snap rings
(1) to ensure that the straight pin cannot slip
out of the mount.
Power Train
After the brake lever has been assembled, check the
dimension again in the same steps as described
above.
48
Disassembly And Assembly
1. Remove drain plug (1), oil level plug (2), air
breather (3) and washer (4).
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2,
B20T-2(48V)
Disassemble Drive Axle
Tools Needed
A B
T126 Nut lnstaller
1
Bearing Puller
1
6
5
Start By :
a. Remove drive axle.
IOPD004P
2. Remove snap ring (5) from housing cover (6).
1
IOPD001P
IOPD005P
7
8
9
3. Remove four socket head bolts (7) and ten socket
head bolts (8) from housing (9).
10
2
3
4
IOPD002P
10
IOPD006P
2
1
4
3
4. Using two M8 bolts (10), remove housing
assembly from housing cover assembly.
IOPD003P
Power Train
49
Disassembly And Assembly
11
6
IOPD007P
5. Remove pinion gear assembly (11) from housing
cover (6).
16
9
IOPD010P
7. Remove helical gear assembly (16) from housing
(9).
17
12
15
18
19
13
IOPD008P
5
12
13
14
14
15
19
IOPD009P
IOPD012P
20
17
18
8. Remove snap rings (17), (18) and sun gear (19)
from helical gear (20).
6. Remove ball bearing (12), thrust bearing (14) and
race ring (15) from pinion gear (13).
Power Train
20
IOPD011P
50
Disassembly And Assembly
21
22
23
6
IOPD013P
IOPD017P
23
22
26
26
23
21
IOPD014P
IOPD018P
11. Remove three guide washers (23) and steel plate
(26).
9. Remove three flat head bolts (21), end plat (22) and
three guide washers (23) from housing cover (6).
24
25
26
27
6
6
IOPD015P
IOPD019P
25
24
IOPD016P
26
IOPD020P
10. Remove three springs (24), five friction discs (25)
and four steel plate (26) from housing cover (6).
Power Train
29
28
27
12. Remove plug (27), return spring (28) and piston
rod (29) from housing cover (6).
51
Disassembly And Assembly
41
40
30
31
IOPD021P
6
IOPD024P
15. Remove five steel balls (40) and ball bearing (41)
from housing cover (6).
30
42
43
31
IOPD022P
13. Remove lever plate (30) and lever hook (31).
IOPD025P
16. Remove six socket head bolts (42) from carrier
assembly (43).
31
32
42
29
38
44
33
34
IOPD023P
35
36
37
39
14. Remove pin (32) and split pin (33) from lever
hook (31). Remove wear rings (34), (39), backup
rings (35), (38) and quad rings (36), (37) from
piston rod (29).
Power Train
IOPD026P
17. Remove carrier cover (44) using three socket
head bolts (42).
52
Disassembly And Assembly
49
44
45
IOPD027P
52
IOPD030P
50
18. Remove ball bearing (45) from carrier cover (44).
46
50
47
51
IOPD031P
IOPD028P
20. Remove socket head bolt (49).
21. Remove nut (50) and shims (51) by using tool
(A). And, remove carrier (52) from housing.
48
47
53
46
52
IOPD029P
19. Remove six race rings (46), three planet gears
(47) and three needle roller bearings (48).
IOPD032P
22. Remove taper roller bearing cone (53) from
carrier (52) by using tool (B).
Power Train
53
Disassembly And Assembly
55
52
53
61
60
54
IOPD059P
IOPD035P
23. Remove pins (54) and spring pins (55) from
carrier (52).
26. Remove twelve socket head bolts (60) from ring
gear (61).
63
9
62
61
56
IOPD033P
IOPD036P
24. Remove drive shaft assembly (56) from housing
(9).
63
62
58
59
57
IOPD037P
61
27. Remove snap ring (62) and stopper plate (63)
from ring gear (61).
25. If necessary, remove taper roller bearing cone
(58) and eight wheel bolts (59) from drive shaft
(57).
Power Train
54
Disassembly And Assembly
Assemble Drive Axle
9
Tools Needed
A
T127 Bearing Installer
B
T130 Needle Bearing Installer
T126 Nut Installer
IOPD038P
65
67
E
F
1
T129 Gamma Seal Installer
68
D
1
T128 Oil Seal Installer
64
C
1
1
1
T131 Bolt Installer
1
NOTE : Before the assembly, carry out the following
operations :
66
a. Thoroughly clean all parts and remove all residual
Loctite.
b. Check all the parts for wear and damage.
Replace, if necessary.
c. Finish the mating surface of sealing with an oil
stone or a fine finishing file.
d. Lubricate the cleaned antifriction bearings before
installing.
e. Be sure to replace all the sealing elements.
f. Be sure to use mastic sealants (such as Loctite)
only.
9
IOPD039P
28. Remove taper roller bearing cups (64), (65), gamma
seal (66) and oil seal (67) from housing (9).
WARNING
29. Remove needle roller bearing (68) from housing (9).
Make sure corrosive detergents do not come in
contact with the skin. Do not swallow them or inhale
their vapors. Be sure to wear protective gloves and
goggles. If any detergent has been accidentally
swallowed, seek medical attention immediately.
Scrupulously observe the manufacturer’s
instructions.
Power Train
55
Disassembly And Assembly
58
65
67
66
59
9
57
IOPD039P
1. Install taper roller bearing cone (58) by using tool
(A). Apply Total MULTIS EP2 grease to the inner
ring of taper roller bearing and the space between
the rollers.
4. Apply Three Bond No.1102 on outer race of oil
seal (67) and install oil seal into housing (9) by
using tool (B).
Apply grease on the rib of oil seal (67).
2. Install eight wheel bolts (59) into drive shaft (57).
5. Apply Three Bond No.1102 on inner race of
gamma seal (66) and install gamma seal onto
housing (9) by using tool (C). Apply grease on the
rib of gamma seal (66).
54
55
6. Install taper roller bearing cup (65) into housing
(9).
52
53
9
IOPD040P
P0004209
3. Install pins (54) and spring pins (55) into carrier
(52). Install taper roller bearing cone (53) onto
carrier (52) by using tool (A). Apply Total MULTIS
EP2 grease to the inner ring of taper roller bearing
and the space between the rollers.
IOPD038P
64
68
7. Install taper roller bearing cup (64) into housing
(9). Install needle roller bearing (68) into housing
(9) by using tool (D).
Power Train
56
Disassembly And Assembly
9
50
54
56
IOPD041P
52
51
IOPD043S
8. Assemble drive shaft assembly (56) and housing
(9).
10. To calculate the required thickness of shim pack
(51), the following method is to be used.
Dimension B = Distance between plain surface of
carrier (52) and the plain surface
of drive shaft (54).
Dimension C = Hight of step in nut (50).
IOPD042P
9
Dimension D = Required thickness of shim
pack(51), calculated by following
formula
D=B-C-(0 ~ 0.05 mm)
52
9. Assemble carrier (52) into housing (9).
Example:
B = 2.58 mm measured at carrier and drive shaft
C = 2.05 mm measured at nut
D = 2.58 - 2.05 - (0 ~ 0.05) = 0.48 0 ~ 0.53 (mm)
Then 0.5 mm thickness of shim pack can be applied.
NOTE: Before determination of the shim pack
thickness, to locate the taper roller bearing of drive
shaft assembly in proper location, tighten the nut (50)
to a torque of 80~110 NIm (59~81 lbIft) with rotating
drive shaft assembly by hand.
Power Train
57
Disassembly And Assembly
50
IOPD044P
50
52
52
IOPD044P
14. Remove nut (50) from carrier (52).
11. Install shim pack with the proper thickness which
was determined in step 10. Tighten nut (50) to a
torque 150~220 NIm (110~162 lbIft) by using tool
(E).
60
12. Check if the slot in nut (50) for stopping socket
head bolt is well aligned with tap in carrier (52). If
not, the carrier should be rotated by one or two
splines in step 17.
61
62
54
IOPD036P
15. Assemble stopper plate (61) and snap ring (60)
into ring gear (62).
IOPD045P
62
13. Measure rolling torque of drive shaft assembly
(54). The specification of rolling torque is 4.5~6.5
NIm (3.3~4.8 lbIft).
If the measured rolling torque value is out of the
specification, increase or decrease the shim pack
thickness and follow the procedure in steps 11
through 13.
58
9
IOPD033P
16. Install ring gear assembly (62) into housing (9).
Apply LOCTITE No. 277 on threads of twelve
socket head bolts (58) and tighten bolts to a
torque 55 L 10 NIm (40.6~7.4 lbIft).
Power Train
58
Disassembly And Assembly
49
44
45
IOPD030P
52
50
IOPD027P
20. Install ball bearing (45) into carrier cover (44).
17. Apply LOCTITE No. 277 on thread of nut (50)
and tighten nut to a torque 150~220 NIm
(110~162 lbIft) by using tool (E).
42
43
18. Apply LOCTITE No. 277 on thread of stopping
socket head bolt (49) and tighten bolt to a torque
8 L 3 NIm (59 L 2.2 lbIft).
48
IOPD025P
47
21. Apply LOCTITE No. 277 on threads of six socket
head bolts and tighten bolts to a torque of 30 L 7
NIm (22 L 5 lbIft)
46
IOPD029P
46
47
IOPD046P
IOPD028P
NOTE : Carrier cover (44) should be assembled so
that marks on carrier and carrier cover are aligned.
19. Assemble six race rings (46), three needle roller
bearings (48) and three planet gears (47).
Power Train
59
Disassembly And Assembly
31
32
30
29
38
31
33
34
IOPD023P
35
36
37
39
IOPD022P
22. Assemble pin (32) and split pin (33) into lever
hook (31).
Split pin (33) should be bent enough not to be
removed.
23. Assemble quad rings (36), (37), backup rings
(35), (38) and wear rings (34), (39) into piston rod
(29).
33
30
NOTE: Apply brake oil (Total AZOLLA ZS 10) on the
surface of six rings in piston rod.
Check the location of backup rings carefully.
6
31
IOPD021P
41
25. Install lever plate (30) and lever hook assembly
(31) into housing cover (6).
NOTE: The split pin (33) of lever hook assembly
should be located on top side as shown.
40
IOPD024P
6
29
24. Install ball bearing (41) into housing cover (6).
Install five steel balls (40). Apply Total MULTIS
EP2 grease on the surface of steel balls.
IOPD047P
26. Assemble piston rod assembly (29) to lever hook
(31).
Power Train
60
Disassembly And Assembly
25
24
IOPD020P
28
29
27
26
IOPD016P
24
25
26
27
IOPD019P
IOPD015P
27. Apply total MULTIS EP2 grease onto outer of
piston rod (29).
30. Install five firiction discs (25) and four steel plate
(26) one by one as shown. Install three springs
(24).
28. Install return spring (28) into housing cover and
tighten plug (27) to a torque of 70 L 10 NIm (52
L 7 lbIft).
23
NOTE : Before installation of friction discs, soak
those friction discs in transmission oil as much time
as possible. If possible, over 12 hours are
recommended.
26
23
IOPD017P
IOPD048P
29. Install steel plate (26) and three washers (23)
onto housing cover as shown.
31. Put three guide washers (23) carefully on three
springs as shown.
NOTE: Locate guide washers carefully on the
positions of three taps in housing cover.
Power Train
61
Disassembly And Assembly
19
21
22
IOPD049P
IOPD012P
32. Put end plate (22) carefully on washers. Apply
LOCTITE No.277 on threads of three flat head
bolts (21) and tighten bolts to a torque of 8 L 3
NIm (5.9 L 2.2 lbIft) by using tool (F).
20
18
17
17
18
22
22
19
20
IOPD011P
66
34. Assemble sun gear (19), snap ring (18) and snap
ring (17) into helical gear (20). Make the opening
directions of two snap rings opposite.
IOPD050I
33. Press end plate (22) and measure the distance
(L) between the surface of end plate and the
surface of housing cover (6). Specification for “L”
is 1.03 ~1.63 mm (0.041~ 0.064 in).
20
6
IOPD051P
35. Align the teeth of the friction discs and assemble
carefully helical gear assembly (20) into housing
cover (6).
Power Train
62
Disassembly And Assembly
13
5
IOPD052P
IOPD004P
36. The housing cover areas must be cleaned and
degreased. Apply Three Bond No.1215 to coat on
one side as shown.
39. Install pinion gear assembly (13) into housing
cover and assemble snap ring (5).
2
3
4
IOPD002P
IOPD005P
7
9
8
40. Apply LOCTITE No. 572 on thread of oil level
plug (2) and tighten plug to a torque of 70 L 10
NIm (52 L 7 lbIft).
37. Put housing assembly (9) on housing cover
assembly. Apply LOCTITE No. 277 on threads of
four socket head bolts (7) and ten socket head
bolts (8). Tighten them to torque of 25 L 7 NIm
(18 L 5 lbIft) for four bolts (7) and 30 L 7 NIm
(22 L 5 lbIft) for ten bolts (8).
12
IOPD008P
41. Install washer (4) and air breather (3) and tighten
air breather to a torque of 70 L 10 NIm (52 L 7
lbIft).
15
13
14
38. Assemble ball earing (12) onto pinion gear (13).
Apply Total MULTIS EP2 grease to thrust bearing
(14) and race ring (15) and assemble them onto
pinion gear (13).
Power Train
63
Disassembly And Assembly
1
IOPD001P
42. Apply LOCTITE No. 572 on thread of drain plug
(1) and tighten plug to a torque of 70 L 10 NIm
(52 L 7 lbIft).
End By:
a. Install drive Axle.
Power Train
64
Disassembly And Assembly
Special Service Tools
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
Ref. No
Tool Name
1
Nut Installer
Illustration
Remark
DAEWOO Tool
No: T126
IOPD053I
DAEWOO Tool
2
No: T127
Bearing Installer
IOPD054I
DAEWOO Tool
3
Oil seal Installer
No: T128
IOPD055I
DAEWOO Tool
4
Gamma Seal Installer
No: T129
IOPD056I
Power Train
65
Disassembly And Assembly
Ref. No
Tool Name
5
Needle Bearing Installer
Illustration
Remark
DAEWOO Tool
No: T130
IOPD057I
6
DAEWOO Tool
Flat Head Bolt Installer
No: T131
IOPD058I
Power Train
66
Disassembly And Assembly
SB4113E00
Sep. 2003
Specifications
Systems Operation
Testing & Adjusting
Lift Trucks Vehicle Systems
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
EMOD4-00001~UP
EMOD5-00001~UP
EMOD6-00001~UP
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
EMOFB-00001~UP
EMOFC-00001~UP
EMOFD-00001~UP
EMOD7-00001~UP
Important Safety Information
Most accidents involving product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety
rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an
accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary
training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, Iubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result
in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any Iubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read and
understood the operation, Iubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are
not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or other persons.
The hazards are identified by the "Safety Alert Symbol" and followed by a "Signal Word" such as "WARNING" as
shown below.
WARNING
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows :
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The Message that appears under the warning, explaining the hazard, can be either written or pictorially
presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in this
publication.
DAEWOO cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in
this publication and on the product are therefore not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating
technique not specifically recommended by DAEWOO is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and
others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or made unsafe by the operation, Iubrication,
maintenance or repair procedures you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information available at the
time it was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other
items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service given to the product.
Obtain the complete and most current information before starting any job. DAEWOO dealers have the most
current information available.
Vehicle Systems
1
Specifications
Index
Specifications
Testing & Adjusting
Dual Steer Axle And Wheel .....................................12
Brake System ..........................................................45
Brake System Air Removal.................................45
Parking Brake Control Group Adjustment ..........47
Parking Brake Test .............................................46
Pedal Adjustment................................................46
Hydraulic Pump Motor .............................................47
Armature Tests .............................................49(54)
Brush Holder Test.........................................52(57)
Brush Lift Estimate .......................................52(58)
Commutator Inspection ................................50(55)
Field Coil And Terminal Tests .......................51(57)
Motor Brushes ..............................................47(53)
Thermal Switch (Themostat)Tests ......................58
Hydraulic Control Vavel .............................................5
Hydraulic Pump .........................................................6
Hydraulic Pump Motor .............................................13
Lift Cylinders ..............................................................7
Standard ...............................................................7
Full Free Triple Lift And Full Free Lift Primary......7
Full Free Lift Secondary .......................................8
Full Free Triple Lift Secondary .............................8
Priority Valve............................................................10
Hydraulic System.....................................................41
Lift Cylinders Air Removal ..................................42
Relief Valve Pressure Check ..............................41
Sideshift Cylinder.......................................................6
Steer Axle And Wheel..............................................12
Steering Gear...........................................................11
Steering Wheel ........................................................10
Steering System ......................................................43
Steer Wheel Bearing Adjustment .......................43
Steering System Air Removal.............................43
Steering System Pressure Check ......................44
Tilt Cylinder ................................................................9
Systems Operation
Troubleshooting .......................................................31
Brake System .....................................................36
Electric Motors ....................................................37
Hydraulic System And Mast ..............................31
Steering System .................................................35
Visual Checks .....................................................31
Brake System ..........................................................27
Master Cylinder...................................................27
Electric Motor...........................................................29
Hydraulic Pump Motor ........................................29
Hydraulic System.....................................................14
Control Valve ......................................................16
Steering System ......................................................23
Hydraulic Operation ............................................23
Steering Unit .......................................................24
Vehicle Systems
3
Index
Specifications
Hydraulic Control Valve
3
2
1
3
IHCS101S
Control Valve
Model
Mast
B13T-2
STD
B15T-2
FFL
B18T-2
Current Draw/Volt
Main Relief Valve
Auxiliary Relief Valve
Amps/36(Ref.) Amps/48(Ref.)
Pressure
Pressure
Min
Max
-
-
360
380
Min
310
Max
330
FFLT
B20T-2
L 350 kPa
L 35 psi
15580
2260
17170
2490
19440
2820
21575
3130
L 350 kPa
L 35 psi
14000
2025
(1) Torque for nuts that hold control valve
sections together ......26 to 32 N•m (19 to 23 lb•ft)
(2) Torque for nuts that hold control valve
sections together ......24 to 29 N•m (18 to 21 lb•ft)
(3) Torque for main and auxiliary relief valve
...................................44 to 49 N•m (32 to 36 lb•ft)
Vehicle Systems
5
Specifications
Hydraulic Pump
Sideshift Cylinder
1
2
EHCS002B
EHCS003B
Rotation is counterclockwise when seen from drive
end.
(1) Torque for head ..............................270 L 35 N•m
(200 L 25 lb•ft)
Type of pump : Gear
(2) Torque for piston nut ......................260 L 25 N•m
(190 L 20 lb•ft)
Displacement : 16 cc/rev
Vehicle Systems
6
Specifications
Lift Cylinders
Full Free Triple Lift and
Full Free Lift Primary
Standard
1
1
(1) Put Pipe Sealant on the last three threads of
bleed screw and tighten to a torque of
.......................................6 L 1 N•m (53 L 9 lb•in)
(1) Put Pipe Sealant on the last three threads of
bearing.
Put Pipe Sealant of the last three threads of bleed
screw(not shown) and tighten to a torque of
.............................................6 L 1 N•m (53 L 9 lb•in)
NOTE : All seals to be lubricated with hydraulic oil.
NOTE : All seals to be lubricated with hydraulic oil.
Vehicle Systems
7
Specifications
Full Free Lift Secondary
Full Free Triple Lift Secondary
1
1
2
2
(1) Put Pipe Sealant on the last three threads of
bearing.
(1) Put Pipe Sealant on the last three thread of
bearing.
(2) Put Pipe Sealant on the last three threads of
bleed screw and tighten to a torque of
.......................................6 L 1 N•m (53 L 9 lb•in)
(2) Put Pipe Sealant on the last three thread of bleed
screw and tighten to a torque of
.......................................6 L 1 N•m (53 L 9 lb•in)
NOTE : All seals to be lubricated with hydraulic oil.
NOTE : All seals to be lubricated with hydraulic oil.
Vehicle Systems
8
Specifications
Tilt Cylinder
1
2
3
4
Z
X-closed, Y-open
EHCS008B
Tilt Angle Degrees
Tilt Group
Cyl. Closed – X
Cyl. Open – Y
Stroke – Z
Forward
Backward
mm
in
mm
in
mm
in
A155007
5°
7°
382
15.0
463
18.2
81
3.2
A155008
5°
5°
396
15.6
463
18.2
67
2.6
A155009
5°
3°
409
16.1
463
18.2
54
2.1
(1) Adjust pivot eye to dimension(Y) with cylinder
open(extended)
(2) Torque for bolt
.................................. 95 L 15 N•m (70 L 10 lb•ft)
(3) With mast at tilt back position shim as required to
permit no gap between eye(1) and spacer.
Torque for head .... 270 L 35 N•m (200 L 25 lb•ft)
(4) Torque for jam nut
.............................. 260 L 25 N•m (190 L 20 lb•ft)
Vehicle Systems
9
Specifications
Steering Wheel
Priority Valve
1
2
EHCS017
Flow ................................Load sensing closed center.
EHCS016B
(1) Torque for steering wheel nut
.....................................80 L 6 N•m (60 L 4 lb•ft)
(2) Torque for bolt..............................15 N•m (11 lb•ft)
Vehicle Systems
10
Specifications
Steering Gear
2
1
3
VIEW C-C
TIGHTENING SEQUENCE
FOR BOLTS
VIEW B-B
4
C
5
B
B
C
EHCS018B
(1) Pin(1) in the body must be aligned with internal
pump gear (gerotor) (2) and drive (3) as shown.
(4) Tighten bolts in sequence shown.
Tighten to a first torque of ............14.1 L 2.8 N•m
(125 L 25 lb•in)
Tighten to a final torque of ...........28.2 L 2.8 N•m
(250 L 25 lb•in)
(5) Torque for plug ......................11.3 N•m (100 lb•in)
Plug to be flush (even) with or below mounting
surface.
Vehicle Systems
11
Specifications
Steer Axle And Wheel
Dual Steer Axle And Wheel
1
2
1
2
3
3
4
3
5
5
EHCS019B
EHCS015B
(1) Torque for bolts (three) ......................45 L 7 N•m
(35 L 5 lb•ft)
(1) Torque for bolts (three) ......................45 L 7 N•m
(35 L 5 lb•ft)
(2) Use as required to obtain end play of pinion shaft
...................................................0.01 to 0.035 mm
(2) Use as required to obtain end play of pinion shaft
...................................................0.01 to 0.035 mm
(3) Torque for bolts that hold support group to pinion
shaft .....................270 L 25 N•m (200 L 20 lb•ft)
(3) Torque for bolts that hold support group to pinion
shaft .....................270 L 25 N•m (200 L 20 lb•ft)
Steer Wheel Bearing Adjustment :
Steer Wheel Bearing Adjustment :
a. Tighten nut (5) slowly to 100 N•m (74 lb•ft) while
the steer wheel is turned.
a. Tighten nut (5) slowly to 133 N•m (98 lb•ft) while
the steer wheel is turned.
b. Loosen nut (5) completely and tighten again to
......................................40 L 3 N•m (30 L 2 lb•ft)
b. Loosen nut (5) completely and tighten again to
..................................45 to 55 N•m (33 to 41 lb•ft)
c. Bend a tap of lock (4) into a notch of the nut.
c. Bend a tap of lock (4) into a notch of the nut.
Vehicle Systems
12
Specifications
Hydraulic Pump Motor
(36V)
2
1
(48V)
P2
P1
2
1
EHCS020B
Hydraulic Pump Motor
1
Model
Voltage
36V
BxxT-2
48V
New Brush
Minimum
2
Minimum
Thickness B Width B Length
Brush Length *
Commutator Diameter**
14 mm B 25.3mm B 38 mm
18 mm
78 mm
(.55 in B 0.99 in B 1.49 in)
(.70 in)
(3.07 in)
12.5 mm B 32 mm B 35 mm
18 mm
78 mm
(.49 in B 1.25 in B 1.37 in)
(.70 in)
(3.07 in)
*As measured on longest side.
** All rough edges(burrs) must be removed after the commutator is machined.
Maximum difference between commutator high and
low point(out of round) ............0.03 mm (.001 in) TIR
Maximum difference between bar to bar
.............................................0.005 mm (.0002 in) TIR
Machine chamfer on the commutator bars
........................................................0.40 mm (.016 in)
Torque for the terminal bolts(not shown) the hold
cable connections .............................14 N•m (10 lb•ft)
Thermal switch
Depth of the insulation below commutator bars.
............................................................1.5 mm (.05 in)
Opening temperature ..........150 L 6°C (302 L 11°F)
Width of the insulation below commutator bars
..........................................................0.8 mm (.031 in)
Vehicle Systems
Closing temperature ...........130 L 7°C (275 L 13°F)
13
Specifications
Systems Operation
Hydraulic System
1
1
2
3
4
6
5
8
9
7
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
IHCS102I
Basic Hydraulic Schematic With Standard Lift
(1) Lift cylinders. (2) Excess flow protector. (3) Sideshift cylinder(option). (4) Flow regulator.
(5) Hydraulic control valve. (6) Tilt cylinders. (7) Relief valve (lift and tilt). (8) Relief valve (sideshift).
(9) Hydraulic oil filter. (10) Hydraulic oil tank. (11) Priority valve. (12) Oil line. (13) Hydraulic strainer. (14) Hydraulic pump.
(15) Oil line to steering unit. (16) Oil line.
The return hydraulic oil from the cylinders flows
through hydraulic control valve (5), line (12), into
filter (9) and hydraulic tank (10). Relief valve (7) in
the control valve body will make the flow control
valve release extra pressure to the hydraulic tank
when the pressure in the lift or tilt circuits goes
higher than relief valve pressure shown in the control
valve section of Specifications. Relief valve (8) does
the same thing for the sideshift circuit when it goes
higher than the auxiliary relief valve pressure shown
in the control valve section of Specifications.
The hydraulic system has hydraulic oil tank (10),
which holds the oil for gear type hydraulic pump (14).
Hydraulic pump (14) sends pressure oil to hydraulic
and steering systems.
Pump oil flows from pump (14) to priority valve (11)
where the oil flow divides to the steering unit through
line (15). Oil also flows to hydraulic control valve (5)
and back to hydraulic tank (10).
The control valve levers move the valve spools in
control valve (5) to let the pump oil in the control
valve go to lift cylinders (1) and/or (18), tilt cylinders
(6) or sideshift cylinder (3).
Vehicle Systems
14
Systems Operation
17
18
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
8
7
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
IHCS103I
Basic Hydraulic Schematic With Full Free Lift Or Full Free Triple Lift
(1) Lift cylinders. (2) Excess flow protector. (3) Sideshift cylinder(option). (4) Flow regulator.
(5) Hydraulic control valve. (6) Tilt cylinders. (7) Relief valve (lift and tilt). (8) Relief valve (sideshift).
(9) Hydraulic oil filter. (10) Hydraulic oil tank. (11) Priority valve. (12) Oil line. (13) Hydraulic strainer. (14) Hydraulic pump.
(15) Oil line to steering unit. (16) Oil line. (17) Excess flow protector. (18) Lift cylinder(primary).
The maximum speed when the lift cylinders are
lowered is controlled by flow regulator (4).
Excess flow protectors (2) and (17) will act as flow
regulator if an oil line between them and flow
regulator (4) is broken when the mast is raised or
lowered. This prevents a sudden fall of the mast or
carriage if an oil line is broken.
REFERENCE : For the Hydraulic Systems
Schematics.
Vehicle Systems
15
Systems Operation
Control Valve
Lift Valve Neutral Position
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
10
8
9
ICCS009S
Control Valve for Lift (Shown In NEUTRAL Position)
(1) Spool. (2) Outlet To Head End Of Lift Cylinders. (3) Load Check Valve. (4) Passage. (5) Inlet Passage For Pump Oil.
(6) Chamber. (7) Passage For Return Oil. (8) Passage. (9) Chamber. (10) Spring.
Oil from pump enters the valve through a passage in
the inlet section. From there it goes to both chamber
(6) and chamber (9). Since spool (1) is in the
NEUTRAL position, the only path the oil can take is
from chamber (9) into the tilt valve. It would go out
through passage (8).
The mast can be stopped and held in any position
when the lift control valve is in neutral. This is
because the flow to and from the cylinders is
stopped by spool (1). In the NEUTRAL position, oil
can not flow from passage (4) to outlet (2) or back.
Vehicle Systems
16
Systems Operation
Lift Position
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
10
8
9
ICCS010S
Control Valve for Lift (Shown In LIFT Position)
(1) Spool. (2) Outlet To Head End Of Lift Cylinders. (3) Load Check Valve. (4) Passage. (5) Inlet Passage For Pump Oil.
(6) Chamber. (7) Passage For Return Oil. (8) Passage. (9) Chamber. (10) Spring.
When the control lever is moved to the LIFT position,
lift spool (1) is moved into the valve. Movement of
spool (1) opens a path for oil to flow from chamber
(6) through load check valve (3) into passage (4).
From passage (4) the oil goes to outlet (2) and then
to the lift cylinders. Pressure oil to the head end of
the lift cylinders moves the rod up and the mast will
raise.
Vehicle Systems
17
Systems Operation
Lower Position
2
3
4
5
6
7
1
10
8
9
ICCS011S
Control Valve For Lift (Shown In LOWER Postion)
(1) Spool. (2) Outlet To H ead End Of Lift Cylinders. (3) Load Check Valve. (4) Passage. (5) Inlet Passage For Pump Oil.
(6) Chamber. (7) Passage For Return Oil. (8) Passage. (9) Chamber. (10) Spring.
When the control lever for lift is moved to the
LOWER position, lift spool (1) moves until a path is
opened between outlet (2) and passage for return oil
(7).
Vehicle Systems
18
Systems Operation
Tilt Neutral Position
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
13
9
10
14
16
15
11
12
ICCS012S
Tilt Spool In Neutral Position
(1) Spool. (2) Outlet To Rod End Of Tilt Cylinders. (3) Load Check Valve. (4) Passage. (5) Inlet Passage For Pump Oil. (6) Chamber.
(7) Outlet To Head End of Tilt Cylinders. (8) Passage For Return Oil. (9) Spring. (10) Spool. (11) Passage. (12) Chamber. (13) Spring.
(14) Orifice. (15) Orifice. (16) Passage.
Oil from lift valve goes to both chamber (6) and (12).
Since spool (1) is in the NEUTRAL position, the only
path the oil can take is from chamber (12) to tank
through passage (11).
The mast can be stopped and held in any position
when the tilt control valve is in neutral. This is
because the flow to and from the tilt cylinders is
stopped by spool (1). In the NEUTRAL position, oil
can not flow from passage (4) to outlet (2) or (7).
Vehicle Systems
19
Systems Operation
Tilt Forward Position
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
13
9
14
10
16
15
11
12
ICCS013S
Tilt Spool In Forward Position
(1) Spool. (2) Outlet to Rod End Of Tilt Cylinders. (3) Load Check Valve. (4) Passage. (5) Inlet Passage For Pump Oil.
(6) Chamber. (7) Outlet To Head End Of Tilt Cylinders. (8) Passage For Return Oil. (9) Spring. (10) Spool. (11) Passage.
(12) Chamber. (13) Spring. (14) Orifice. (15) Orifice. (16) Passage.
When the control lever for tilt is moved to TILT
FORWARD position, spool (1) is moved until a path
is opened between passage (4) and outlet (7) and oil
flow from chamber (12) to passage (11) is stopped.
This causes the oil pressure to increase and open
load check valve (3). The pressure oil from the pump
can now flow from passage(4) to outlet (7). It then
flows to the head end of the tilt cylinders and the
mast tilts forward. Return oil from the rod end of the
tilt cylinders flows into the valve through outlet (2) in
to passage (8) and then to tank.
Vehicle Systems
As tilt spool (1) is moved to the TILT FORWARD
position, two paths are opened for the flow of oil to
the tilt cylinders. One is from passage (4) to outlet
(7), which allows pressure oil to go to the head end
of the tilt cylinders. The other path is for return oil
from the rod end of the tilt cylinders. As spool (1)
moves, orifice (15) moves into position to send
pressure oil to the chamber behind spool (10). Spool
(10) moves against the force of spring (9) and opens
a path for return oil between passage (16) and
orifice (14). This has the effect of slowing down the
flow of oil from the rod end of the tilt cylinders and
preventing cavitation in the head end. If pump flow
(pressure) is lost, for any reason, spool (10) will
return to the NEUTRAL position and the path for
return oil is closed.
20
Systems Operation
Tilt Back Position
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
1
13
9
10
14
16
15
11
12
ICCS014S
Tilt Spool In Tilt Back Position
(1) Spool. (2) Outlet To Rod End Of Tilt Cylinders. (3) Load Check Valve. (4) Passage. (5) Inlet Passage For Pump Oil.
(6) Chamber. (7) Outlet To Head End Of Tilt Cylinders. (8) Passage For Return Oil. (9) Spring. (10) Spool. (11) Passage.
(12) Chamber. (13) Spring. (14) Orifice. (15) Orifice. (16) Passage.
When the control lever for tilt is moved to TILT BACK
position, tilt spool (1) is moved until a path is opened
between passage (4) and outlet (2), and oil flow from
chamber (12) to passage (11) is stopped. This
causes the oil pressure to increase and open load
check valve (3). The pressure oil from the pump can
now flow from passage (4) to outlet (2). It then flows
to the rod end of the tilt cylinders and the mast tilts
back.
Return oil from the head end of the tilt cylinders flows
into the valve through outlet (7) into passage (8) and
then to tank.
Vehicle Systems
21
Systems Operation
Relief Valve
If the control lever is held in LIFT or TILT position
after the cylinder rod is fully extended or retracted,
the flow of oil from outlet port to the cylinders is
stopped. The oil under pressure must be released.
The pressure oil flows through piston(11) of the main
relief valve. The pressure oil opens pilot valve (14).
This lets the oil flow go through spring chamber (13)
to passage (7). The oil then returns to tank. When
the pilot valve opened, it caused a decrease in the
pressure in spring chamber (13) that let piston (11)
move against the force of the spring in spring
chamber (13). This stops the flow of oil around the
pilot valve to passage (7) and moves piston (12)
down until a path is open for pump flow to go to the
tank through passage (7). This action will continue
until the control lever is moved to NEUTRAL position.
13
14
7
12
11
IHCS104S
Relief Valve
(7) Passage for return oil. (11) Piston. (12) Dump valve.
(13) Spring chamber. (14) Pilot valve.
Vehicle Systems
22
Systems Operation
Steering System
Hydraulic Operation (Load Sensing Closed Center Steering System)
3
4
6
7
5
2
1
8
L
T
P
R
LS
9
13
10
11
12
IBCS036B
Steering System Schematic
(1) Steering Unit. (2) Hose (to hydraulic tank). (3) Priority Valve. (4) Hose (from hydraulic pump). (5) Hose (to control valve).
(6) Hose. (7) Hose. (8) Steering Axle. (9) Check Valve (in steer gear). (10) Hose (from priority valve). (11) Hydraulic Pump.
(12) Hydraulic Tank. (13) Hose (load sensing).
pressure drops in these lines, the priority valve
metering spool will shift to meet the flow demand. As
the metering spool shifts, more oil flow is diverted to
hose (10) than to hose (5). The priority valve
metering spool will shift back and forth to meet the
steering flow demand while maintaining the Load
Sensing Pressure between load sense hose (13) and
the priority valve internal sensing line. At times flow
to hose (5) will be closed completely. The
combination of flow restrictors in the lines and spring
tension on the priority valve metering spool work
together to maintain this balance.
The steering system is a load sensing closed center
type and uses hydraulic oil for its operation. Oil flow
through the steering system is closed unless the
steering wheel is turned. The flow through the
steering gear is sensed by the priority valve, which
then allows additional oil flow to the steering system.
The priority valve also fills the requirements of the
power brakes (if equipped) and then the mast.
Hydraulic oil is pulled from hydraulic tank (12)
through a strainer to hydraulic pump (11). The pump
sends the oil through hose (4) to priority valve (3).
Check valve (9) is in the steering unit (pump) to
prevent oil flow back to priority valve (3), which could
cause a sudden jerk of the steering wheel.
When the steering gear is in NEUTRAL position,
pressure in hose (10) and the priority valve internal
sensing line rises. When this pressure rises more
than load sensing signal hose (13) the priority valve
metering spool shifts to stop oil flow to the steering
unit. Oil flows hose (5) to the hydraulic control valve.
When the unit (pump) is moved, oil starts to flow to
steer axle (8). The pressure in line (10) and the
priority valve internal sensing line will drop. As
Vehicle Systems
Relief valve in steering unit valve body will open if
the steering pressure goes above 8000 kPa (1143
psi).
23
Systems Operation
Oil Flow
Steering Unit–Steering Gear
1
2
3
A
4
PUMP OIL
METERED OIL
RETURN OIL
B
5
3 10
11 5
14
15 16
6 7
1
8
8
9 10 11
IBCS037B
13
9 2
17
12
Steering Unit
A. Control valve section. B. Metering section.
(1) Spool. (2) Sleeve. (3) Outlet to tank. (4) Check valve.
(5) Inlet from pump. (6) Rotor. (7) Stator.
(8) Centering springs. (9) Pin. (10) Left turn port.
(11) Right turn port. (12) Body. (13) Drive.
IBCS038B
Steering Unit (Shown in RIGHT TURN Position)
(1) Spool. (2) Sleeve. (3) Outlet to tank.
(5) Inlet from pump. (8) Centering springs. (9) Pin.
(10) Left turn port. (11) Right turn port. (13) Drive.
(14) Passage. (15) Passage. (16) Gerotor. (17) Passage.
The steering unit has two main sections ; control
section (A) and pump or metering section (B). These
two sections work together to send oil to the steering
cylinder.
When the steering wheel is turned for a right turn,
pump oil flows into the STEERING UNIT through
inlet (5) and passage (14). From passage (14) it goes
into the gerotor through passage (17). With the
steering wheel turning, gerotor (16) is turning and
pumping oil. The Metered flow comes out through
passage (15), where it is directed out to the steering
cylinder through right turn port (11). When the
steering wheel started to turn ; spool (1), pin (9) and
drive (13) also started to turn. Sleeve (2) did not start
to turn at the same time as the spool because the
diameter of the holes in the sleeve are slightly larger
than the diameter of pin (9). This allows spool (1) to
turn inside of sleeve (2) enough to put the small
holes in sleeve (2) in line with the grooves in spool
(1). The alignment of the small holes in the sleeve
with the grooves in the spool provides the path for oil
flow to gerotor (16) and also to the steering cylinder.
Centering springs (8) are compressed when the
spool moves in relation to the sleeve. When the
steering wheel is no longer turning, the springs will
bring the spool and sleeve back to a NEUTRAL
position. This means that the wheels will stay in the
position they were in when the steering effort
stopped. The steering wheel must be turned in the
opposite direction to bring the wheels back to straight
ahead, or to make a left turn. As the metered oil goes
out to the cylinder through outlet (11) for a right turn,
return oil from the cylinder is coming back into the
STEERING UNIT through outlet (10). This oil is sent
to the tank.
Oil from the priority valve enters the steering unit
through inlet (5) into the control section. When the
steering wheel is turned, the control section sends
the oil to and from the metering section, and also to
and from the steering cylinder.
The metering section is a small hydraulic pump. It
meters the oil that goes to the steering cylinder, As
the steering wheel is turned faster, there is an
increase in the flow of oil to the steering cylinder.
This increased flow causes the steering cylinder to
move farther and faster. As the steering cylinder
moves farther, more oil can flow from the metering
section to the steering cylinder and a faster turn is
made.
Vehicle Systems
4 13
24
Systems Operation
3
PUMP OIL
METERED OIL
RETURN OIL
10 11
5
14
15
16
21
1
1
18
2
18
19
20
19
9
2
17
IBCS040B
LEFT TURN
Spool And Sleeve
IBCS039B
(1) Spool. (2) Sleeve. (18) Slots for spring.
(19) Holes for pin. (20) Small holes for oil flow.
(21) Grooves for oil flow.
Steering Unit (Shown in a LEFT TURN Position)
(1) Spool. (2) Sleeve. (3) Outlet to tank. (5) Inlet from pump.
(9) Pin. (10) Left turn port. (11) Right turn port. (13) Drive.
(14) Passage. (15) Passage. (16) Gerotor. (17) Passage.
The rate of flow the gerotor sections is determined by
how fast the steering wheel is turned. The faster the
steering wheel turns, the greater the flow and the
faster the vehicle will turn.
When the steering wheel is turned to the left, spool
(1), pin (9) and drive (13) turn with it. After spool (1)
has turned a small amount pin (9) will cause sleeve
(2) to move with the spool. They will rotate together
but will be a few degrees apart.
The flow of oil through the STEERING UNIT is in the
opposite direction to that of a right turn. It comes in
through inlet (5) and passage (14) and then goses
into gerotor (16) through passage (15). From the
gerotor, the oil leaves through passage (17), goes
through the sleeve spool combination and then to left
turn port (10). From the left turn port it goes to the
steering cylinder.
Vehicle Systems
25
Systems Operation
TANK OIL (SUPPLY)
METERED OIL
RETURN OIL
7
3 10 11
4
9
6
15 16
17
13
EHCS036B
EMERGENCY
Pump Gears In The Metering Section
(6) Rotor. (7) Stator. (9) Pin. (13) Drive.
EHCS035B
Steering Unit (Shown in Manually Operated Right Turn
Position)
(3) Outlet to tank. (4) Ball check. (10) Left turn port.
(11) Right turn port. (15) Passage. (16) Gerotor.
(17) Passage.
When the steering wheel is turned, in either direction,
pin (9) turns with the sleeve and spool and causes
drive (13) to turn also. The drive cause rotation of
rotor (6) inside of stator (7). This rotation of the rotor
sends a controlled (metered) flow of oil back to the
spool sleeve combination where it is then directed to
either port (10) or (11) and then to the steering
cylinder.
If there is a pump failure or the engine stops and can
not be started again, the STEERING UNIT can be
manually operated. Turning the steering wheel will
take oil from the tank and bring it in through outlet
(3). It will then open check valve (4) and go to the
gerotor (16) through passage (17). It will come out of
(16) through passage (15) and go to the right turn
port (11). This is the flow for a right turn. It would be
reversed for a left turn.
If the unit is taken apart for any reason, it must be
put back together with the relationship between pin
(9) and rotor (6) as shown.
During normal operation, check valve (4) will be held
closed by pressure oil from the pump.
Vehicle Systems
26
Systems Operation
Brake System
Brake fluid from remote reservoir (1) to replenish
master cylinder (2).
Master Cylinder
The master cylinder has a piston which push brake
liquid into the brake lines. The reservoir, located on
the cowl, is connected to inlet of master cylinder. The
supply lines keep master cylinder (2) filled so no air
enters the system. Reservoir (1) supplies brake liquid
to the system.
(36V)
When the brake pedal is first pushed, the piston
moves into the master cylinder and pushes brake
liquid through outlet into the brake lines. When
floating piston seats on seal, the liquid that is pushed
by piston goes around cup seal, out through floating
piston and outlet. This action continues until the
liquid pressure in piston bore reaches the pressure
that opens relief valve. The liquid, being pushed by
piston, now returns to reservoir(1). Cup seal, seals
and the liquid inside piston is pushed through piston
and outlet.
1
2
The liquid pushed through outlet goes through the
brake lines to the cylinder of brake lever (3).
Check valve in the master cylinder keeps a small
amount of pressure in the brake lines and wheel
cylinders (3) when the pedal is released. This small
amount of pressure helps the cylinder of brake lever
piston cup seal seat, which keeps air out of the brake
system.
3
IHCS111I
3
Master Cylinder And Cylinder of Brake Lever
(1) Master cylinder reservoir. (2) Master cylinder.
(3) Cylinder of brake lever.
4
EHCS038B
Cylinder of Brake Lever
When hydraulic pressure is supplied to the cylinder
of brake lever (3), the brake lever push paralled pin
that is contacted on the end of brake lever (3). The
wet disc brake is actuated by the force from paralled
pin.
IHCS112P
Remote Reservoir
(4) Remote reservoir.
Vehicle Systems
27
Systems Operation
(48V)
1
1
IHCS112P
(1) Master Cylinder Reservoir
Brake fluid from remote reservoir (1) to replenish
master cylinder (2).
2
The master cylinder has a piston which push brake
liquid into the brake lines. The reservoir, located on
the middle plate, is connected to inlet of master
cylinder. The supply lines keep master cylinder (2)
filled so no air enters the system. Reservoir (1)
supplies brake liquid to the system.
3
When the brake pedal is first pushed, the piston
moves into the master cylinder and pushes brake
liquid through outlet into the brake lines.
The liquid pushed through outlet goes through the
brake lines to the brake cylinder (3).
IOCS008I
Master Cylinder And Cylinder of Brake Lever
(1) Master Cylinder reservoir. (2) Master Cylinder.
(3) Brake Cylinder.
3
5
4
IOCS009I
(3) Brake Cylinder. (4) Piston Rod. (5) Lever Plate.
When hydraulic pressure is supplied to the brake
cylinder (3), piston rod (4) rotates lever plate (5).
With rotation, lever plate is moved towards friction
and steel plates. Then wet disc brake is actuated by
this force from lever plate.
Vehicle Systems
28
Systems Operation
Electric Motors
Hydraulic Pump Motor
(36V)
2
3
1
6
5
7
4
8
(48V)
3
2
1
5
4
7
6
8
EHCS039B
Electric Motor
(1) Brush cover. (2) Thermal switch. (3) Motor frame. (4) Brush. (5) Commutator. (6) Armature. (7) Fleld coil. (8) Fan.
commutator (5). Field coils (7) are fastened to the
inside of the motor frame.
The hydraulic system is operated by a direct current
(DC) motor. Electric storage batteries are the source
of power for the DC motor
The motor brushes are held in the four brush holders
by springs. The springs hold the brushes against
commutator (5) and compensate for brush wear.
The hydraulic pump motor is a series wound motor
and uses high temperature insulation. Armature (6) is
mounted with single row ball bearings at each end.
The ball bearings are permanently lubricated with
high temperature lubricant.
The parts of armature (6) include the shaft, core,
windings and commutator.
The electrical connections to the motor are made of
corrosion resistant terminals on motor frame (3). On
the outside of the motor frame is cover (1) that can
be removed for easy access to brushes (4) and
Vehicle Systems
29
Systems Operation
The motor is protected from over temperature by a
thermostat switch (2). When the normally closed
thermostat switch is open, the amount of current
through the motor is limited to allow, the motor to
cool. All motors are fan (8) cooled.
The hydraulic pump motor is activated when the key
and seat switches are closed and lift, tilt or auxiliary
lever is moved. In lift operation, the speed of the
motor is variable. The larger the distance the lever is
moved, the faster the motor will rotate. The speed of
the motor is fixed in tilt or auxiliary operation.
On the Option MicroController Control, the speed of
lift or tilt or auxiliary operation could be pre-settable.
Vehicle Systems
30
Systems Operation
Testing & Adjusting
3. Check all oil lines and connections for damage or
leaks.
Troubleshooting
4. Check all the lift chains and the mast and carriage
welds for wear or damage.
Troubleshooting can be difficult. A list of possible
problems and corrections are on the pages that follow.
Hydraulic System and Mast
This list of problems and corrections will only give an
indication of where a problem can be and what
repairs are needed. Normally, more or other repair
work is needed beyond the recommendations on the
list. Remember that a problem is not necessarily
caused only by one part, but by the relation of one
part with other parts. This list can not give all
possible problems and corrections. The serviceman
must find the problem and its source, then make the
necessary repairs.
The pressure Gauge Kit or the Tetragauge Group
can be used to make the pressure tests of the
hydraulic system. Before any test is made, visually
inspect the complete hydraulic system for leakage of
oil and for parts that have damage.
During a diagnosis of the hydraulic system,
remember that correct oil flow and pressure are
necessary for correct operation. The output of the
pump(oil flow) increases with an increase in motor
speed(rpm) and decreases when motor speed(rpm)
is decreased. Oil pressure is caused by resistance to
the flow of oil.
Visual checks and measurements are the first step
when troubleshooting a possible problem. Then do
the Operation Checks and finally, do instrument tests
with pressure gauges.
Use the Pressure Gauge Kit, a stop watch, a magnet,
a thermometer and a mm (inch) ruler for basic test
measurements.
WARNING
1. The pressure of the oil required to open the relief
valve. Relief valve pressures that are too low will
cause a decrease in the lift and the tilt
characteristics of the lift truck. Pressures that are
too high will cause a decrease in the life of hoses
and components.
To prevent personal injury when testing and
adjusting the hydraulic system, move the machine
to a smooth horizontal location and lower the mast
and carriage to the ground. If the mast and
carriage can not be on the ground, make sure they
are blocked correctly to keep them from a fall that
is not expected. Move away from machines and
personnel that are at work. There must be only one
operator. Keep all other personnel away from the
machine or where the oerator can see the other
personnel. Before any hydraulic pressure plug,
line or component is removed, make sure all
hydraulic pressures are released.
2. Drift rates in the cylinders. Cylinder drift is caused by
a leakage past cylinder pistons, O-ring seals in the
control valve, check valves that do not seat correctly
or poor adjustment or fit in the control valve spools.
3. Cycle times in the lift and tilt circuits; Cycle times
that are too long are the result of leakage, pump
wear and/or pump speed(rpm).
Performance Test
Visual Checks
The performance tests can be used to find leakage in
the system. They can also be used to find a bad
valve or pump. The speed of rod movement when
the cylinders move can be used to check the
condition of the cylinders and the pump.
A visual inspection of the hydraulic system and its
components is the first step when a diagnosis of a
problem is made. Lower the carriage to the floor and
follow these inspections;
1. Measure the oil level. Look for air bubbles in the
oil tank.
Lift, lower, tilt forward and tilt back the forks several
times.
2. Remove the filter element and look for particles
removed from the oil by the filter element. A magnet
will separate ferrous particles from nonferrous
particles (piston rings, O-ring seals, etc.).
Vehicle Systems
1. Watch the cylinders as they are extended and
retracted. Movement must be smooth and regular.
31
Testing & Adjusting
2. Listen for noise from the pump.
Mast and Carriage
3. Listen for the sound of the relief valve. It must not
open except when the cylinders are fully extended
or retracted, when the forks are empty.
Problem: The hydraulic system will not lift the
load.
Probale Hydraulic Cause :
1. There is an air leak, which lets air into the
hydraulic system on the inlet side of the hydraulic
pump.
Hydraulic Oil Temperature
(Too Hot)
When the temperature of the hydraulic oil gets over
98.8°C (210°F), polyurethane seals in the system
start to fail. High oil temperature causes seal failure
to become more rapid. There are many reasons why
the temperature of the oil will get this hot.
2. The relief valve opens at low oil pressure.
3. The hydraulic pump has too much wear.
4. The load is not correct (too heavy).
1. Hydraulic pump is badly worn.
Probable Mechanical Cause:
2. Heavy hydraulic loads that cause the relief valve to
open.
1. The mast is not in alignment with the other lifting
components and does not move freely.
3. The setting on the relief valve is too low.
2. Not enough lubricant on the parts of the mast that
move.
4. Too many restrictions in the system.
3. The carriage or mast rollers(bearings) are worn
and do not move(seized).
5. Hydraulic oil level in the tank is too low.
6. High pressure oil leak in one or more circuits.
Problem : Lift cylinder extends too slowly.
7. Very dirty oil.
Probable Hydraulic Cause :
8. Air in the hydraulic oil.
1. Not enough oil supply to lift cylinder.
NOTE : If the problem is because of air in the oil, it
must be corrected before the system will operate at
normal temperatures. There are two things that
cause air in the oil(aeration). These are :
2. Defective lift cylinder seals.
Probable Mechanical Cause :
a. Return oil to the tank goes in above the level of
the oil in the tank.
1. The mast is not in alignment with the other lifting
components and does not move freely.
b. Air leaks in the oil suction line between the pump
and the tank.
2. Not enough lubricant on the parts of the mast that
move.
3. The carriage or mast rollers (bearings) are worn
and do not move (seized).
Problem : Mast does not move smoothly
Probable Hydraulic Cause :
1. Air in the hydraulic system.
2. Relief valve sticks or defective.
Vehicle Systems
32
Testing & Adjusting
Probable Mechanical Cause :
5. Air in the hydraulic system.
1. Not enough lubricant on the parts of the mast that
move.
Probable Mechanical Cause:
1. The mast is not in alignment with the other lifting
components and does not move freely.
2. Load rollers(bearings) defective or not adjusted
correctly.
2. Carriage chains need an adjustment.
Problem : Mast will not lower completely or will
not lower at all.
3. Not enough lubricant on the part of the mast that
moves.
Probable Mechanical Cause :
4. The carriage or mast rollers(bearings) are worn
and do not move(seized).
1. Lift cylinder damaged or bent.
Problem : The lift or tilt cylinders do not hold
their position with the valve control levers in
neutral position.
2. Load rollers(bearings) defective or not adjusted
correctly.
3. Not enough lubricant on the parts of the mast that
move.
Probable Cause :
1. The valve spools do not hold their positions
because the springs for the valve spools are weak
or broken.
Problem: The mast does not tilt correctly or
moves too slowly.
Probable Hydraulic Cause :
2. Control valve leakage caused by worn valve
spools.
1. There is an air leak, which lets air into the
hydraulic system on the inlet side of the hydraulic
pump.
3. The check valve or flow control valves in the
control valve are bad.
2. The relief valve opens at low oil pressure.
4. Leakage of the cylinder lines or piston seals.
3. The hydraulic pump has too much wear.
5. There is foreign material in the control valve.
4. The internal valve of the tilt spool is stuck.
5. Control valve tilt spool has a restriction.
Hydraulic Pump
Probable Mechanical Cause :
Problem: Noise in the pump.
1. Damage or failure of the piston rods on the tilt
cylinders.
Probable : Cause :
1. The oil level is low.
Problem : The carriage will not lower correctly.
2. The oil is thick(viscosity too high).
Probable Hydraulic Cause:
3. The pump inlet line has a restriction in it.
1. There are restrictions in the lift line.
4. Worn parts in the pump.
2. The lift spool in the control valve has a restriction
caused by foreign material and does not operate
freely.
5. Oil is dirty.
6. Air leaks into the inlet line.
3. The lift cylinder flow control valve has a restriction.
4. Lift cylinders excess flow protectors have a
restriction.
Vehicle Systems
33
Testing & Adjusting
7. The bolts of the pump do not have the correct
torque.
Problem: The oil temperature is too high.
Probable Cause :
1. The oil level is low.
Hydraulic control valve
2. There is a restriction in an oil passage.
Problem:The control spools do not move freely.
3. The relief valve setting is too low.
Probable Cause:
4. The oil is too thin.
1. The temperature of the oil is too high.
5. There is air leakage in the system.
2. There is foreign material in the fluid.
6. The pump has too much wear.
3. The fitting connections in the valve body are too
tight.
7. The system operates at too high a pressure.
4. The fastening bolts of the valve assembly do not
have the correct torque and have twisted the body.
a. Relief valve setting too high.
b. Attachment components cause a restriction
during movement.
c. Restrictions in flow control valve, check valve
and in oil lines.
5. Linkage of the lift and tilt levers does not operate
smoothly.
Problem : Leakage at the pump shaft seal.
6. Bent lift or tilt spools.
Probable Cause :
7. Damage to the return springs of the spools.
1. The shaft seal is worn.
8. The hydraulic oil is not at normal temperature for
operation.
2. The inner parts of the pump body are worn.
Problem : Control valve spools have leakage
around the seals.
3. Operation with too low oil level in tank causes
suction on the seal.
Probable Cause :
4. Seal cut on shoulder of pump or keyway during
installation.
1. There is foreign material under the seal.
5. Seal lips are dry and hardened from heat.
2. The valve spools are worn.
Problem : There is failure of the pump to deliver
fluid.
3. The seal plates are loose.
4. The seals have damage or are badly worn.
Probable Cause :
Problem : The load lowers when the lift spool is
moved from the NEUTRAL position to the RAISE
position.
1. Low level of the oil in the tank.
2. There is a restriction in the pump inlet line.
Probable Cause :
3. There is air leakage in the pump inlet line.
1. There is foreign material in the check valve area.
a. Loose bolts.
b. Defects in suction line.
2. The check valve poppet and seat show wear.
4. The viscosity of the oil is wrong.
3. Sudden loss of pump oil pressure.
5. The pump has too much wear.
4. Damage to the relief valve which causes low oil
pressure.
6. Failure of the pump shaft.
Vehicle Systems
34
Testing & Adjusting
Problem : Foreign material behind the wiper rings
causing scratches on the cylinder rod.
Problem : Spools do not return to neutral.
Probable Cause:
Probable Cause :
1. The springs are broken.
1. The wiper rings show wear and do not remove dirt
and foreign material.
2. The spool is bent.
3. The system or valve has foreign particles in it.
4. The control linkage is not in alignment.
Steering System
5. The fastening bolts of the valve have too much
torque.
Problem : Too much force needed to turn
steering wheel.
Problem : No motion or slow, then a too sudden
action of the hydraulic system.
Probable Cause :
1. Priority valve (if equipped) releases pressure oil at
a low setting
Probable Cause :
2. Pump oil pressure is low, worn pump.
1. The relief valve is not correctly set, or will not
move in base and/or is worn.
3. Steering gear covers are too tight.
2. There is air in the system.
4. Steering column not aligned with steering gear.
3. Dirt or foreign particles between relief valve control
poppet and its seat.
5. Priority valve spool is held in one position.
4. Valve body has a crack inside.
6. Steering gear without lubrication.
5. Spool not moved to a full stroke.
7. Low fluid level in the hydraulic supply tank.
Lift and Tilt Cylinders
Problem : Steering wheel does not return to
center position correctly.
Problem : Leakage around the cylinder rod.
Probable Cause :
Probable Cause :
1. Steering gear covers are too tight.
1. Cylinder head(bearing) seals are worn.
2. Steering column is not in correct alignment.
2. Cylinder rod is worn, scratched or bent.
3. Valve spool in the steering gear has a restriction.
Problem There is leakage of oil inside the
cylinder or loss of lift or tilt power.
4. Priority valve check valve permits lift and tilt
hydraulic oil to affect hydraulic circuit.
Probable Cause :
Problem : Oil leakage at the pump.
1. The piston seals are worn and let oil go through.
Probable Cause :
2. Cylinder has damage.
1. Loose hose connections.
Problem: The tilt cylinder rods show wear.
2. Bad shaft seal.
Probalble Cause :
1. The cylinder are not in correct alignment.
2. Oil is dirty.
Vehicle Systems
35
Testing & Adjusting
Problem: Low oil pressure.
Problem : The temperature of the oil is too hot.
Probable Cause :
Probable Cause :
1. Low oil level.
1. The viscosity of the oil is wrong.
2. Priority valve (if equipped) relief valve spring weak.
2. Air is mixed with the oil.
3. Relief valve(priority valve) will not move from the
open position.
3. The relief valve is set too high(priority valve).
4. There is a restriction in the return line circuit.
4. Oil leakage inside or outside of the system.
5. Bad pump.
Brake System
Problem : Pump makes noise when turning the
steering wheel and does not move smoothly.
Wet Disc Brake
Probable Cause :
Problem : Pedal resistance is not solid(spongy).
1. Air in the steering hydraulic circuit.
Probable Cause :
2. The pump has to much wear.
1. Leakage or low fluid level.
3. Loose connection of the oil line on the inlet side of
the pump.
2. Air in the brake hydraulic system.
3. Master cylinder is loose.
4. The viscosity of the oil is wrong.
Problem : Extra (excessive) pedal pressure
needed for braking action.
5. The oil level in the hydraulic tank is low.
Probable Cause :
Problem : Lift truck does not turn when steering
wheel is slowly turned.
1. Mechanical resistance on the brake pedal.
Probable Cause :
2. Restriction in the brake line.
1. The oil level of the tank is low.
3. Bad master cylinder.
2. There is air in the steering system.
4. Discs look like glass(glazed) or are worn.
3. The pump operation is not correct.
Problem : Pedal gradually goes to the floor.
4. Dirt in the steering system.
Probable Cause :
5. Steering gear operation is not correct.
1. Leakage or low fluid level.
6. Restriction in the steer axle linkage.
2. Bad master cylinder.
Vehicle Systems
36
Testing & Adjusting
Problem : Extra(excessive) pedal travel.
Parking Brakes
Probable Cause :
Problem : Brakes will not hold.
1. Pedal adjustment is not correct.
Probable Cause :
2. Leakage or low fluid level.
1. Parking brake assembly out of adjustment.
3. Air in the brake hydraulic system.
2. Parking brake control cable out of adjustment.
4. Bad master cylinder.
3. Worn brake discs.
5. Discs are worn.
Problem : Brakes will not apply.
Electric Motors
Probable Cause :
Before an analysis is made of any electric motor
problem, always make reference to the
troubleshooting section of MicroController Control
System module.
1. Leakage or low fluid level.
2. Air in the brake hydraulic system.
3. Linkage is not in correct adjustment or is bent.
WARNING
4. Discs look like glass (glazed) or worn.
If an electrical failure or an overload of the motor
is present, personnel must not breathe the toxic
fumes which are a product of the burnt insulation.
All power must be disconnected from the motor
before any inspection is made to find the failure.
The area around the motor must be well
ventilated(air flow) and the motor is to be cooled
before any repair work is done. Water must not be
used on any electrical equipment because of the
danger of electrical shock. If a fire is present,
disconnect the electrical power and use a carbon
dioxide extinguisher to put the flame out.
5. Oil or brake fluid is on the lining.
6. Bad master cylinder.
Problem : Not braking evenly or rough feeling
during braking (chatter).
Probable Cause :
1. Discs look like glass (glazed) or worn.
2. Oil or brake fluid is on the lining.
Do not operate the drive motor without a load as
too much speed may cause damage to the motor
and injury to personnel.
3. Bad contact between the steel discs and friction
discs.
4. Brake discs uneven (out of flat).
5. Loose pressure plate bearing.
NOTICE
Never use air pressure that is more than 30 psi(205
kPa) and make sure the air line is equipped with a
water filter.
6. Bad disc and friction disc assembly.
Vehicle Systems
37
Testing & Adjusting
5. Check for short or open circuit in the armature or
between armature and field.
Loose field winding pole pieces.
Check poles for damaged insulation, repair or
replace damaged insulators.
Failed armature bar insulation or armature bar
connector open. Repair or rebuild the insulation,
replace the armature.
Problem 1 : Hydraulic pump motor will not
operate.
Probable Cause :
1. Bad connections or fuses.
Check battery connections.
Check the key fuse and power steering fuse.
Check the hydraulic pump motor for possible
reasons for a bad fuse.
Some causes are:
a) Operation with too high hydraulic pressures.
b) Operation with too much current draw.
c) Possible short circuit in motor.
NOTE : If armature open circuits cause commutator
bar pitting or burnt areas, armature will need
replacement. Heat from the arcing causes the
hardened copper commutator bars to be annealed
(soft). Just machining (turned to a lesser diameter) of
the commutator will not correct the problem from
occurring again. The armature must be replaced.
2. Key switch, seat switch or line contactor not
closed.
Close the seat and key switch. Use a
multimeter(VOM) to check power flow thru the
seat switch, key switch, line contactor coil and
line contactor. The key switch, seat switch and
line contacor must be closed for the power
steering function to operate.
The key switch, seat switch, control valve switch
and the line contactor must be closed for the
hydraulic pump motor to operate.
Opens in the armature bar connections must be
found and soldered(repaired).
6. Lift and drive system operation not correct.
See troubleshooting section of the Micro
Controller Control System module.
Problem 2 : Battery will not last a complete
normal work period.
Probable cause :
3. Not enough voltage. High resistance in battery
cells or cables.
Charge the battery or replace the battery.
Check all the cells for one or more that has
defects.
Check the specific gravity of each cell. The
maximum density difference from the highest to
lowest cell must not be more than .020 SG
(specific gravity).
Check cable terminals for tight fit at battery
terminal and control panel connectors.
Check for broken inner wires in cables.
1. Too small a battery installed in the lift truck.
Study and question the use of the lift truck in its
complete working conditions, select and
purchase appropriate capacity of battery
regarding work hours.
2. Battery not being fully charged or equalized during
the battery charging operation.
Check the battery cells for an equalization
charge (a charge to make the specific gravity the
same in all cells).
Check the battery charger for defects.
4. Brushes are worn.
Disconnect the battery and discharge the
commutating capacitor(HEAD CAP). Inspect the
pump motor commutator for burnt marks or
scoring (scratches).
Make corrections or repair the armature
commutator, replace the brushes as necessary.
See Armature Commutator Inspection and Brush
Inspection in Testing And Adjusting.
Make reference to Problem : Pump Motor
Overheat (Too Much Heat).
Check for open circuits in the field coil.
Test coils according to procedures in Testing And
Adjusting. If there are open circuits, replace the
coils.
Vehicle Systems
3. Battery Discharge Indicator (BDI) lift interrupter
circuit which protects the battery, shuts off the
hydraulic motor circuit too soon.
See Battery Discharge Indicator Operation
Adjustment and Troubleshooting in the
MicroController Control System module.
4. Battery charge interval is too long or charged
battery cooling time is too short. This causes
excessive (too much) cell temperatures which
decreases the capacity of the battery to supply the
rated amp hours.
Decrease the battery work duration before a
change.
Increase the battery cooling time after a charge
before it is put to use.
38
Testing & Adjusting
If the motor has EE covers and the duty cycle is
heavy and within the lift truck capacity, remove
the covers if permitted.
5. Battery has one or more defective cells which can
result in less than the rated capacity and ability of
the battery.
Test and locate the defective cells. Replace the
defective cell (s).
Battery cells are connected in series, one bad
cell causes a high resistance in series with the
other cells. This slows down the speed of the
motor as the cell resistance increases. This can
occur with the other cell almost fully charged.
4. Commutator bars burnt in two or more positions at
180° apart because :
Armature bars open, replace armature, Short
circuit in the armature, see Armature Tests.
Armature not in balance which causes brush
bounce, see Specifications.
Motor was stalled against a heavy load and
caused the two bars in contact with the brushes
to burn, see Armature Commutator Inspection.
6. Hydraulic system draws too much battery power
because of lifting and tilting arrangements or
hydraulic controls are not correct for the duty
cycle.
Decrease hydraulic relief valve setting to the
capacity needed for the application.
Change to a smaller hydraulic pump (if
available). Check the mast for restriction during
operation.
Remove quick disconnects and install fittings with
lesser resistance to oil flow.
Check for defective hydraulic control valve, the
pilot operated relief valve.
Remove any restrictions in the hydraulic circuit.
Make an inspection of the movable hydraulic
attachments for restrictions. Check for
components that slide, bearing wear, hinges
binding and the correct amount of lubrication on
necessary components.
5. Dirty motor that has metallic or carbon dust. This
dust is a conductor which causes electrical shorts,
increase current draw and decrease pump motor
output.
Remove any dirt with air pressure.
6. Brushes too tight in brush holder. Brush springs
not strong enough to force one or more brushes in
contact with commutator.
a. At installation, pull upon brush leads to make sure
they return to contact with commutator correctly.
See Brush Installation in Testing And Adjusting.
b. If brushes are too tight remove the brush
material with sandpaper until brush movement
in brush box is free.
7. Loose movement of the brushes.
Check the brush springs for cracks and
overheating signs (bluing).
Compare spring force with a new brush spring.
Check the brush holder for oversize (too large for
brush size).
Replace the brush spring if necessary.
Problem 3 : Sparks at the commutator and/or
rapid brush wear.
Probable Cause :
1. Worn brushes.
8. Loose brush leads or motor bus bar connections.
Check the brushes for tight connections. Replace
if leads are loose in brush material.
Check all cables and wire connections for
tightness.
Replace the brushes and make sure the brushes
are seated. See New Brush installation and
Brush Inspection in Testing And Adjusting.
2. Loose cable connections at the motors terminals
cause a high resistance in the circuit. The
resistance increases amperage
draw(consumption), as a result brushes
deteriorate(destroy), there is arcing on the
commutator, insulation on wires burns and causes
a short circuit to lift truck frame.
Tighten the nuts or bolts that hold the cable
connections on the motor terminals.
9. Wrong grade of brushes installed that are not
adaptable to the motor.
Make sure all the brushes are of DAEWOO
standards. Do not use other brand brushes.
10. Replacement brushes are not seated, the current
goes through a small contact area with the
commutator. As a result the brush temperature
increases. Possibly if the contact area is poor the
brushes will be destroyed in a few service meter
hours.
Always seat new brushes when installed, see
New Brush Installation, in Testing And Adjusting.
3. Overheating(too much heat) of the pump motor.
Check for an overload or a motor with defects.
See Armature Commutator Inspection in Testing
And Adjusting.
The duty cycle is too heavy, use the hydraulics
only to the limited capacity of the lift truck.
Vehicle Systems
39
Testing & Adjusting
4. Wet pump motor.
Dry the motor with heat to 190 ¢µ(90 °…).
11. Pump motor armature or field windings have a
defect that results in high current draw at low
torque output.
See Armature Tests and Field Coil and
Terminal Tests in Testing And Adjusting.
Problem 5 : Commutator surface is grooved or
extra wear.
Probable Cause :
12. Possible heavy working conditions that cause too
much motor heat and rapid brush wear.
Commutator skin is very black which gives an
indication of high temperatures.
Make a replacement of the brushes and make
sure the brushes are seated. See New Brush
Installation and Brush Inspection in Testing And
Adjusting.
Install extra heavy duty brushes when
available. Check the brush springs for the
correct installation and for the correct spring
usage. Too strong a spring force will increase
amperage draw and brush wear rate.
Prevent operation in an overload condition
caused by excessive duty cycle which
increases motor temperature and gives rapid
brush wear.
1. Brushes are worn too low, brush wires caused
arcing on commutator.
Inspect the commutator for damage. If the arcing
caused light pitting on commutator, install new
brushes and seat the brushes with the Brush
Seater Stone which will also clean the
commutator surface.
Make another inspection, if there is still pitting,
commutator surface must be machined only to
the minimum diameter as shown is in
Specifications.
2. Dirty motor, and possibly salt water got inside.
Disassemble motor, remove the debris with air
pressure. If necessary, dry the motor with heat to
190°C (90°F).
13. Restriction caused by system components.
Operate the hydraulic and steering system with
an ammeter and a pressure gauge installed. If
amperage draw and oil pressure are too high,
see Testing And Adjusting and Specifications
for the acceptable amperage draws and oil
pressure, the system must be inspected for
both mechanical and hydraulic restrictions.
3. Grade of brushes mixed.
Make sure all of the brushes are DAEWOO
standards. Do not use other brands of brushes.
4. Overload on brushes.
Check the brush springs for the correct
installation and make sure the lift truck is
operating at a rated capacity.
Problem 4 : Low resistance to ground [ battery
potential either positive (+) or negative (-) or a
medium voltage is in direct contact with truck
frame (body) or drive motor body].
Problem: Lift truck has slow hydraulic speeds.
Probable Cause :
1. Hydraulic pump motor overheated and pump
motor thermal switch opens.
Allow the motor to cool so the thermal swithch
will close. See Specifications for thermal switch
opening and closing temperatures.
Probable Cause :
1. Dirty battery, electrolyte on top of cells and is in
contact with the frame. Current flows through
battery box which places a voltage on the truck
frame.
Clean off the battery with baking soda and water
solution.
2. Pump motor control circuit overheated and thermal
switch opens.
Allow the control panel to cool so the Controller
thermal switch will close. The thermal switch
Opens at 85 L 4°C (185 L 7°F) and close at
73 L 4°C (163 L 7°F) for this model.
2. Battery or control panel wire connections in
contact to truck frame.
Make a continuity test to move the wire from
contact. Remove wires in sequence until the fault
is cleared. The fault will be in the wire last
disconnected.
3. Dirty motor.
Remove the metallic or carbon dust with air
pressure.
Vehicle Systems
40
Testing & Adjusting
Hydraulic System
2
Relief Valve Pressure Check
Use the Pressure Gauge Group to check the relief
valve pressure.
WARNING
Hydraulic oil, under pressure can remain in the
hydraulic system after the engine and pump have
been stopped. Personal injury can be caused if
this pressure is not released before any work is
done on the hydraulic system. To prevent possible
injury, lower the carriage to the ground, key
switchoff and move control levers to make sure all
hydraulic pressure is released before any fitting,
plug, hose or component is loosened, tightened,
removed or adjusted.
Always move the lift truck to a clean and level
location away from the travel of other machines.
Be sure that other personnel are not near the
machine when engine is running and tests or
adjustments are made.
3
4
5
IHCS105S
Relief Valve Adjustment
(2) Control valve. (3) Screw. (4) Jam nut. (5) Acorn nut.
1. With the key switch off, remove plug(1) from
priority valve (6) and install a pressure gauge.
2. Turn the key switch ON and tilt the mast back to
the end of its travel.
3. With the motor at fast rpm, hold the tilt control
lever in the TILT BACK position and watch the
gauge. This indication of the gauge is the pressure
of the oil that opens the relief valve. For the
correct pressure setting, see the topic Control
Valve in SPECIFICATIONS.
4. If an adjustment to the relief valve setting is
necessary, do the steps that follow:
a. Turn the key switch OFF.
b. Remove acorn nut (5) and loosen jam nut(4).
c. Turn Screw (3) either clockwise for an increase
or counterclockwise for a decrease.
d. Hold screw (3) and tighten jam nut (4). Install
acorn nut (5).
6
1
IHCS113P
Control Valve Pressure Check
(1) Plug (6) Priority Valve.
Vehicle Systems
5. Check the relief valve pressure setting again.
41
Testing & Adjusting
Lift Cylinders Air Removal
After the lift cylinder has been disassembled and
then assembled again, it may be necessary to
remove the air (bleed) from the cylinder.
24
1. With no load, lift and lower the mast and carriage
through one complete cycle.
2. With the forks on the floor, check the oil level in
the hydraulic tank. Add oil (if necessary)to bring
the oil level to the full mark.
EHCS009C
Lift Cylinder Air Removal (FFTL - Secondary Cylinders)
(24) Bleed Screw.
3. With no load, left and lower the mast and carriage
again through four complete cycles.
5. Open bleed screws (23 and 24) no more than one
turn. The weight of the carriage will force air and
hydraulic oil out of the cylinders through the bleed
screws. Close the bleed screws before all the
pressure is out of the cylinders. This will prevent
air from entering back through the bleed screws.
WARNING
The oil will have high pressure present. To prevent
personal injury, do not remove the bleed screws
completely . Keep hands and feet away from any
parts of the truck that move, because the forks will
lower when the bleed screw is loose.
6. Repeat Steps 4 and 5 until there is no air bubbles
at the bleed screws.
7. After all the air is removed, tighten the bleed screws.
8. Fill the hydraulic tank to the full mark.
4. Lift the forks high enough to put a load on all
stages of the lift cylinders. (The illustrations shown
are of a full free triple lift mast.).
9. Lift and lower the mast and carriage again through
one complete cycle. If the mast does not operate
smoothly, repeat Step 3 through 9.
23
EHCS008C
Lift Cylinder Air Removal (FFTL - Primary Cylinder)
(23) Bleed Screw.
Vehicle Systems
42
Testing & Adjusting
Steering System
Steering System Air Removal
Steer Wheel Bearing Adjustment
1. Fill the hydraulic tank nearly full. Be ready to add
oil when the pump motor is started.
Do not let the oil level go below the outlet to the
pump.
2
NOTICE
To prevent damage to the steering pump, keep the oil
level in the hydraulic tank above the outlet to the
pump.
1
2. Close the seat switch and turn the key switch on.
Add oil immediately to the tank as needed.
EHCS033C
3. Lift a capacity load to take the weight off of the
steer axle. Turn the steering wheel as rapidly as
possible to remove the air in the steer axle and
lines.
Bearing Adjustment
(1) Nut. (2) Lock washer.
Single wheel
4. Add oil immediately when the valve spool of the
steering gear is activated to replace oil that flows
through the circuit.
1. Tighten nut (1) slowly to 100 N•m (74 lb•ft) while
the wheel is rotated in both directions to put the
bearings into position.
2. Loosen nut (1) completely. Tighten nut (1) again to
40 L 3 N•m (30 L 2 lb•ft).
NOTICE
Do not hold the steer wheel against its stops for an
extended period of time. This will cause the oil to get
hot and damage the components.
3. Bend lock (2) over nut (1) to hold the nut in
positon.
Dual wheel
5. Turn the steer wheel until it has reached the stop
in one direction, then quickly turn the steering
wheel in the opposite direction to the opposite
stop.
1. Tighten nut (1) slowly to 133 N•m (98 lb•ft) while
the wheel is rotated in both directions to put the
bearing into position.
6. This procedure must go on approximately 15 to 20
times, to remove the air from the system. Add oil
as required.
2. Loosen nut (1) completely. Tighten nut (1) again to
45 ~ 55 (33 ~ 41 lb•ft).
3. Bend lock (2) over nut (1) to hold the nut in
position.
NOTE : The oil in the lines to the steer axle stops at
the piston assemblies of the rack. The oil in the steer
axle does not flow in a circuit. As the piston moves
backward and forward, the oil moves backward and
forward in the lines. Air in these lines, and in the
steer axle may move slowly into the steering gear
and then to the tank.
EHCS034C
Bearing Adjustment
Vehicle Systems
43
Testing and Adjusting
3. Turn the key switch to the ON position and
activate the hydraulic controls until the oil is at a
temperature for normal operation.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury, do not operate vehicle
until air is removed. The steering will not operate
correctly until the air is removed.
4. Turn the steer wheels to the left or right against
the stops and make a note of the indication on the
pressure gauge.
5. The indication on the pressure gauge must be the
priority valve relief setting. The priority relief setting
should be from 8000 to 8500 kPa(1161 to 1234
psi). If the indication is correct and a problem
exists, then there is possibly a mechanical failure
in the steering system.
7. When the oil in the tank is clear(not cloudy), the
system is free of air.
8. Fill the tank to the recommended level.
Steering System Pressure Check
6. If the indication is not correct, then there is
steering hydraulic failure in the components. Do
these procedures to find the failure as follws.
a. With the motor running and read the indication on
pressure gauge.
b. If the indication is approximately the pressure
shown in Step 5, then the steering gear has a
hydraulic failure.
1
c. If the indication is too low or too high, then the
priority valve on its components must be replaced.
IHCS114P
7. If the steering gear and the priority valve are
working properly, the steering cylinder is defective
and must be repaired.
Hydraulic Steering Gear
(1) "P" port of steering unit.
8. Correct the problem and check steering relief
valve pressure again.
If the steering system does not work correctly, check
the hydraulic tank for the correct oil level and the
hoses and connections for leakage. If all these items
are correct, use the pressure gauge to check the
steering hydraulic system and its relief pressure
setting.
WARNING
Hydraulic pressure can cause personal injury.
Before any steering system hydraulic lines or
components are disconnected, make sure all
hydraulic pressure is released in the steering
system. Move the steer wheels to the left and right
and then to the straight forward direction.
1. Turn the motor off. Disconnect off.
2. Connect the 28000 kPa (4000 psi) gauge to the
port(1) after removing plug.
Vehicle Systems
44
Testing and Adjusting
Brake System
2
Brake System Air Removal
When the brake pedal resistance is spongy(not solid)
it is usually an indication that there is air in the brake
hydraulic system. The cause may be low fluid or oil
level, leakage in the system, a broken brake line or a
brake line that is not connected.
IHCS116P
To remove air from the brake system. do the
procedure that follows :
Bleed Screw Location
(2) Bleed screw.
2. Put pressure on the brake pedal and open bleed
screw (2) to let air out of the system. Close bleed
screw (2), while pressure is still on the brake
pedal, then let the pedal return to the original
position.
1
3. Do step 2 again as many times as necessary until
the brake fluid is free of air.
4. (If equipped) : Use the procedure in Steps 2 and 3
again, except this time use the other bleed screw
(not shown).
IHCS115P
Reservoir Location
(1) Reservoir.
5. Fill the reservoir again, with the correct fluid, to the
level explained in Step 1.
1. Fill reservoir (1) with the correct fluid to 12.7 mm
(.50 in) from the filler cap. See the Operation And
Maintenance Manual for the correct brake fluid.
Vehicle Systems
45
Testing and Adjusting
Pedal Adjustment
Parking Brake Test
The brake pedal must have enough free play to let
the master cylinder piston return to the release
positon and open the relief outlet.
1. Drive the lift truck with a rated load up a 15%
incline.
Hydraulic pressure in the brake lines goes back
through the relief opening and releases the brakes. If
there is no pedal free play, the pressure can not go
back through the relief opening, and the brakes will
tighten and not release.
WARNING
To prevent personal injury, the operator must be
ready to use the service brake if the parking brake
is not adjusted correctly and the lift truck starts to
move.
If there is too much free play, the brake pedal will be
low even with the correct brake adjustment.
2. Half way up the incline, stop the lift truck with the
service brakes. Apply the parking brake.
The master cylinder push rod must be adjusted so
the brake pedal has 3.0 to 8.0 mm(.118 L .315 in) of
free play from the pedals stop to the push rod
contact point with the master cylinder piston.
3. If the parking brake has the correct adjustment,
the lift truck will be held in this position.
If the pedal free play adjustment is not correct, do the
procedure that follows :
4. If the parking brake does not hold, do the steps in
Parking Brake Adjustment.
2
1
3
IHCS117P
Location of Master Cylinder
(1) Boot. (2) Rod. (3) Nut.
NOTE : On some trucks the rubber boot may have to
be moved to expose the adjustment nuts.
1. Loosen nut (3).
2. Adjust rod (2) until there is the correct amount of
free play.
3. Hold rod (2) and tighten nut (3).
Vehicle Systems
46
Testing and Adjusting
Parking Brake Control Group
Adjustment
Hydraulic Pump Motor
(36V)
(36V)
Motor Brushes
Brush Inspection
1. Measure the radial length of the brush.
2
1
ILCS021P
Brush Measurement
EHCS048B
2. Brush measurement :
(48V)
B
a. If the brush length is less than 18 mm (.7 in) on
the radial side, replace the brushes.
A
B
New Brush Installation
A
NOTE : Installation of new brushes is a two person
operation.
1. Disconnect the batteries.
1
VIEW A-A
2. Discharge the head capacitor.
3. Remove the brush covers.
Loosen the screw of the brush.
Pull out the old brushes from the brush holder
while lifting up the brush spring.
Each two brushes are involved in each sides.
Totally 8 brushes.
VIEW B-B
EHCS048B
Parking Brake Control Group
(1) Switch assembly. (2) Cam.
1. Put the parking brake in the OFF position.
2. Adjust the switch assembly (1) whichis depressed
by cam (2) when parking brake put in the ON
position.
Vehicle Systems
47
Testing and Adjusting
WARNING
Wear eye protection when seating, polishing or
cleaning the motor with air pressure. During the
seating and polishing procedure, keep fingers
away from components in rotation. For prevention
of injury to fingers, do not use a commutator
cleaner or brush seater stone that is shorter than
63.5 mm (2.50 in).
ILCS022P
Install Brushes
(1) Brushes.
NOTICE
Installation of the wrong brushes can cause early
motor failure. Always make sure the correct DAEWOO
brushes are installed.
4. Install new brushes(1). Make sure the brushes
move freely in the brush holders. Use a piece of
plain bond paper to remove brush material if there
is a restriction of brush movement.
ILCS024P
Brush Seating
(3) Brush seater stone.
8. Put ZLX-0036 Brush Seater Stone (3) on the
commutator and operate the motor at a slow
speed.
NOTICE
Do not let stone (3) stay in contact with the
commutator bar too long time. This causes more wear
than is necessary to the brushes and the commutator.
ILCS023P
9. Move stone (3) across the commutator at the back
edge of the brushes for a short time. This will take
the shiny finish off the commutator and seat the
new brushes.
Install Springs
(2) Spring.
5. Place carefully the brush spring (2) on the top of
brush and make sure they fasten into the brush
holder box.
10. Turn the key switch to the OFF position and
disconnect the batteries. Check the contact
surface of each brush. At least 85% of the brush
contact surface of each brush must show wear. If
necessary, do Steps 7 through 10 again until the
correct wear can be seen on the brush contact
surface.
6. Pull up the wire of each brush until the contact
end of the brush moves away from the
commutator. Release the wire to see if the brush
moves smoothly back into contact with the
commutator. If it is too difficult to pull out, or it does
not move smoothly in the brush holder box,
remove the spring and brush. Make an inspection
to find and correct the cause of the problem.
7. Connect the batteries to the battery connector.
Vehicle Systems
48
Testing and Adjusting
Ground Test
NOTICE
Never use air pressure that is more than 205 kPa (30
psi). Make sure the line is equipped with a water
filter.
11. After the brushes have the correct seat contact
surface, operate the motor at slow speed. Use
compressed (pressure) air to remove all dust and
abrasive grit.
ILCS026P
Armature Tests
Ground Test
Tools Needed
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
1
Growler Tester
1
Digital multimeter can be used to test for grounds.
Put the Function / Range Switch on the 2M
resistance (Ω) scale. When the test leads are put on
the commutator and the shaft, the meter must give
an resistance is more than 2 megohms.
Short Circuit Test
NOTICE
Never use air pressure that is more than 205 kPa (30
psi). Make sure the air line has a water filter.
If there is an indication of a ground in the above test,
remove any dirt or debris from the armature with
compressed (pressure) air.
Do the ground test again, If there is still an indication
of a ground, replace the armature.
ILCS025P
Open Circuit test
Short Circuit Test
(1) Glowler. (2) Armature. (3) Hacksaw Blade.
(4) Green Light. (5) Red Light.
The odor of burned insulation from the pump motor
while it is in operation is an indication of a short in
the armature.
1. Turn the growler (1) on.
2. Slowly turn the growler on the armature (2) while a
hacksaw blade (3) is held over the windings.
ILCS027P
3. If the windings are shorted, the green light (4) will
be on.
The red light (5) will be on if the windings do not
have a short.
Vehicle Systems
Open Circuit Test
1. Put the digital multimeter Function/Range Switch
on the 200 ohm resistance (Ω) scale.
49
Testing and Adjusting
2. Put one test lead on one commutator bar, Put the
other test lead on an adjacent (next to) bar and
there must be less than one ohm resistance.
This test can also be done with an instrument, such
as a Kelvin Double Bridge, that can make a
measurement of very low resistance. Do the test the
same as above and make a comparison of the
resistance measurements.
Two burned areas on opposite sides of the
commutator are indications of an open armature
winding. These burned areas can cause very rapid
brush wear.
EHCS050P
Commutator Inspection
Threads on the Commutator Surface
Surfaces of Commutators that need Replacement
Threads (grooves that look like threads) on the
commutator surface, will also cause fast brush wear.
EHCS049P
Marks on the Commutator Surface
EHCS051P
Marks on the commutator surface are an indication
that metal has moved from the commutator surface
to the carbon brushes. Marks will cause fast brush
wear.
Vehicle Systems
Grooves on the Commutator Surface
Grooves on the commutators surface are caused by
a cutting material in the brush or atmosphere.
50
Testing and Adjusting
Field Coil And Terminal Tests
Tools Needed
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
1
Open Circuit Test
EHCS052P
Copper Drag on the Commutator Surface
Copper drag is an extra amount of commutator
material at the back edge of the commutator bars.
ILCS028P
Open Circuit Test
1. Put the digital multimeter Function / Range Switch
on the 200 ohm resistance (Ω) scale.
2. Put one test lead to each outer field terminal (P1, P2).
3. The resistance must be less than one ohm. If the
resistance is too high, it is an indication of
corrosion on the terminals or an open field coil.
EHCS053P
Pitch Bar-Marks on the Commutator Surface.
Pitch bar-marks cause low or burnt marks on the
commutator surface.
ILCS029P
Brush Test
(1) Field terminal. (2) Brush leads. (A) Multimeter.
4. Put one test lead to one of outer field terminals (1).
Put the other test lead to each of brush leads (2)
that connect to the brush holders. There must be
continuity to two of the leads with a resistance of
less than 1 ohm.
5. Put one test lead to the other outer field terminal.
There must be continuity from this field terminal to
the other two brush holder leads.
Vehicle Systems
51
Testing and Adjusting
Ground Test
1. The brush holders are mounted on the rocker at
the commutator end of the motor. Make a visual
inspection of the brush holders and the rocker.
2. Put digital multimeter Function / Range Swich on
the 200 ohm resistance (Ω) scale. Put one test
lead to brush holder (1) and the other test lead to
the end bell (2). The meter must show
overload(OL).
3. Check each brush holder. If meter reading is low,
the brush holder is grounded. Replace the rocker.
ILCS030P
Ground Test
(1) Field terminal. (2) Motor housing.
Brush Life Estimate
1. Put the digital multimeter Function / Range Switch
on the 20M resistance (Ω) scale.
1. Before installation of new brushes, inspect the
armature commutator. See Armature commutator
Inspection in Testing and Adjusting.
2. Put one test lead to either outer field terminal (1)
and the other test lead to motor housing (2). There
must be more than one megohm resistance.
2. Do the steps and procedures for New Brush
Installation in Testing and Adjusting.
3. Make the initial (first) inspection of brush wear
between 250 smh and 500 smh. The reason for
this initial inspection is to see if the brush wear
rate is normal and not too fast. The measurement
will help make an estimate of the length of brush
life to be expected.
3. If there is measurement of less than one megohm,
it can be caused by wet insulation on the field
windings or excessive brush dust in housing. Heat
the motor at 88˚C (190˚F)until the resistance goes
above one megohm. If the resistance does not go
above one megohm, the shell and field assembly
must be replaced.
NOTE : If there is an indication that brush wear is too
fast, see Troubleshooting, Problem: Sparks at the
commutator and/or rapid brush wear.
Brush Holder Test
4. Inspect all brushes in the motors. Measure and
record each brush length.
Tools Needed
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
5. Estimate expected brush life (hours).
1
6. The smh estimate of brush life can be used if the
machine is to work at the same rate(duty cycle),
the battery is not discharged too much or the
battery cells have not become damaged. If the
machine is made to work harder, the battery is
discharged too much, or the battery cells become
damaged, the motor temperature will get hot very
fast. This will cause rapid wear of the brushes.
7. It is important to check brush length and brush
condition at a specific time, such as during the
preventive maintenance check. If an inspection
shows that brush life will not extend to the next
preventive maintenance check, install new
brushes.
ILCS031P
Brush Holder Test
(1) Brush Holder. (2) End Bell.
Vehicle Systems
52
Testing and Adjusting
(48V)
Motor Brushes
Brush Inspection
1
1. Measure the radial length of the brush.
EHCS040C
Install Brushes
(1) Brushes.
NOTICE
Installation of the wrong brushes can cause early
motor failure. Always make sure the correct DAEWOO
brushes are installed.
EHCS039C
Brush Measurement
2. Brush measurement :
4. Install new brushes(1). Make sure the brushes
move freely in the brush holders. Use a piece of
plain bond paper to remove brush material if there
is a restriction of brush movement.
a. If the brush length is less than 18 mm (.7 in) on
the radial side, replace the brushes.
New Brush Installation
NOTE : Installation of new brushes is a two person
operation.
2
1. Disconnect the batteries and remove them from
the lift truck. Put the batteries close enough to the
truck that the battery connector can be plugged in.
2. Discharge the head capacitor.
EHCS041C
3. Remove the brush covers.
Loosen the two screws of the brush and BWI
Wires.
Pull out the old brushes from the brush holder
while lifting up the brush spring.
Install Springs
(2) Spring.
5. Place carefully the brush spring (2) on the top of
brush and make sure they fasten into the brush
holder box.
6. Pull up on the two wires of each brush until the
contact end of the brush moves away from the
commutator. Release the wires to see if the brush
moves smoothly back into contact with the
commutator. If it is too difficult to pull out, or it does
not move smoothly in the brush holder box,
remove the spring and brush. Make an inspection
to find and correct the cause of the problem.
Vehicle Systems
53
Testing and Adjusting
7. Connect the batteries to the battery connector.
NOTICE
Never use air pressure that is more than 205 kPa (30
psi). Make sure the line is equipped with a water filter.
WARNING
Wear eye protection when seating, polishing or
cleaning the motor with air pressure. During the
seating and polishing procedure, keep fingers
away from components in rotation. For prevention
of injury to fingers, do not use a commutator
cleaner or brush seater stone that is shorter than
63.5 mm (2.50 in).
11. After the brushes have the correct seat contact
surface, operate the motor at slow speed. Use
compressed (pressure) air to remove all dust and
abrasive grit.
Armature Tests
Tools Needed
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
1
Growler Tester
1
3
Short Circuit Test
1
4
5
EHCS042C
Brush Seating
(3) Brush seater stone.
8. Put ZLX-0036 Brush Seater Stone (3) on the
commutator and operate the motor at a slow
speed.
3
EHCS043C
Short Circuit Test
(1) Glowler. (2) Armature. (3) Hacksaw blade.
(4) Green light. (5) Red light.
NOTICE
Do not let stone (3) stay in contact with the
commutator bar too long time. This causes more wear
than is necessary to the brushes and the commutator.
The odor of burned insulation from the pump motor
while it is in operation is an indication of a short in
the armature.
9. Move stone (3) across the commutator at the back
edge of the brushes for a short time. This will take
the shiny finish off the commutator and seat the
new brushes.
1. Turn the growler (1) on.
2. Slowly turn the growler on the armature (2) while a
hacksaw blade (3) is held over the windings.
10. Turn the key switch to the OFF position and
disconnect the batteries. Check the contact
surface of each brush. At least 85% of the brush
contact surface of each brush must show wear. If
necessary, do Steps 8 through 11 again until the
correct wear can be seen on the brush contact
surface.
Vehicle Systems
2
3. If the windings are shorted, the green light (4) will
be on.
The red light (5) will be on if the windings do not
have a short.
54
Testing and Adjusting
Ground Test
1. Put the digital multimeter Function/Range Switch
on the 200 ohm resistance (Ω) scale.
2. Put one test lead on one commutator bar, Put the
other test lead on an adjacent (next to) bar and
there must be less than one ohm resistance.
A
This test can also be done with an instrument, such
as a Kelvin Double Bridge, that can make a
measurement of very low resistance. Do the test the
same as above and make a comparison of the
resistance measurements.
Two burned areas on opposite sides of the
commutator are indications of an open armature
winding. These burned areas can cause very rapid
brush wear.
EHCS044C
Ground Test
(A) Multimeter.
Commutator Inspection
Surfaces of Commutators that need Replacement
Digital multimeter (A) can be used to test for
grounds. Put the Function / Range Switch on the 2M
resistance (Ω) scale. When the test leads are put on
the commutator and the shaft, the meter must give
an resistance is more than 2 megohms.
NOTICE
Never use air pressure that is more than 205 kPa
(30psi). Make sure the air line has a water filter.
If there is an indication of a ground in the above test,
remove any dirt or debris from the armature with
compressed (pressure) air.
EHCS049B
Do the ground test again, If there is still an indication
of a ground, replace the armature.
Marks on the Commutator Surface
Marks on the commutator surface are an indication
that metal has moved from the commutator surface
to the carbon brushes. Marks will cause fast brush
wear.
Open Circuit test
1
EHCS045C
Open Circuit Test
(1) Armature.
Vehicle Systems
55
Testing and Adjusting
EHCS050B
EHCS052B
Threads on the Commutator Surface
Copper Drag on the Commutator Surface
Threads (grooves that look like threads) on the
commutator surface, will also cause fast brush wear.
Copper drag is an extra amount of commutator
material at the back edge of the commutator bars.
EHCS053B
EHCS051B
Pitch Bar-Marks on the Commutator Surface.
Grooves on the Commutator Surface
Pitch bar-marks cause low or burnt marks on the
commutator surface.
Grooves on the commutators surface are caused by
a cutting material in the brush or atmosphere.
Vehicle Systems
56
Testing and Adjusting
Ground Test
Field Coil And Terminal Tests
Tools Needed
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
1
2
1
Open Circuit Test
EHCS048C
Ground Test
(1) Field terminal. (2) Motor housing.
1. Put the digital multimeter Function / Range Switch
on the 20M resistance (Ω) scale.
EHCS046C
Open Circuit Test
2. Put one test lead to either outer field terminal (1)
and the other test lead to motor housing (2). There
must be more than one megohm resistance.
1. Put the digital multimeter Function / Range Switch
on the 200 ohm resistance (Ω) scale.
3. If there is measurement of less than one megohm,
it can be caused by wet insulation on the field
windings or excessive brush dust in housing. Heat
the motor at 88 °C(190 °F)until the resistance
goes above one megohm. If the resistance does
not go above one megohm, the shell and field
assembly must be replaced.
2. Put one test lead to each outer field terminal (P1,
P2).
3. The resistance must be less than one ohm. If the
resistance is too high, it is an indication of
corrosion on the terminals or an open field coil.
1
2
Brush Holder Test
Tools Needed
A
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
1
1
A
EHCS047C
Brush Test
(1) Field terminal. (2) Brush leads. (A) Multimeter.
4. Put one test lead to one of outer field terminals (1).
Put the other test lead to each of brush leads (2)
that connect to the brush holders. There must be
continuity to two of the leads with a resistance of
less than 1 ohm.
2
EHCS049C
Brush Holder Test
(1) Brush holder. (2) End bell. (A) Multimeter.
5. Put one test lead to the other outer field terminal.
There must be continuity from this field terminal to
the other two brush holder leads.
Vehicle Systems
57
Testing and Adjusting
Ground Test
1. The brush holders are mounted in the cover at the
commutator end of the motor. Make a visual
inspection of the brush holders and the cover.
2. Put digital multimeter (A) Function / Range Swich
on the 200 ohm resistance (Ω) scale. Put one test
lead to brush holder (1) and the other test lead to
the end bell (2). The meter must show
overload(OL).
3. Check each brush holder. If meter reading is low,
the brush holder is grounded. Replace the cover.
EHCS051C
Thermal Switch(Thermostat) Tests
Ground Test
Tools Needed
Digital Multimeter Or Equivalent
1. Put the digital multimeter Function / Range Switch
on the 20M resistance (Ω) scale.
1
2. Put one test lead to either of the plug prongs. The
other test lead must be grounded to the motor
housing. There must be more than one megohm
resistance.
Open Circuit Test
Brush Life Estimate
1. Before installation of new brushes, inspect the
armature commutator. See Armature commutator
Inspection in Testing and Adjusting.
2. Do the steps and procedures for New Brush
Installation in Testing and Adjusting.
EHCS050C
Open Circuit Test
3. Make the initial (first) inspection of brush wear
between 250 smh and 500 smh. The reason for
this initial inspection is to see if the brush wear
rate is normal and not too fast. The measurement
will help make an estimate of the length of brush
life to be expected.
1. Put the digital multimeter Function / Range Switch
on the 200 ohm resistance (Ω) scale.
2. Put one test lead to each side of the thermal
switch harness.
NOTE : If there is an indication that brush wear is too
fast, see Troubleshooting, Problem: Sparks at the
commutator and/or rapid brush wear.
3. The resistance must be less than one ohm.
4. Inspect all brushes in the motors. Measure and
record each brush length. See Hydraulic Pump or
Steering Pump Motor in Specifications for new and
minimum brush length.
Vehicle Systems
58
Testing and Adjusting
5. Estimate expected brush life (hours). Use the
shortest measurement from Step 4 and the
following Sample Procedure :
Length of new brush ................ 35mm (1.387 in)
Minimum length of brush ............18mm (.708 in)
New brush length [35mm (1.387 in)] - Minimum
Brush length [18mm (.708 in)] = Total amount of
Usable brush wear [17mm (.67in)]
Length of shortest brush at 500 smh is 32.5
mm(1.279 in)
New brush length [35mm (1.378 in)] - Length of
shortest brush at 500 smh [32.5mm (1.279)
in)]=Amount of brush wear at 500 smh [2.5
mm(.10in)].
Amount of brush wear at 500 smh [2.5mm(.10 in)]
Total amount of usable brush wear [17mm (.67
in)]=Portion of brush used at 500 smh (.1).
Service Meter Hours (smh) at brush wear
measurement (500 smh) - Portion of brush used
(.1)=Approximate total brush life of a new brush
(5000 smh).
Approximate total brush life of a new brush
(5000smh) - Amount of smh at brush life estimate
(500smh)=Remainder of usable brush life(4500
smh).
6. The smh estimate of brush life can be used if the
machine is to work at the same rate(duty cycle),
the battery is not discharged too much or the
battery cells have not become damaged. If the
machine is made to work harder, the battery is
discharged too much, or the battery cells become
damaged, the motor temperature will get hot very
fast. This will cause rapid wear of the brushes.
7. It is important to check brush length and brush
condition at a specific time, such as during the
preventive maintenance check. If an inspection
shows that brush life will not extend to the next
preventive maintenance check, install new
brushes.
Vehicle Systems
59
Testing and Adjusting
SB4114E00
Sep. 2003
Disassembly &
Assembly
Lift Trucks Vehicle Systems
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
EMOD4-00001~UP
EMOD5-00001~UP
EMOD6-00001~UP
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
EMOFB-00001~UP
EMOFC-00001~UP
EMOFD-00001~UP
EMOD7-00001~UP
Important Safety Information
Most accidents involving product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety
rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an
accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary training,
skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Improper operation, Iubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could result
in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any Iubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read and
understood the operation, Iubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Safety precautions and warnings are provided in this manual and on the product. If these hazard warnings are not
heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or other persons.
The hazards are identified by the "Safety Alert Symbol" and followed by a "Signal Word" such as "WARNING" as
shown below.
WARNING
The meaning of this safety alert symbol is as follows :
Attention! Become Alert! Your Safety is Involved.
The Message that appears under the warning, explaining the hazard, can be either written or pictorially presented.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in this publication.
DAEWOO cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in this
publication and on the product are therefore not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating
technique not specifically recommended by DAEWOO is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you and
others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or made unsafe by the operation, Iubrication,
maintenance or repair procedures you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information available at the
time it was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other
items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service given to the product.
Obtain the complete and most current information before starting any job. DAEWOO dealers have the most current
information available.
Vehicle Systems
1
Disassembly And Assembly
Index
Accelerator Control Switch.......................................17
Brake Master Cylinder..............................................41
Control Panel ...........................................................52
Counterweight ..........................................................62
Drive Motor & Drive Axle..........................................54
Hood(with seat) Assembly..........................................5
Hydraulic Control Panel ...........................................51
Hydraulic Control Valve..............................................7
Hydraulic Pump........................................................14
Hydraulic Pump Motor..............................................13
Overhead Guard ....................................................... 6
Primary Lift Cylinder.................................................23
Priority Valve ............................................................40
Secondary Lift Cylinder ............................................18
Spindle – Steer Axle.................................................48
Steer Axle.................................................................43
Steer Sensor Group .................................................30
Steering Column ......................................................32
Steering Gear...........................................................35
Steering Wheel.........................................................31
Tilt Cylinder ..............................................................26
WARNING
Disconnect batteries before performance of any
service work.
Vehicle Systems
3
Index
Hood(with seat) Assembly
Remove & Install Hood(with seat)
Assembly
3
1
EHCD003C
4. Remove two bolts (3) and washers.
EHCD001C
1. Raise the hood. Support the hood with a hoist.
4
2. Disconnect harness connector (1) for seat brake.
EHCD004C
2
5. Use the hoist to remove hood and seat assembly
(4).
6. Install the hood and seat assembly in the reverse
order of removal.
EHCD002C
WARNING
The hood and seat assembly can fall when nut (2)
is removed from the support cylinder rod.
To avoid personal injury, support the seat and
hood assembly before removing nut (2).
3. Remove nut (2) from the support cylinder.
Remove the cylinder rod from the bracket.
Vehicle Systems
5
Disassembly And Assembly
Overhead Guard
4
Remove & Install Overhead
Guard
3
IHCD101P
3. Remove caps (3), nuts, bolts (4) and washers from
the front leg (each side).
1
EHCD005C
5
1. Disconnect harness connector (1) from inside of
the cowl.
2
IHCD102P
4. Remove bolts and washer (5) from the rear leg
(each side).
5. Remove overhead guard (2).
EHCD006C
6. Install overhead guard (2) in the reverse order of
removal.
2. Support overhead guard (2) with lifting straps and
a hoist as shown.
Vehicle Systems
6
Disassembly And Assembly
Hydraulic Control Valve
3
Remove & Install Hydraulic
Control Valves
WARNING
Hydraulic oil under pressure can remain in the
hydraulic system after the pump motor have been
stopped. Personal injury can result if the pressure
is not released before any work is done to the
hydraulic system. To prevent possible personal
injury, turn the key switch off and move the control
levers to make sure the hydraulic pressure is
released before any fitting, plug, hose or
component is loosened, tightened, removed or
adjusted. Always move the lift truck to a clean and
level location away from the travel of other
machines.
IHCD104P
3. Support control valve (1). Remove three bolts (3),
nuts and control valve (1).
4. Install the control valve (1) in the reverse order of
removal.
5. Fill the hydraulic tank to the correct level with fluid.
Refer to the Operation And Maintenance Manual
for further information.
End By :
a. Install the hydraulic control valve switch group.
Start By :
a. Remove hydraulic control valve switch group.
1. Drain the hydraulic tank.
3
1
IHCD103P
2
NOTE : For purposes of reassembly, put
identification marks on all lines, tubes and hoses
before any disconnections are made.
2. Disconnect lines (2) from control valve (1).
NOTE : Plug and cap all openings to avoid
contamination and debris from entering the system
after removing any tubes or lines.
Vehicle Systems
7
Disassembly And Assembly
Disassemble Hydraulic
Control Valve
Start By :
6
a. Remove hydraulic control valve.
IHCD107P
5. Remove lift section assembly (6) from the valve
body.
1
2
7
10
IHCD105P
8
6
NOTE : For purpose of assembly, put identification
marks on all valve sections.
1. Remove three nuts (1) to separate the valve
sections.
9
2. Remove inlet section assembly (2) from the valve
body.
IHCD108P
6. Remove plug (7) and O-ring (8) from the lift
section assembly (6).
4
5
3
2
7. Remove O-ring (9), poppet (10) and spring (11)
from lift section assembly (6).
IHCD106P
13
12
3. Remove O-ring (3) from inlet section assembly (2).
4. Remove relief valve (4) and O-ring (5).
IHCD109P
8. Remove two screws (12) and cap (13) from lift
section assembly.
Vehicle Systems
8
Disassembly And Assembly
17
16
18
26
IHCD110P
IHCD112P
13. Remove tilt section assembly (26) from the valve
body.
9. Remove two screws (16) and seal plate (17).
10. Remove lift spool (18).
28
26
24
19
23
29
20
25
IHCD111P
22
IHCD113P
21
27
14. Remove O-ring (27), poppet (28) and spring (29)
from tilt section assembly (26).
11. Remove the wiper seals (19) and O-rings (20)
from the spool. Check the condition of O-rings
and wiper seals and replace with new ones if
needed.
NOTE : Remove the spool end (21) from the spool.
The centering spring (22) has a slight preload and
will extend to its free length when the spool end is
removed.
30
31
12. Remove the spring seats (23 and 24), centering
spring (22) and seal plate (25).
IHCD114P
15. Remove two screws (30) and cap (31) from tilt
section assembly.
Vehicle Systems
9
Disassembly And Assembly
15
14
44
45
33
32
43
34
IHCD115P
IHCD118P
16. Remove two screws (32), seal plate (33) and tilt
spool (34).
20. Remove side shift section assembly (43) and
fourth section (44) from the valve body.
17. Remove valve (14) and O-ring (15).
NOTE : Do step 7 through 12 to disassemble valve
spools of side shift and fourth section assembly.
21. Remove section assembly (45).
35
46
47
45
37
36
38
IHCD116P
18. Remove the wiper seals (35) and O-rings (36).
Check the condition of wiper seals and O-rings
and replace with new ones if needed.
IHCD119P
22. Remove relief valve (46) and O-ring (47) from the
section assembly (45).
NOTE : Remove the spool end (37) from the spool.
The centering spring (38) has a slight preload and
will extend to its free length when the spool end is
removed.
39
38
40
37
42
41
IHCD117P
19. Remove spring seats (39 and 40), spring (38 and
42) and piston (41).
Vehicle Systems
10
Disassembly And Assembly
Assemble Hydraulic Control
Valve
24
19
23
NOTICE
Do not use caustic (corrosive) materials to clean any
parts in this valve group. Caustic materials will cause
corrosion and damage to parts.
20
25
IHCD111P
1. Make sure all valve parts are clean and free of dirt.
4
5
21
22
4. Install the spring seats (23 and 24), centering
spring (22) and seal plate (25) on the lift spool.
3
5. Compress the spring with spool end (21) and
tighten spool end. Torque the spool end to
8 ~ 11 N•m (70 ~ 97 lb•in).
2
6. Install the wiper seals (19) and O-ring (20) to the
spool (18).
IHCD106P
2. Install O-ring (3) to inlet section assembly (2).
16
17
18
3. Install relief valve (4) with O-ring (5) to inlet section
assembly (2). The torque for the relief valve is
44 ~ 49 N•m (32 ~ 36 lb•ft).
IHCD110P
7. Install the spool (18), seal plate (17) and the
screws (16).
Vehicle Systems
11
Disassembly And Assembly
46
45
47
13
12
IHCD109P
IHCD119P
13. Install O-ring (47) and relief valve (46) to the
section assembly (45).
8. Install cap (13) and two screws (12).
7
8
10
6
1
9
2
IHCD108P
IHCD105P
9. Install O-ring (9), poppet (10) and spring (11) to lift
section assembly (6).
14. Assemble all the sections on the studs.
15. Install the nuts (1) that hold the valve sections
together.
Tighten the single top nut to torque of 26 ~ 32
N•m (19 ~ 23 lb•ft) and two bottom nuts to
torque of 24 ~ 29 N•m (18 ~ 21 lb•ft).
10. Install O-ring (8) and plug (7) to the lift section
assembly.
39
38
40
37
End By :
a. Install hydraulic control valve.
42
41
IHCD117P
11. Install piston (41), spring (42), spring seats (39
and 40) and spring (38) on the tilt spool assembly.
12. Compress the spring with spool end (37).
Torque the spool end to 8 ~ 11 N•m (70 ~ 97 lb•in).
NOTE : Do step 6, 7, 8 and 9 to assemble the tilt
spool to the tilt section assembly.
NOTE : Do same steps to assemble the side shift
section and fourth section assembly.
Vehicle Systems
12
Disassembly And Assembly
Hydraulic Pump Motor
4
Remove & Install Hydraulic Pump
Motor
5
6
Start By :
a. Raise the hood.
7
b. Disconnect the battery.
EHCD047C
NOTE : For purpose of assembly, put identification
marks on the wires and cables for proper installation.
3. Loosen clamp (6) and remove hose (7).
8
5
1
EHCD045C
ILCD018P
1. Remove side panel (1) from lift truck.
4. Loosen two bolts (8) and pull the motor (5)
outward.
4
3
2
10
5
9
EHCD046C
EHCD048C
2. Disconnect two cables (2), harness connector (3)
and BWI Cable (4) from hydraulic pump motor (5).
5. Remove elbow (9) from the hydraulic pump (10).
NOTE : Plug and cap all openings to avoid
contamination and debris from entering the system
after removing any tubes or lines.
Vehicle Systems
13
Disassembly And Assembly
Hydraulic Pump
Disassemble Hydraulic Pump
Start By :
a. Remove hydraulic pump.
2
ILCD021P
6. Remove two bolts (11), washers, hydraulic motor
and pump assembly.
1
3
5
EHCD050C
NOTE : Identify and mark all sections of the hydraulic
pump for purposes of reassembly.
1. Remove four bolts (1) and washers (2) to remove
pump cover (3).
ILCD020P
7. Support pump motor (5) with straps and move out
motor and pump assembly.
4
8. Remove two bolts, washers, hydraulic pump from
hydraulic motor.
For the reassembly purpose, the torque for bolt is
55 L 10 N•m (40 L 7 lb•ft).
EHCD051C
9. Install the hydraulic pump motor and hydraulic
pump in reverse order of removal.
2. Remove O-ring seal (4) from the pump body.
End By :
a. Connect the battery.
5
b. Close the hood.
7
6
EHCD052C
3. Remove seal (5), back up-ring (6) and bushes (7)
from the pump gears.
Vehicle Systems
14
Disassembly And Assembly
Assemble Hydraulic Pump
13
8
14
EHCD053C
4. Remove two gears (8) from the pump body.
Separate the pump sections.
EHCD055C
NOTE : When installing seal (13), make sure the
lip of the seal is positioned toward the inside of the
pump housing.
1. Install seal (13) in the pump body.
12
10
12
9
EHCD054C
5. Remove O-ring (9), seal (10), back up-ring (11)
and bush (12) from the pump body.
Replace seals, back up-ring, O-ring with new ones
if needed.
10
9
EHCD054C
2. Install bush (12), back-up ring (11), seal (10) and
O-ring (9) in the pump body.
13
14
EHCD055C
6. Remove seal (13) from the flange (14).
Vehicle Systems
15
Disassembly And Assembly
2
8
1
3
EHCD053C
EHCD050C
7. Install the bolts (1), washers (2) and pump cover
(3) onto the pump body. Tighten the bolts for cover
(3) to a torque of 39 to 40 N•m (28 to 30 lb•ft).
3. Install two gears (8) in the pump body.
End By :
5
a. Install the hydraulic pump.
1
6
EHCD052C
4. Install back-up ring (6) and seal (5) in the bushes
(7).
5. Install bushes (7) in the pump body.
4
EHCD051C
6. Install seal (4) on the pump body.
Vehicle Systems
16
Disassembly And Assembly
Accelerator Control Switch
Remove And Install Accelerator
Control Switch
4
5
IOCD014P
1
4. Remove four bolts (4), washers and accelerator
assembly (5).
5. Install the accelerator assembly in the reverse
order of removal.
IOCD011P
1. Remove the floormat (1).
2
IOCD012P
2. Remove rear floor plate (2).
3
IOCD013P
3. Remove front floor plate (3).
Vehicle Systems
17
Disassembly And Assembly
Standard Lift Cylinder
3
Disassemble Standard Lift
Cylinder
Start By :
a. Remove standard lift cylinders.
EHCD101C
3. Remove rod (3) from the cylinder body.
1
4
EHCD099C
1. Put standard lift cylinder (1) in position as shown.
EHCD102C
4. Remove retaining ring (4) from the cylinder rod.
2
5
EHCD100C
2. Remove rod-cover assembly (2) with tool.
6
EHCD103C
5. Remove screw bleeders (5) and steel ball (6) from
the rod-cover.
Vehicle Systems
18
Disassembly And Assembly
Assemble Standard Lift
Cylinder
7
12
8
9
10
EHCD104C
6. Remove O-ring seal (7) and back up ring (8) from
the rod-cover.
EHCD105C
1. Install slide ring (12), back up ring (11) U-packing
(10) and wiper seal (9) on the inside of the rodcover
12
9
10
7
EHCD105C
8
7. Remove wiper seal (9), U-packing (10), back up
ring (11) and slide ring (12) from the rod-cover.
EHCD104C
2. Install back up ring (8) and O-ring seal (7) onto the
rod-cover.
5
6
EHCD103C
3. Install the steel ball (6) and screw-bleeder (5) onto
the rod cover.
Vehicle Systems
19
Disassembly And Assembly
Secondary Lift Cylinder
3
Disassemble Secondary Lift
Cylinder
Start By :
a. Remove secondary lift cylinders.
EHCD101C
4. Install rod (3) with a retaining ring into the cylinder
body.
1
2
EHCD099C
1. Put secondary lift cylinder (1) in position as shown.
EHCD100C
2
5. Install rod-cover assembly (2) on the cylinder rod
and tighten using tool.
End By :
a. Install standard lift cylinder.*
* Refer to the topic "Assemble Mast" in this module.
EHCD100C
2. Remove rod-cover assembly (2) with tool.
Vehicle Systems
20
Disassembly And Assembly
3
10
EHCD101C
EHCD104C
6. Remove O-ring seal (10) and back up ring (11)
from the rod-cover.
3. Remove rod (3) from the cylinder body.
5
4
15
12
13
14
6
7
EHCD105C
IOCD015I
7. Remove wiper seal (12), U-packing (13), back up
ring (14) and slide ring (15) from the rod-cover.
4. Remove wear rings (5), snap ring (7) and cushion
ring (6) from piston (4).
8
9
EHCD103C
5. Remove screw bleeders (8) and steel ball (9) from
the rod-cover.
Vehicle Systems
21
Disassembly And Assembly
Assemble Secondary Lift
Cylinder
5
4
15
12
13
6
14
7
IOCD015I
EHCD105C
4. Install cushion ring (6), snap ring (7) and wear
rings (5) onto the piston (4).
1. Install slide ring (15), back up ring (14) U-packing
(13) and wiper seal (12) on the inside of the rodcover
3
10
EHCD101C
5. Install rod (3) with a retaining ring into the cylinder
body.
EHCD104C
2. Install back up ring (11) and O-ring seal (10) onto
the rod-cover.
2
8
EHCD100C
9
6. Install rod-cover assembly (2) on the cylinder rod
and tighten using tool.
EHCD103C
End By :
3. Install the steel ball (9) and screw-bleeder (8) onto
the rod cover.
a. Install secondary lift cylinder.*
* Refer to the topic "Assemble Mast" in this module.
Vehicle Systems
22
Disassembly And Assembly
NOTE : The following steps are for the installation of
the primary lift cylinder.
Primary Lift Cylinder
Remove And Install Primary Lift
Cylinder
2
Start By :
1
a. remove carriage.
WARNING
Be sure all the pressure in the hydraulic system
has been released before any lines or hoses are
disconnected.
EHCD106C
5. Put primary lift cylinder (5) in position on the mast.
6. Connect hydraulic hose.
7. Install U-bracket (2) and bolts (1).
2
1
End By :
a. Install carriage.
Disassemble Primary Lift
Cylinder
EHCD106C
Start By :
1. Fasten nylon straps and a hoist to the primary lift
cylinder.
a. Remove primary lift cylinder.
2. Remove bolts (1) and U-bracket (2).
1
2
5
4
EHCD108C
1. Remove head assembly (1).
EHCD107C
2. Remove rod (2) from the cylinder body.
3. Pull the cylinder out enough to disconnect
hydraulic hose (4). Remove primary lift cylinder
(5).
Vehicle Systems
23
Disassembly And Assembly
Assemble Primary Lift Cylinder
3
6
7
8
EHCD109C
9
3. Remove rings (3) from the cylinder rod.
EHCD111C
4
1. Install back-up ring (7) and U-packing (8) in the
head assembly. Install the seal with the lip toward
the inside.
5
2. Install wiper seal (6). Install the seal with the lip
toward the outside.
3. Install slide rings (9) in the head assembly.
EHCD110C
4
4. Remove O-ring seal (4) and back-up ring (5) from
the head assembly.
5
6
7
EHCD110C
8
NOTE : Install the back-up ring with the curved
side contacting the O-ring seal.
9
4. Install the back-up ring (5) and O-ring seal (4) on
the head assembly.
EHCD111C
5. Remove wiper seal (6), back-up ring (7),
U-packing (8) and slide rings (9) from the head
assembly.
Vehicle Systems
24
Disassembly And Assembly
3
EHCD109C
5. Install split rings (3) on the cylinder.
1
2
EHCD108C
6. Install cylinder rod (2) in the cylinder body.
7. Install head assembly (1) on the cylinder body.
Tighten the head assembly.
End By :
a. Install primary lift cylinder.
Vehicle Systems
25
Disassembly And Assembly
Tilt Cylinder
Remove & Install Tilt Cylinder
NOTE : The procedure for removing and installing
the tilt cylinders is the same for both cylinders.
4
WARNING
7
IOCD016P
If both tilt cylinders are removed at the same time
the mast can fall. To avoid possible personal
injury, make sure the mast is securely held in
place or supported by a hoist before removing the
tilt cylinders.
6
5
WARNING
To prevent personal injury, move the control levers
backward and forward to release any pressure in
hydraulic system. Slowly loosen the cap of the
hydraulic tank to release any pressure in the tank.
Be cautious of hot hydraulic oil when any lines are
disconnected in the hydraulic system.
2. Disconnect hoses (5) and (6). Remove retainer
bolt (7) and pin (4).
NOTE : Plug and cap all openings to avoid
contamination and debris from entering the system
after removing any hoses or lines.
IOCD011P
1
10
2
IOCD012P
9
8
EHCD212C
3
3. Remove retainer bolt (9) from pin (8). Remove pin (8).
4. Remove tilt cylinder (10).
1. Remove floor mat (1) and floor plates (2), (3).
5. Install the tilt cylinder in the reverse order of removal.
6. Adjust tilt cylinders as follows:
a. Loosen nut (11).
b. Slide spacer down so rod can be turned into or
out of pivot eye to obtain the correct length.
c. Tighten nut (11) and the nut to a torque of
95 L 15 N•m (70 L 10 lb•ft).
d. With mast at tilt back position, install shims as
required to permit no gap between pivot eye
and spacer. Shim so mast does not twist at full
tilt back.
Vehicle Systems
26
Disassembly And Assembly
Disassemble & Assemble Tilt
Cylinders
7
Start By :
a. Remove tilt cyliner.
EHCD115C
1
6. Remove spacer (6) with a O-ring seal and shims
from the cylinder rod (7) if they are installed.
7. Loosen the nut and bolt on the rod eye. Remove
cylinder rod (7).
2
EHCD113C
1. Remove cover-rod (1) from the cylinder body.
10
9
NOTICE
Use extra care not to damage the highly finished
surface of the cylinder rod and the bore of the
cylinder body during disassembly and assembly
of the tilt cylinder.
EHCD116C
2. Remove rod assembly (2) from the cylinder body.
8. Remove slipper seal (9) and O-ring seal (10) from
the piston.
4
5
3
NOTICE
Check the condition of all seals. If any parts are
worn or damaged use new parts for replacement.
EHCD114C
3. Remove nut (3) from the cylinder rod.
4. Remove piston and seal assembly (4) from the
cylinder rod.
5. Remove cover-rod assembly (5).
Vehicle Systems
27
Disassembly And Assembly
NOTE : Use the following steps to assemble the tilt
cylinder.
12
15
13
EHCD117C
14
9. Remove O-ring seal (11) and back up-ring (12)
from the cover-rod.
EHCD118C
NOTE : U-packing (15) should be installed with the
lip of the seal toward the outside of the cover-rod.
15
12. Install wiper seal (13) in the cover-rod. Position
the lip of the seal toward the outside of the coverrod as shown.
13
13. Install back-up ring (14).
14. Install U-packing (15) in the cylinder head.
14
EHCD118C
10. Remove wiper seal (13), back-up ring (14) and Upacking (15) from the cover-rod.
12
16
EHCD117C
15. Install O-ring seal (11) and back up-ring (12) on
the cover-rod.
EHCD119C
11. Inspect the bushing (16) in the cover-rod. If the
bushing has a large amount of wear, Replace the
bushing and cover-rod as a unit. The parts can
not be ordered separately.
Vehicle Systems
28
Disassembly And Assembly
5
4
10
3
9
EHCD116C
EHCD114C
19. Position the cylinder rod eye in a vise as shown.
16. Install slipper seal (9) and O-ring seal (10) on the
piston.
20. Install cover-rod assembly (5) on the cylinder rod.
21. Install piston assembly (4) onto the cylinder rod.
The torque for the nut (3) is 260 L 25 N•m (190
L 20 lb•ft).
7
1
EHCD115C
17. Install cylinder rod (7) and shims. Tighten the nut
and bolt on the rod eye to a torque of 95 L 15
N•m (70 L 10 lb•ft).
EHCD113C
18. Install the spacer (6) with O-ring seal onto the
cylinder rod if needed.
2
22. Install the rod assembly (2) in the cylinder body.
23. Tighten cover-rod (1). The torque for cover-rod
(1) is 270 L 35 N•m (200 L 25 lb•ft).
End By :
a. Install tilt cylinder.
Vehicle Systems
29
Disassembly And Assembly
Disassemble Steer Sensor Group
Steer Sensor Group
Start By :
Remove And Install Steer Sensor
Group
a. Remove steer sensor group
Start By :
2
a. Remove counter weight.
1
EHCD122C
1
1. Remove two screws (1), washers and cover (2).
EHCD120C
1. Disconnect harness connector (1).
3
EHCD123C
3
2
4
2. Remove two screws (3), washers, micro switch (4)
and spacer from the plate.
EHCD121C
3. Do step 2 disassemble micro switches.
2. Remove two bolts (2) and washers.
3. Remove steer sensor group (3) from steer axle
assembly.
4. Install the steer sensor group in the reverse order
of removal.
End By :
a. Install the counter weight.
Vehicle Systems
30
Disassembly And Assembly
Assemble Steer Sensor Group
Steering Wheel
Remove And Install Steering Wheel
3
1
3
2
4
EHCD123C
1. Install spacer, micro switch (4), washers and two
screws (3) to plate.
EHCD002B
2. Do step 1 assemble micro switches.
1. Remove cap (1) from the steering wheel.
2. Remove nut (3) and cup (2) from the steering
wheel.
2
3. Use a suitable puller to remove the steering wheel.
NOTE : The following steps are for installation of the
steering wheel.
1
4. Put the steering wheel in position on the shaft.
Install cup (2) and nut (3). Tighten the nut to a
torque 80 L 7 N•m (60 L 5 lb•ft).
EHCD122C
5. Install cap (1) on the steering wheel.
3. Install cover (2), washers and two screws (1) to
plate.
NOTE : The range of operating for micro switches
are as follows:
L/S
L/S4
L/S3
L/S2
L/S1
75°~90°
1
1
1
0
45°~75°
0
1
1
0
25°~45°
0
0
1
0
0°~25°
0
0
0
0
25°~ 45°
0
0
0
1
45°~75°
0
0
1
1
75°~90°
1
0
1
1
ANGLE
End By :
a. Install the steer sensor group.
Vehicle Systems
31
Disassembly And Assembly
3. Disconnect four harness connectors (5) and
remove instrument panel.
Steering Column
Remove Steering Column
6
Start By :
a. Remove steering wheel.
EHCD127C
4. Remove horn switch (6) from the steering column.
1
2
IOCD020P
8
7
1. Remove four screws (1), washers and front cover
(2) from the support assembly.
9
10
4
EHCD128C
5. Remove two bolts (7), washers and bracket with a
directional switch (8) from the support assembly.
3
6. Disconnect four hoses (9) from the steering gear.
NOTE : Put identification marks on all hoses for
profer installation. Plug and cap all openings to avoid
contamination and debris from entering the system
after removing any hoses or lines.
IOCD021P
2. Remove two screws (3) and top cover (4).
12
EHCD129C
5
IOCD022P
7. Remove four bolts (11) and separate steering gear
(10) from steering column (12). Remove steering
column (12) from the support assembly.
NOTE : Put identification marks on all hoses and
wires for proper installation purpose.
Vehicle Systems
32
Disassembly And Assembly
NOTICE
Steering gear (10) and column (12) can separate
after bolts (11) have all been removed, causing
gear (10) to fall. To avoid damaging components,
support the steering gear while removing bolts
(11).
25
22
19
16
EHCD132C
15
13. Remove two springs (22) from the support
assembly (25).
EHCD130C
17
18
25
24
8. Support the support assembly (25).
9. Remove bolt (15), washers and knob (16) from the
rack assembly (17).
23
25
EHCD133C
10. Remove spring (18) from the rack assembly (17).
14. Remove nuts (23), washers and bolts (24).
Remove the bushings if a replacement is
necessary. Remove support assembly (25)
from the cowl.
11. Remove two bolts, washers, nuts (19) and rack
assembly (17) from the support assembly (25).
Install Steering Column
24
22
EHCD131C
12. Remove key switch (21) from the support
assembly.
23
25
EHCD133C
1. Install the bushings if they were removed. Put the
support assembly (25) in position on the cowl.
Install bolts (24), washers and nuts (23).
Vehicle Systems
33
Disassembly And Assembly
13
12
25
22
EHCD132C
EHCD129C
6. Put steering gear (14) and steering column (13) in
position. Install four bolts (12) and washers.
2. Install two springs (22) on the support assembly.
19
15
16
10
EHCD130C
17
18
8
25
EHCD128C
3. Put rack assembly (17) in position on the
support assembly. Install two bolts, washers and
nuts (19).
7. Connect hose (11) to the steering gear. Put
directional switch (10) in position on the support
assembly. Install the two bolts (8) and washers.
4. Put knob (16) in position on the tilt bracket. Move
the console group until the knob is seated in the
hole of the support assembly. Install the spring and
bolt that holds the knob in position.
8. Tighten the four bolts (12) to a torque of 15 N•m
(11 lb•ft).
7
EHCD127C
22
EHCD131C
9. Install horn switch (7) on the steering column.
5. Install key switch (21) to support assembly.
Vehicle Systems
34
Disassembly And Assembly
Steering Gear
Disassemble & Assemble Steering
Gear(Pump)
Start By :
a. Remove steering gear (pump).
5
Refer to the “Remove Steering Column” in this
module for further information.
IOCD022P
10. Connect four harness connectors (5). Connect
wire harness to the key switch.
4
1
3
EHCD134C
Typical Example
IOCD021P
1. Remove the elbows (1) from pump body (2).
5
11. Put cover (4) in position on the support assembly.
Install the two screws (3).
4
3
2
2
EHCD135C
1
2. Remove seven bolts (5) from gerotor housing (3)
and cap (4).
IOCD020P
12. Put cover(2) in position on the support
assembly. Install the washers and screws (1).
NOTICE
Make a note of the position of special bolt with a
pin. It is locatedmat a mark in line with check valve.
End By :
a. Install steering wheel
Vehicle Systems
3. Separate housing (3) and cap (4) from pump body
(2).
35
Disassembly And Assembly
6
10
9
7
8
EHCD136C
3
17
23
4
EHCD139C
4. Remove the components from housing (3) as
follows:
a. Remove plate (6) from housing (3) and cap (4).
b. Remove shaft (7) from gerotor (9).
c. Remove gerotor (9) from housing (3).
d. Separate cap (4) from housing (3).
e. Remove O-rings seal (8) from housing (3).
f. Remove O-ring seal (10) from cap (4).
19
20
17
23
18
9. Remove the components from sleeve (16) as
follows :
a. Remove pin (18) from spool (17) and sleeve
(16).
b. Remove spool (17) from sleeve (16).
c. Remove two bearing races (19), (20) and
bearing (21) from spool (17).
d. Remove six springs (23) and ring (22) from
spool (17).
12
14
22
21
EHCD140C
EHCD137C
16
13
5. Remove suction valve balls (12) and pins (11).
25
6. Remove screw (13) and check valve ball (14).
26
2
24
EHCD141C
16
EHCD138C
10. Remove O-ring seal (24) and king-ring (25) from
body (2).
15
11. Check the condition of dust seal ring(26).
Replace seals with new if worn or damaged.
7. Remove O-ring seal (15) from pump body (2).
8. Remove sleeve (16) from pump body (2).
Vehicle Systems
36
Disassembly And Assembly
28
37
36
27
EHCD142C
EHCD143C
15. Install washer (37) and plug (36) into the pump
body.
12. Remove plugs (27) and washer (28) from pump
body (2).
2
32
2
32
35
35
31
31
34
34
EHCD003B
EHCD003B
13. Remove plug (31) and spring (32) from the pump
body (2).
16. Install housing (35) and poppet (34) into the
pump body.
14. Remove poppet (34) and relief valve housing (35)
from the pump body.
17. Install spring (32) and plug (31) into pump body
(2). Tighten plug (31) to a torque 11.3 N•m
(100 lb•in).
37
28
36
27
EHCD143C
EHCD142C
15. Remove plug (36) and washer (37) from the
pump body.
18. Install washer (28) and plug (27) into pump body
(2) Tighten plugs to a torque 30 N•m (22 lb•ft).
NOTE : The following steps are for assembling the
steering pump.
Vehicle Systems
37
Disassembly And Assembly
22. Install pin (18), ring (22), two bearing races (19),
(20) and bearing (21) in their original positions on
spool (17).
25
26
2
24
EHCD141C
16
19. Install dust seal ring (26). Install O-ring seal (24)
with king-ring (25) into pump body (2).
EHCD138C
19
22
21
17
15
23. Install sleeve (16) into pump body (2).
24. Install O-ring seal (15) into pump body (2).
EHCD140C
20
23
18
12
NOTICE
For purposes of installation, note that springs (23)
are installed in two stacks of three. Make sure the
curves of the two stacks are in contact and
positioned in the center of spool (17). The notched
side of springs (23) must be positioned toward
sleeve (16).
EHCD137C
13
14
25. Install check valve ball (14) and screw
(13).Tighten the screw (13).
26. Install suction valve balls (12) and pins (11) in
their original positions into the pump body.
17
16
23
EHCD139C
20. Install springs (23) into spool (17).
21. Install spool (17) into sleeve (16).
Vehicle Systems
38
Disassembly And Assembly
EHCD004B
6
EHCD004B
10
9
7
NOTICE
To assure proper operation of the pump, make
sure bolts (5) are clean and dry before installing.
Tighten bolts (5) in the sequence shown in the
illustration.
5
EHCD136C
8
3
4
4
3
27. Install plate (6) onto pump body (2).
2
NOTICE
Make sure the notch of shaft (7) properly seats on
pin (18) when installed into body (2) and spool
(17).
EHCD135C
31. Install bolts (5) into cap (4). Tighten bolts (5)
asfollows:
a. Tighten bolts (5) in correct sequence to a first
torque of 14.1 L 2.8 N•m (125 L 25 lb•in).
b. Tighten bolts (5) in correct sequence to a
second torque of 28.2 L 2.8 N•m (250 L 25
lb•in).
28. Install shaft (7) into body (2) and spool (17).
NOTICE
Gerotor (9) must be aligned with shaft (7) and pin
(18) as shown in the illustration.
29. Install O-ring seal (8) and housing (3).
End By :
30. Install O-ring seal (10) and cap (4).
a. Install steering pump.
Vehicle Systems
39
Disassembly And Assembly
5. Fill the hydraulic tank with fluid to the correct level.
Fefer to the Operation and Maintenance Manual
for further information.
Priority Valve
Remove & Install Priority Valve
End By :
Start By :
a. Install the floorplate.
a. Remove floorplate.
WARNING
Disassemble & Assemble Priority
Valve
Hydraulic oil under pressure can remain in the
hydraulic system after the pump motor have been
stopped. Personal injury can result if the pressure
is not released before any work is done to the
hydraulic system. To prevent possible personal
injury, turn the key switch off and move the control
levers to make sure the hydraulic pressure is
released before any fitting, plug, hose or
component is loosened, tightened, removed or
adjusted. Always move the lift truck to a clean and
level location away from the travel of other
machines.
Start By :
a. Remove priority valve
NOTE : Mark the positions of all components for
purposes of reassembly.
1
2
1. Drain the hydraulic tank.
3
EHCD145C
3
4
1. Remove the spool assembly from valve body
as follows :
a. Remove plug (1). Check the condition of the
bush (2). Replace with new bush if worn or
damaged.
b. Remove spool (3).
c. Remove spring (4).
2
1
EHCD144C
NOTE : For purposes of reassembly, put
identification marks on all lines, tubes and hoses
before any disconnections are made.
2. Disconnect four hydraulic lines (1) from priority
valve (2). Plug and cap all openings to prevent
contamination and debris from entering the
system.
3. Support valve (2). Remove the two bolts (3) and
priority valve and mount assembly (2).
4. Install priority valve (2) in the reverse order of
removal.
Vehicle Systems
40
Disassembly And Assembly
Brake Master Cylinder
5
Remove And Install Brake Master
Cylinder
EHCD146C
3. Remove check valve (5) from the valve body.
1
NOTE : Check the condition of all components.
Replace any worn or damaged components with new
parts. Make sure all components are clean before
reassembling.
IHCD120P
4. Assemble the priority valve in the reverse order of
disassembly.
End By :
a. Install the priority valve.
2
3
IHCD121P
1. Remove floor mat (1) and floor plates (2), (3).
Vehicle Systems
41
Disassembly And Assembly
Disassemble & Assemble Brake
Master Cylinder
5
Start By :
a. Remove master cylinder.
4
IHCD125P
2
1
2. Disconnect hose (4) and tube (5) from the master
cylinder.
8
7
6
1. Remove head(1) and boot(2).
2. Remove snap ring(3) from master cylinder.
7 15
IHCD125P
4
9
13 3
5
3. Remove the cotter pin and pin (6) from the clevis
and brake pedal assembly.
4. Remove two bolts (7) and master cylinder (8) from
the bracket.
6 8
12
14
5. Install the brake master cylinder in the reverse
order of removal.
11
10
3. Remove large spring(4) and small spring(5).
6. Fill the brake reservoir and master cylinder with
brake fluid. See the Operation And Maintenance
Manual.
4. Remove retaining ring(6) from small piston(12).
5. Remove spring seat(7), primary cup1(8) and small
spacer(9) from small piston(12).
7. Bleed the brake system, and if necessary, adjust
the pedal free level. See Brake System Air
Removal And Pedal Adjustment in Testing And
Adjusting.
6. Remove secondary cup(10) from large piston(13).
7. Remove spring pin(11).
8. Remove small piston(12) from large piston(13).
9. Remove primary cup2(14) and large spacer(15)
from large piston(13).
10. Assemble the master cylinder in the reverse
order of disassembly.
End By :
a. Install master cylinder.
Vehicle Systems
42
Disassembly And Assembly
Steer Axle
Remove & Install Steer Axle
Start By :
2
a. Remove overhead guard.
b. Remove counterweight.
c. Remove steer sensor group.
3
EHCD158C
WARNING
3. Disconnect hose-steer (2) and (3) from the
housing-steer axle.
Be sure the pressure in the hydraulic system is
released before any lines or hoses have been
disconnected.
5
4
1. Raise the rear of the lift truck and support with
wooden block.
NOTE : For purposes of reassembly, put
identification marks on hoses and lines before any
disconnections are made. Plug and cap all openings
to prevent contamination and debris from entering
the system.
EHCD159C
4. Support the axle beam with a floor jack.
5. Remove six bolts (4) and washers. For the
reassembly purpose, the torque for bolt (4) is
270 L 25 N•m (200 L 18 lb•ft). Apply the Loctite
NO. 262 on the bolt thread.
6. Remove axle beam assembly (5) from the housing
assembly.
EHCD157C
1
2. Disconnect overflow hose (1) from the housingsteer axle.
Vehicle Systems
43
Disassembly And Assembly
Disassemble & Assemble Housing
Group-SteerAxle
Start By :
6
a. Remove housing group-steeraxle
1. Drain hydraulic oil.
2
EHCD160C
7
2
1
7. Remove three bolts (6) and washers (7) then,
remove axle-housing assembly (8) from the frame.
For the reassembly purpose, the torque for bolt (6)
is 460 L 60 N•m (340 L 45 lb•ft). Apply the
Loctite NO. 262 on the bolt thread.
8. Install the steer axle assembly in the reverse order
of removal.
EHCD161C
2. Remove three bolts (1) and top plate (2).
End By :
a. Install counterweight.
b. Install overhead guard.
3
c. Install steer sensor group.
EHCD162C
3. Remove shim pack (3) from the pinion gear.
Vehicle Systems
44
Disassembly And Assembly
4
10
EHCD163C
EHCD166C
4. From the top of the pinion gear assembly, tap the
pinion gear assembly (4) and remove pinion gear
assembly (4) from the housing.
7. Remove piston and rack gear assembly (10) from
the housing.
4
13
5
12
14
EHCD167C
EHCD164C
8. Disassemble piston and rack gear assembly as
follows :
a. Remove wear ring (11) from the piston.
b. Remove bolt (12) and washer.
c. Remove piston (13) from the rack gear.
d. Remove win seal (14) and O-ring from the piston.
5. Remove cone bearing (5) from the pinion gear
assembly (4).
7
NOTE : Check the condition of ring and seals and
replace with new ones if needed.
8
9
16
15
EHCD165C
6. Remove four bolts (8), washers and cap (9) with
O-ring from the housing (7). Check the condition of
O-ring and replace with new one if needed.
EHCD168C
9. Remove Lip seal (15), cone bearing (16) and cup
bearing from the housing. Replace with a new seal
if needed.
Vehicle Systems
45
Disassembly And Assembly
18
15
16
17
EHCD169C
EHCD168C
10. Remove Lip seal (17) from the housing. Replace
with a new seal if needed.
14. Install cup bearing in the housing. Install cone
bearing (16) in the housing.
11. Remove cup bearing (18) from the housing.
15. Install Lip-seal (15) in the housing.
NOTE : Use the following steps to install the housing
group-steer axle.
13
18
17
12
14
EHCD167C
16. Install and assemble the piston and rack gear
assembly as follows :
EHCD169C
12. Install the cup bearing (18) in the housing.
a. Install O-ring, win seal (14) to the piston (13).
13. Install Lip seal (17) in the housing.
NOTE : Apply light coat of Loctite NO.592 sealant
to outer of seal case.
NOTE : Lubricate sealing lip lightly with the lubricant
being sealed.
b. Install the piston (13), bolt (12) and washer to
the rack gear. The torque for the bolt (12) is
55 L 10 N•m (40 L 7 lb•ft).
NOTE : Prepack rack gear with NLGI NO. 2
(GREASE) lubricant.
c. Install wear-ring (11) on the piston.
Install the piston and rack gear assembly in the
housing.
Vehicle Systems
46
Disassembly And Assembly
7
3
8
9
EHCD165C
EHCD162C
17. Install the cap (9), washers and four bolts (8) to
housing (7). The torque for the bolt (8) is 55 L 10
N•m (40 L 7 lb•ft).
21. Adjust the shim (3) on the pinion gear assembly
as follows :
a. Install top plate and bolts on the housing Torgue
for the bolt is 55 L 10 N•m (40 L 7 lb•ft).
b. Remove bolts and top plate again.
c. Measure the distance (Y) from the surface of
housing to the top of pinion gear. Record this
measurement.
d. Measure the distance (X) from the surface of
housing to the top of cone bearing Record this
measurement.
e. Calculate the required shim thickness.
4
5
Required Shim=X–Y
Following is the content of the shim pack.
EHCD164C
SHIM NO
THICKNESS
18. Install cone bearing (5) to pinion gear assembly
(4).
1
0.05
2
0.13
3
0.80
f. Combine the above shims to obtain end play of
0.01 to 0.035.
EHCD006B
19. Put the pinion gear assembly (4) in position as
follows :
a. Put the rack gear assembly in center of
housing.
b. Put the pinion assembly in ‘top’ position as
shown.
Vehicle Systems
47
Disassembly And Assembly
Spindle-Steer Axle
2
1
Remove And Install Spindle-Steer
Axle
2
EHCD161C
1
22. Install the top plate (2) and bolt (1). The torque
for the bolt (1) is 45 L 7 N•m (33 L 5 lb•ft).
End By :
a. Install the housing group-steer axle.
EHCD170C
1. Loosen six nuts (1) and put wooden block under
the lift truck, and lower it onto the wooden block as
shown.
2. Remove six nuts (1) and tire (2).
3
EHCD171C
3. Remove cover (3) from the beam-axle.
4. Eliminate grease from the beam-axle.
Vehicle Systems
48
Disassembly And Assembly
5
4
9
EHCD172P
6
EHCD175C
9. Remove cup bearing (9) from the beam-axle.
5. Bend the locking tab of washer (5) back.
NOTE : Put identification on cup bearings to use at
assembly.
6. Remove the nut (6) lock washer (5) and washer
(4) from the spindle.
10. Remove dust-seal (10) from the beam-axle.
Replace with a new seal if needed.
7
10
EHCD173C
EHCD176C
7. From the front of beam-axle, tap the spindle and
remove cone bearing (7) from the spindle.
11. Remove cone bearing (11) from the beam-axle.
12. Remove cup bearing from the beam-axle.
NOTE : Use the following steps to install and
assemble the spindle-steer axle assembly.
8
EHCD174C
8. Remove spindle assembly (8) from the beam-axle.
Vehicle Systems
49
Disassembly And Assembly
NOTICE
Prepack wheel, actuator bearing and hub with
NLGI NO. 2(GREASE) lubricant.
8
EHCD174C
10
17. Install the spindle assembly (8) into the beam
axle.
EHCD176C
13. Install cup bearing into the beam-axle.
7
14. Install cone bearing (11) into the beam-axle.
15. Install dust-seal (10) into the beam-axle.
NOTE : Lubricate sealing lip lightly with the lubricant
being sealed.
EHCD173C
18. Install cone bearing (7) onto the spindle
assembly (8).
19. Install washer, lock washer (5) and nut (4) on the
spindle assembly.
NOTE 1 : Single Wheel
While rotating the wheel or hub to seat bearings,
tighten locknut (6) to 100 N•m (74 lb•ft) then loosen
nut (6) completely. Retighten to 40 L 3 N•m
(30 L 2 lb•ft).
9
EHCD175C
NOTE 2 : Dual Wheel
While rotating the wheel or hub to seat bearing,
tighten lock nut (6) to 133 N•m (98 lb•ft) the loosen
nut (6) completely. Retighten to 45 to 55 N•m
(33 to 41 lb•ft).
16. Install cup bearing (9) into the beam-axle
20. Bend the lock washer (5) to groove of nut (6) and
tighten the nut (6).
Vehicle Systems
50
Disassembly And Assembly
NOTE : Before installing cover (3) apply grease
(NLGI NO. 2) to fitting until it comes out at cover end,
fill cap with grease and install in place.
Hydraulic Control Panel
Remove & Install Hydraulic Control
Panel
(36V Only)
WARNING
3
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. Disconnect the
battery.
1. Raise the hood.
EHCD171C
21. Install the cover (3) into the beam-axle.
2
2
1
1
IHCD124P
2. Remove two bolts (1), washers and side panel
assembly (2) from the lift truck.
EHCD170C
22. Install the steer tire (2) and nuts (1). Torque for
the nut (1) is 140 N•m (103 lb•ft).
23. Remove the wooden block.
4
3
EHCD178C
NOTE : For purposes of reassembly, put
identification marks on all cables and wiring harness
before any disconnections are made.
3. Disconnect six cable assemblies (3).
4. Disconnect harness connector (4) from the
hydraulic control panel assembly.
Vehicle Systems
51
Disassembly And Assembly
Control Panel
Remove And Install Control Panel
6
5
WARNING
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
Injury to personnel is possible. The head capacitor
(HEAD CAP) must be discharged before any
contact with the control panel is made. Disconnect
the battery and discharge HEAD CAP.
EHCD179C
5. Loosen two bolts from the bottom of hydraulic
control panel assembly (6).
6. Remove two bolts (5), washers and hydraulic
control panel assembly (6).
7. Install the hydraulic control panel assembly (6). in
the reverse order of removal.
1
2
EHCD180C
1. Raise the hood. Remove bolt (1), washers and
side panel-top (2) from the frame.
4
IHCD124P
3
2. Remove two bolts (3), washers and side panel
assembly (4).
Vehicle Systems
52
Disassembly And Assembly
5
9
EHCD182C
EHCD184C
3. Open the logic cover and disconnect four
connectors (5) from the logics.
6. Disconnect ten cable assemblies (9) from the
contactor at the bottom of the control panel.
NOTE : Mark all cables and wires for correct
installation.
7
6
8
10
EHCD183C
4. Disconnect two connectors (6).
EHCD185C
5. Disconnect four nuts (7), washers and logics (8)
from control panel.
7. Loosen two bolts at the bottom of the control
panel.
8. Remove three bolts (10) and washers from the
control panel.
9. Remove control panel assembly (11) from the lift
truck.
11. Install the control panel in the reverse order of
removal.
Vehicle Systems
53
Disassembly And Assembly
Drive Motor & Drive Axle
4
Remove & Install Drive Motor And
Drive Axle
3
(36V)
Start By :
a. Remove mast.
EHCD187C
b. Remove floorplate
3. Disconnect wiring harness (3) and connector (4)
from the drive motor.
NOTE : The procedure for removing and installing
the drive motor and drive axle is the same for both
sides.
4. Disconnect four cables from the drive motor.
NOTE : Put identification marks on all cables and
wiring harness for installation purposes.
2
8
7
6
1
EHCD186C
1. Loosen five nuts (1) and put a jack or wooden
block under the lift truck.
EHCD188C
5. Loosen nuts (6) from parking cable and remove
parking cable (7) from the drive axle.
2. Remove five nuts (1) and drive tire (2).
6. Remove two brake tubes (8) from the drive axle.
9
EHCD189C
7. Remove screw and band (9) from the drive motor.
Vehicle Systems
54
Testing and Adjusting
13
14
10
12
EHCD190C
EHCD191C
8. Support the drive motor and drive axle assembly
(10).
12. Put the drive motor (13) on the drive axle (14)
and install the bolt (12). The torque for the bolt
(12) is 23 N•m (17 lb•ft).
9. Remove seven bolts (11) and drive motor and
drive axle assembly (10) from the frame.
NOTE : Apply Loctite NO. 262 sealant on bolt (10)
thread.
10. Lower the drive motor and drive axle assembly
(10) on the wooden block.
WARNING
13
Do not knock with the drive pinion against the
helical gear while installing the motor. This can
cause knocking noise.
14
12
NOTICE
When joining the gears, turn the motor shaft carefully
until the drive pinion engages into the gearing of the
helical gear.
EHCD191C
11. Remove three bolts (12). Remove drive motor
(13) from the drive axle (14).
NOTE : The following steps are for installation of the
drive motor and drive axle assembly.
10
NOTE : Before mounting, clean the mating surfaces
on the drive axle and electric motor carefully (such as
Loctite NO. 706) and check for damage.
EHCD190C
13. Check the frame surface for damage and
irregularities. The maximum admissible
irregularity in the area of the drive axle contour is
0.10mm.
14. Put the drive motor and drive axle assembly (10)
on the frame and install the bolt (11). The torque
for the bolt (11) is 135 N•m (100 lb•ft). Apply
Loctite NO. 262 on bolt thread.
Vehicle Systems
55
Testing and Adjusting
9
2
1
EHCD189C
EHCD186C
15. Install the band (9) and screw on the drive motor.
18. Clean mating surface on wheel shaft and wheel
thoroughly (such as Loctite NO. 706) and check
for damage.
8
7
6
19. The bore pattern in the rim should be in line with
the bolts of the wheel shaft, then push the wheel
on.
20. Install the drive tire (2). The torque for the nut (1)
is 140 N•m (103 lb•ft).
EHCD188C
16. Install the brake tubes (8) and parking cable (7)
on the drive axle. The torque for the fitting is
50 N•m (37 lb•ft). Tighten the nut (6).
16 15
4
EHCD007B
21. If replenishing with transmission fluid, remove
plug (15) with sealing ring (16) from the drive
axle.
3
22. Fill the drive axle with ATF transmission fluid.
Fluid capacity approximate 0.35 liters(0.37 USgt). The accurate amount of fluid is defined by the
opening for the fluid filling plug.
EHCD187C
17. Connect the wiring harness (3), connector (4)
and four cables on the drive motor.
WARNING
ATF transmission fluid may only be filled in with
the gear unit in the assembly position. Overfilling
may impair the tightness and affect the operating
temperature of the transmission.
Vehicle Systems
56
Testing and Adjusting
NOTE : Use a funnel with a hose for easier filling.
Maximum outside diameter of hose to be 13mm. The
correct level and amount of fluid has been reached
when the level can be seen at the opening. When
filling with fluid, make sure that no air bubbles are
formed in the transmission. Turn the wheel shaft to
remove them.
23. Install the plug (15) in with the sealing ring. The
torque for the plug (15) is 22 N•m (16 lb•ft).
24. Check the fluid level again after a short running
time.
25. The brake system must be bleeded after
replenishing with brake fluid.
a. Apply pressure by operating the brake pedal.
b. Open bleeder valve approximate half a turn with
a spanner and press simultaneously the brake
pedal to bleed the system.
WARNING
Do not release the brake pedal before you have
closed bleeder valve.
c. Repeat this procedure until the brake fluid
escapes without bubbles. Check the brake fluid
container for sufficient fluid and refill if
necessary.
d. When brake fluid escapes without bubbles
tighten bleeder valve.
End By :
a. Install mast.
Vehicle Systems
57
Testing and Adjusting
(48V)
6
5
NOTE : The procedure for removing and installing
the drive motor and drive axle is the same for both
sides.
7
2
IOCD029P
5. Loosen nuts (5) from parking cable and remove
parking cable (6) from the drive axle.
1
6. Remove brake bleeder tube (7) from the drive
axle.
IOCD027P
1. Loosen 8 nuts (1) and put a jack or wooden block
under the lift truck.
2. Remove five nuts (1) and drive tire (2).
4
8
IOCD030P
3
7. Remove brake inlet tube (8) from the drive axle.
9
IOCD028P
3. Disconnect wiring harness (3) and connector (4)
from the drive motor.
4. Disconnect four cables from the drive motor.
NOTE : Put identification marks on all cables and
wiring harness for installation purposes.
EHCD189C
8. Remove screw and band (9) from the drive motor.
Vehicle Systems
58
Testing and Adjusting
13
12
10
IOCD031P
IOCD032P
9. Support the drive motor and drive axle assembly
(10).
10. Remove six bolts (11) and drive motor and drive
axle assembly (10) from the frame.
11. Lower the drive motor and drive axle assembly
(10).
14
13
IOCD033P
12
13
13. Put the drive motor (13) on the drive axle (14)
and install the bolt (12). The torque for the bolt
(12) is 55 N•m (41 lb•ft).
NOTE : Apply Loctite NO. 262 sealant on bolt (12)
thread.
IOCD032P
10
IOCD031P
14
IOCD033P
13
14. Check the frame surface for damage.
15. Put the drive motor and drive axle assembly (10)
on the frame and install the bolt (11). The torque
for the bolt (11) is 200 N•m (147 lb•ft). Apply
Loctite NO. 262 on bolt thread.
12. Remove three bolts (12). Remove drive motor
(13) from the drive axle (14).
NOTE : The following steps are for installation of the
drive motor and drive axle assembly.
NOTE : Before mounting, clean the mating surfaces
on the drive axle and electric motor carefully (such as
Loctite NO. 706) and check for damage.
Vehicle Systems
59
Testing and Adjusting
9
4
3
EHCD189C
IOCD028P
16. Install the band (9) and screw on the drive motor.
18. Connect the wiring harness (3), connector (4)
and four cables on the drive motor.
2
1
8
IOCD030P
IOCD027P
6
5
7
19. Clean mating surface on wheel shaft and wheel
thoroughly (such as Loctite NO. 706) and check
for damage.
20. The bore pattern in the rim should be in line with the
bolts of the wheel shaft, then push the wheel on.
21. Install the drive tire (2). The torque for the nut (1)
is 140 N•m (103 lb•ft).
IOCD029P
17. Install the brake tubes (8), (7) and parking cable
(6) on the drive axle. The torque for the fitting is
50 N•m (37 lb•ft). Tighten the nut (5).
Vehicle Systems
60
Testing and Adjusting
NOTE : Use a funnel with a hose for easier filling.
Maximum outside diameter of hose to be 10mm. The
correct level and amount of fluid has been reached
when the level can be seen at hole for oil level plug
(15). When filling with fluid, make sure that no air
bubbles are formed in the transmission. Turn the
wheel shaft to remove them.
16
24. Install the plug (15) in with applying LOCTITE
NO.572. The torque for the plug (15) is 70 ± 10
N•m (52 ± 7 lb•ft).
15
25. Screw the air breather (16) with the sealing
washer. Tighten the air breather to a torque of 70
± 10 N•m (52 ± 7 lb•ft) with applying LOCTITE
NO.277.
IOCD034I
26. Check the fluid level again after a short running
time.
22. If replenishing with transmission fluid, remove plug
(15), and air breather (16) from the drive axle.
27. The brake system must be bleeded after
replenishing with brake fluid.
23. Fill the drive axle with transmission fluid. Fluid
capacity approximate 0.5 liters. The accurate
amount of fluid is defined by the opening for the
fluid level plug.
a. Apply pressure by operating the brake pedal.
b. Open bleeder valve approximate half a turn with
a spanner and press simultaneously the brake
pedal to bleed the system.
WARNING
Transmission fluid may only be filled in with the
gear unit in the assembly position. Overfilling may
impair the tightness and affect the operating
temperature of the transmission.
WARNING
Do not release the brake pedal before you have
closed bleeder valve.
c. Repeat this procedure until the brake fluid
escapes without bubbles. Check the brake fluid
container for sufficient fluid and refill if
necessary.
d. When brake fluid escapes without bubbles
tighten bleeder valve.
Vehicle Systems
61
Testing and Adjusting
Counterwieght
Remove And Install Counterweight
2
Start By:
a. Remove overhead guard.
1
b. Remove hood.
IHCD126P
4. Put the counterweight in position on the lift truck
and install two bolts (1) and washers. The torque
for the bolt (1) is 460 L 16 N•m (340 L 45 lb•ft).
Apply the Loctite NO.262 on the bolt thread.
2
End By :
a. Install overhead guard.
1
b. Install hood.
IHCD126P
1. Install two forged eyebolts at the top of the
counterweight. Attach a hoist.
2. Remove two bolts (1) and washers from the
counterweight (2).
3. Remove counterweight (2). The approximate
weight of the counterweight is as follows:
B13T-2(36V,48V).........................
B15T-2(36V)................................
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V) ....
B20T-2(36V)................................
550
630
630
840
kg
kg
kg
kg
(1213
(1389
(1389
(1852
lb)
lb)
lb)
lb)
NOTE : The following steps are for installation of the
counterweight.
Vehicle Systems
62
Testing and Adjusting
SB4115E00
Sep. 2003
Schematic
Lift Trucks Hydraulic Systems
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2
MODEL : B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2
13
S/A
10
9
3
8
6
4
7
Item
2
5
1
11
12
Components
1
Hydraulic Pump
2
Priority Valve
3
Steering Unit
4
Pressure Switch
5
Flow Regulator
6
Flow Protector-Primary
7
Flow Protector-Secondary, Standard
8
Lift Cylinder-Primary
9
Lift Cylinder-Secondary, Standard
10
Tilt Cylinder
11
Hydraulic Filter
12
Suction Strainer
13
Control Valve
SB4116E00
Sep. 2003
Schematic
Lift Trucks Electric Systems
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(36V)
EMOD4-00001~UP
EMOD5-00001~UP
EMOD6-00001~UP
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2(48V)
EMOFB-00001~UP
EMOFC-00001~UP
EMOFD-00001~UP
EMOD7-00001~UP
SB2143E02
Sep. 2003
Disassembly & Assembly
Testing & Adjusting
Lift Trucks Mast Systems
G15S-2,
G18S-2,
G20SC-2
GC15S-2, GC18S-2, GC20SC-2
D15S-2,
D18S-2,
D20SC-2
B16X,
B18X,
B20X
B13T-2,
B15T-2,
B18T-2,
B15S,
B18S
B20T-2
Important Safety Information
Most accidents involving product operation, maintenance and repair are caused by failure to observe basic safety
rules or precautions. An accident can often be avoided by recognizing potentially hazardous situations before an
accident occurs. A person must be alert to potential hazards. This person should also have the necessary
training, skills and tools to perform these functions properly.
Read and understand all safety precautions and warnings before operating or performing lubrication,
maintenance and repair on this product.
Basic safety precautions are listed in the “Safety” section of the Service or Technical Manual. Additional safety
precautions are listed in the “Safety” section of the owner/operation/maintenance publication.
Specific safety warnings for all these publications are provided in the description of operations where hazards
exist. WARNING labels have also been put on the product to provide instructions and to identify specific hazards.
If these hazard warnings are not heeded, bodily injury or death could occur to you or other persons. Warnings in
this publication and on the product labels are identified by the following symbol.
WARNING
IImproper operation, lubrication, maintenance or repair of this product can be dangerous and could
result in injury or death.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication, maintenance or repair on this product, until you have read
and understood the operation, lubrication, maintenance and repair information.
Operations that may cause product damage are identified by NOTICE labels on the product and in this
publication.
DAEWOO cannot anticipate every possible circumstance that might involve a potential hazard. The warnings in
this publication and on the product are therefore not all inclusive. If a tool, procedure, work method or operating
technique not specifically recommended by DAEWOO is used, you must satisfy yourself that it is safe for you
and others. You should also ensure that the product will not be damaged or made unsafe by the operation,
lubrication, maintenance or repair procedures you choose.
The information, specifications, and illustrations in this publication are on the basis of information available at the
time it was written. The specifications, torques, pressures, measurements, adjustments, illustrations, and other
items can change at any time. These changes can affect the service given to the product. Obtain the complete
and most current information before starting any job. DAEWOO dealers have the most current information
available.
1
Index
Disassembly & Assembly
Forks.........................................................................5
Backrest....................................................................5
Carriage....................................................................6
Mast..........................................................................9
Testing & Adjusting
Carriage Adjustment...............................................22
Chain Adjustments .................................................23
Chain Wear Test.....................................................23
Carriage and Mast Height Adjustment ........................24
Forks Parallel Check ..............................................24
Tilt Cylinder Alignment............................................25
Drift Test .................................................................25
Tilt Cylinder Adjustment..........................................26
Lift & Tilt Mounting Group Adjustment....................27
Mast mounting Group Adjustment..........................28
Lift Trucks Mast System
3
Index
Backrest
Disassembly & Assembly
Remove & Install Backrest
Forks
Remove & Install Forks
1
1
3
2
IBCD501P
2
1. Fasten a hoist to the backrest. Remove bolts(2)
that fasten the backrest to the carriage.
IDCD001P
2. Remove backrest (1).
Backrest weighs 32 kg (71 lb).
3. Install backrest(1) in the reverse order of removal.
IDCD002P
1. Remove stopper bolt and washer (3).
2. Lift fork pin (1).
3. Use a suitable C-clamp, strap and hoist to support
the fork as shown.
4. Slide the fork to slot (2) in the middle of the carriage.
5. Remove the fork. The weight of the fork is 35 kg
(77 lb).
6. Repeat steps 1 through 4 for the remaining fork.
7. Install the forks in the reverse order of removal.
8. Put the forks in position. Lower both fork pins(1) to
lock the forks in position.
9. Install stopper bolt and washer (3).
Lift Trucks Mast System
5
Disassembly & Assembly
Carriage
Remove & Install Carriage
Start By:
a. Remove forks.
b. Remove backrest.
IBCD504P
7
6
4. Remove two nuts (6).
Remove carriage stop bolt (7).
2
1
9
4
3
IBCD502P
1. Remove two bolts (1) and hose guard (2) from the
cross head (3).
2. Remove cross head (3) from the cylinder rod (4).
8
IBCD510P
5. Raise the inner mast to pull out carriage as
shown.
5
6. Remove carriage from bottom of inner mast (9).
Carriage weighs 64kg (141 lb).
IBCD503P
3. Remove hoses (5).
NOTE: Use the following steps to install the carriage.
7. Raise the inner mast (9) to put in the carriage (8)
onto the mast, and lower the inner mast to cover
carriage bearing fully.
Lift Trucks Mast System
6
Disassembly & Assembly
End By:
a. Install backrest.
b. Install forks.
Disassemble Carriage
7
IBCD504P
Start By:
6
a. Remove carriage.
8. Install stop bolt (7).
Shim stop bolt as required to obtain a 4 to 6 mm
(.157 to .242 in) lap with top carriage stop on the
inner upright.
1
9. Put the chains in position over cross head. Install
nuts(6) onto the chain anchors to a torque of 300
L 30 NIIm (220 L 22 lbIIft).
IBCD571P
2
1. Remove the roll pins and pins(2) to disconnect
chains(1).
5
IBCD503P
3
10. Install hoses (5).
2
IBCD572P
1
2. Remove lower roller bearings(3) and the shims
from the carriage.
4
3
IBCD502P
11. Install cross head (3) to cylinder rod (4).
12. Install hose guard (2) and bolts (1) to a torque of
8 L 2 NIIm (6 L 1.5 lbIIft).
Lift Trucks Mast System
7
Disassembly & Assembly
1. Select bearings from the chart to obtain minimum
clearance (C) between bearings and channel leg
for full channel length. Use same bearing at all
four locations.
7
4
8
CARRIAGE BEARING CHART
9
5
6
IBCD573P
Part No.
Bearing Size
Bearing O.D.*
D580006
Undersize
98.5 mm (3.878 in)
D580007
Standard
99.0 mm (3.898 in)
D580008
Oversize
99.5 mm (3.917 in)
* Permissible tolerance of L 0.08 mm (.003in)
3. Remove screw(5) and washer(4).
Remove two top roller bearings(6) and the shims.
Refer to carriage Adjustment in Testing & Adjusting.
4. Remove bolt (7), washer, pin-adjust (8) and sideroller bearing (9) from the carriage.
Assemble Carriage
NOTE : The standard, Full Free Lift and Full Free
Triple Lift carriage load bearings are all adjusted the
same way. The Full Free Triple Lift carriage is shown
in the following illustrations.
To make the carriage clearance adjustments,
carriage must be removed from the mast.
IBCD543P
Use the procedure that follows to adjust carriage
load bearings.
A
A
B
A
2. Find narrowest point by ruler on the inner mast in
the area where the bearings make contact.
1
4
5(STD)
3
A
C
D
C
B
B
C
5 (FF, FFT)
6
VIEW A-A
C
C
7
10
9
8
IBCD574P
2
A
VIEW C-C
IBCD581I
VIEW B-B
3. Install enough shims (1) that have been divided
into two equal groups behind bearings (2). At
installation, there is to be contact [zero clearance
(A)] between the bearings and the narrowest point
of inner mast.
Carriage Adjustment
(3) Upper bearings. (4) Shims. (5) Bolt. (6) Screw.
(7) Side-roller bearings. (8) Lower bearings. (9) Pin-adjust.
(10) Bolt. (A) Zero clearance.
(B) 4.0 to 6.0 mm. (.157 to .242 in) clearance.
(C) Minimum clearance. (D) 4.5 L 0.5 mm
Lift Trucks Mast System
4. Do step 2 through 3 for other sets of bearings.
8
Disassembly & Assembly
Mast
4
Remove & Install Mast
Start By:
a. Remove forks.
Move the truck to the place where pit is set up.
3
IDCD016P
5. Tighten screw (3) that holds the top and middle
bearings (4) to the carriage to a torque of 34 L 7 NIm
(25 L 5 lbIft).
1
2
6
IBCD511P
1. Support mast assembly(2) with a hoist and strap
(1) as shown.
IBCD571P
5
6. Position chains (6) on the carriage. Install pins (5)
and the roll pins.
3
End By:
a. Install carriage, raise the inner mast and insert the
carriage from the bottom of inner mast.
IBCD512P
NOTICE
Place identification marks on all hydraulic connectors
and hoses to assure proper installation. Plug and cap
all hydraulic connectors and hoses to avoid debris and
contamination from entering the system.
2. Disconnect hose(3).
NOTE : For B15/18/20T-2(36V), see article 6 prior to
disconnecting hose (3).
Lift Trucks Mast System
9
Disassembly & Assembly
9
6
IBCD513P
5
4
8
WARNING
IBCD502S
Tilt cylinders (4) can drop when pin(6) is removed.
To avoid component damage or personal injury,
support tilt cylinder (4) while removing pin(6).
6. B15/18/20T-2(36V)
Raise the carriage and mast to open outer lower
part. Remove bolt (9) from the front of mast each
side. Remove bolt (8) from the pit each side.
Disconnect hose (3) of article 2.
3. Remove bolt (5) from each side of mast assembly (2).
4. Remove pin (6) from the tilt cylinders on each side
of the mast assembly.
103
7
IBCD582I
IBCD514P
7. B16/18/20X, B13/15/18/20T-2(48V)
Tilt forward mast assembly with the hoist. Remove
bolts (8) from each side.
5. D,G15/18/20S(C)-2, GC15/18/20S(C)-2, B15/18S
Tilt forward mast assembly about 8° with the hoist.
Remove four bolts (7) from pit each side of the
base of mast assembly.
WARNING
Loosen the tension of straps to be connected with
hoist when mast assembly is tilted forward.
If straps are too tight, mast assembly could slide
off when bolts (7), (8), (10) are removed.
8. Use the hoist to remove mast assembly from the truck.
9. Install the mast in the reverse order of removal.
End By:
a. Install forks.
Lift Trucks Mast System
10
Disassembly & Assembly
Disassemble Mast
Start By:
a. Remove lift chain to be connected primary lift
cylinder.
b. Remove primary lift cylinder.
5
NOTE: The following disassembly and assembly
procedure is for a full free triple lift mast.
IBCD520P
4. Disconnect and remove chains(5) from the bottom
of the mast.
2
7
6
1
IBCD518P
1. Remove hoses (1) along with the hose support
clamps (2).
8
IBCD521P
5. Remove clamp (6) and bolt (7) from stationary
mast and disconnect regulator (8) from secondary
cylinder(For D,G15/18/20S(C)-2, GC15/18/20S(C)-2,
B15/18S).
3
2
4
10
IBCD519P
2. Remove hose sheave (3).
9
3. Remove chain nut(4) from the top of the mast
(each side).
10
IBCD504S
6. Remove tube ass’y (9) and bolt (10) from stationary
mast and disconnect regulator (8) from secondary
cylinder (For B13/15/18/20T-2, B16/18/20X).
Lift Trucks Mast System
11
Disassembly & Assembly
15
IBCD523P
11
16
7. Remove top cylinder retainer bolts (11) from each
side of the mast.
17
D,G15/18/20S(C)-2, GC15/18/20S(C)-2, B15/18S
12
16
IBCD524P
8. Remove cylinder retainer brackets(12) from each
cylinder.
15
17
B15/18/20T-2(36V)
IBCD527P
13
9. Remove secondary cylinders(13). Each cylinder
weighs 38 kg (84 lb).
17
14
B16/18/20X, B13/15/18/20T-2(48V)
IBCD584I
11. Remove bearing mounting pins(15) and screw
(16) from the mast lower hinge mounting part.
IBCD526P
12. Check the condition of the bearings(17) located in
each of the mast mounting bracket.
Replace the bearings (17) with new if worn or
damaged.
10. Check the condition of bearings(14) located in
each of the tilt cylinder pin bores. Replace
bearings(14) with new if worn or damaged.
Lift Trucks Mast System
12
Disassembly & Assembly
24
21
24
22
18
23
19
IBCD528P
IBCD534P
13. Move inner mast channel (21) downward.
18. Move intermediate mast channel (24) downward.
14. Remove bearings (18) and shims from the
intermediate mast channel (24).
19. Remove bearings (22) and the shims from the
stationary mast channel.
15. Remove nylon pads (19) and shims.
20. Remove nylon pads (23) and the shims.
20
24
25
IBCD533P
IBCD529P
21. Remove bearings (25) and the shims from the
intermediate mast channel (24).
16. Remove bearings (20) and shims from the inner
mast channel (21).
21
24
IBCD535P
IBCD530P
22. Fasten nylon straps and a hoist to the intermediate
mast channel (24). Remove intermediate mast
channel. The intermediate mast channel weighs
112kg (247 lb).
17. Fasten nylon straps and hoist to inner channel
(21). Remove inner channel. The weight of the
inner channel is 110 kg (243 lb).
Lift Trucks Mast System
13
Disassembly & Assembly
Assemble Mast
NOTE: The standard, Full Free Lift and Full Free
Triple Lift mast load bearings are all adjusted the
same way. The mast shown in the following
illustrations is the Full Free Triple Lift mast.
1. Make sure all parts are clean and free of dirt and
foreign material.
2. Check all parts for damage, use new parts for
replacement.
IBCD541P
A. Lower Bearing Adjustment of
Intermediate Mast
4
5
4. Find narrowest point by ruler on the stationary
mast in the area where the bearings make contact
at 420 mm (16.5 in) channel lap.
NOTICE
When the correct amount of shim has been installed
behind bearings (1) there will be contact (zero clearance)
between the bearings and the inner mast at most narrow
point of mast.
6
3
A
C
B
IBCD505S
Mast Adjustment Lower Bearings
(A) Zero clearance. (B) Minimum clearance. (C) Zero clearance.
(3) Bearing. (4) Bearing. (5) Shims. (6) Shims.
IBCD535P
5. Lifting by crane, insert intermediate mast into
stationary mast from the upper side.
3. Select lower bearings (3) and (4) from the chart to
obtain minimum clearance (B) between bearing
and channel leg for full channel length. Use same
bearing on left and right side.
Mast And Carriage Bearings
Part No.
Bearingsize
Bearing O.D.*
D580006
Undersize
98.5 mm (3.878 in)
D580007
Standard
99.0 mm (3.898 in)
D580008
Oversize
99.5 mm (3.917 in)
* Permissible tolerance L 0.08 mm (.003 in)
Lift Trucks Mast System
14
Disassembly & Assembly
1
4
3
IBCD534P
IBCD533P
9. Install 1mm shim and bearing (4) of intermediate
lower basically.
6. Install 1mm shim and bearing (1) of stationary
upper basically.
2
1
4
5
6
3
IBCD538P
A
NOTE: When installing shims (2) behind bearings
(1), make sure the amount of shim is divided equally
when positioned behind each bearing.
B
7. Install the correct amount of shim (2) behind
rollers until contact (zero clearance) is made
between the bearings.
C
IBCD505S
8. Install pads (3) to each side.
Refer to “Upper Pad Adjustment” of Disassebly &
Assembly.
Mast Adjustment Lower Bearings
(A) Zero clearance. (B) Minimum clearance. (C) Zero clearance.
(3) Bearing. (4) Bearing. (5) Shims. (6) Shims.
NOTE: When installing shims (5) behind bearings
(4), make sure the amount of shim is divided equally
when positioned behind each bearing (4).
Lift Trucks Mast System
15
Disassembly & Assembly
IBCD531P
IBCD534P
13. Install 1 mm shim to each bearing of stationary
mast upper basically. Bearing should be selected
D580006 undersize bearing.
10. Make sure intermediate mast lower bearings are
properly shimmed in the stationary mast by
rolling up and down and moving intermediate
mast to right and left. If clearance between both
masts can be detected, pull out the intermediate
mast from the stationary mast with crane and
add shim 0.5 mm or 1 mm to both intermediate
lower bearings.
4
11. In case of standard and full free mast, inner
lower bearings can be easily extruded by pulling
down the inner mast from the bottom of
stationary mast. If intermediate mast is stuck and
cannot move by rolling up and down, there might
be excessive shim. Pull out the intermediate
mast from the stationary mast and remove shim
0.5 mm to both intermediate lower bearings.
Repeat same procedure of above until properly
shimmed. There is to be contact zero clearance
(C) between intermediate lower bearings and
stationary channel at approximately 420 mm
(16.5 in) channel lap.
IBCD533P
14. Install 1mm shim and bearing (4) of intermediate
lower basically.
B. Upper Bearing Adjustment of Stationary
Mast
IBCD535P
12. Lift by crane, insert intermediate mast into
stationary mast from the upper side.
Lift Trucks Mast System
16
Disassembly & Assembly
Repeat same procedure of above until properly
shimmed. There is to be contact zero clearance
(F) between stationary upper bearings and the
widest point of intermediate mast to be checked
before.
D
E
7
C. Upper Pad Adjustment
8
E
F
7
7
8
9
10
E
8
F
7
IBCD506S
9
Mast Adjustment Upper Bearings
(D) Zero clearance. (E) 0.80 mm (.031 in) Clearance maximum.
(F) Zero clearance. (7) Pads. (8) Shims. (9) Shims. (10) Shims.
8
10
E
IBCD506S
Mast Adjustment Upper Bearings
(D) Zero clearance. (E) 0.80 mm (.031 in) Clearance maximum.
(F) Zero clearance. (7) Pads. (8) Shims. (9) Shims. (10) Shims.
17. Install shims (8) behind each pad (7) until there
is 0.80 mm (.031 in) maximum clearance (E)
between the pads and the inner and intermediate
masts with the masts at full extension. Lift by
crane, and pull out intermediate mast from
stationary mast and insert the shims behind each
pad. In case of standard and full free mast, the
pads of stationary upper can be easily extruded
by pulling down the inner mast from the bottom
of stationary mast.
IBCD532P
15. Make sure stationary mast upper bearings are
properly shimmed by rolling up and down and
moving intermediate mast to right and left. If
clearance between both masts can be detected,
pull out the intermediate mast from the stationary
mast with crane and add shim 0.5 mm or 1 mm
to both stationary upper bearings.
16. In case of standard and full free mast, stationary
upper bearings can be easily extruded by pulling
down the inner mast from the bottom of
stationary mast. If intermediate mast is stuck and
cannot move by rolling up and down, there might
be excessive shim. Pull out the intermediate
mast from the stationary mast and remove shim
0.5 mm to both stationary upper bearings.
Lift Trucks Mast System
17
Disassembly & Assembly
D. Lower Bearing Adjustment of Inner
Mast
4
5
6
3
IBCD542P
A
19. Find narrowest point by ruler on the intermediate
mast in the area where the inner lower bearings
make contact full length of intermediate mast
excluding minimum channel lap 420 mm (16.5 in).
C
B
12
11
IBCD505S
Mast Adjustment Lower Bearings
(A) Zero clearance. (B)Minimum clearance. (C)Zero clearance.
(3)Bearing. (4)Bearing. (5)Shims. (6)Shims.
IBCD530P
18. Select lower bearings (3) and (4) from the chart
to obtain minimum clearance (B) between
bearing and channel leg for full channel length.
Use same bearing on left and right side.
20. Lifting by crane, insert inner mast (11) into
intermediate mast (12) from the upper side.
Mast And Carriage Bearings
Part No.
Bearing Size
Bearing O.D.*
D580006
Undersize
98.5 mm (3.878 in)
D580007
Standard
99.0 mm (3.898 in)
D580008
Oversize
99.5 mm (3.917 in)
13
* Permissible tolerance L 0.08mm (.003in)
IBCD528P
21. Install 1 mm shim and bearing (13) of intermediate
upper basically.
Lift Trucks Mast System
18
Disassembly & Assembly
E. Upper Bearing Adjustment of
intermediate Mast
14
Follow same procedure with above B.
F. Upper Pad Adjustment of Intermediate
Mast
Follow same procedure with above C.
24. If the bearings were removed from the mast
mounting brackets, install new ones.
IBCD529P
25. Put a small amount of clean grease on mounting
bearing. Install mounting pins and screw into
mast mounting brackets.
Refer to Mast Mounting Group Adjustment of
Testing & Adjusting.
22. Install 1mm shim and bearing (14) of inner lower
basically.
4
5
6
3
A
15
B
IBCD526P
C
26. If the bearings were removed from the tilt
cylinder pin bores (15), install new ones.
IBCD505S
Mast Adjustment Lower Bearings
(A) Zero clearance. (B) Minimum clearance. (C) Zero clearance.
(3) Bearing. (4) Bearing. (5) Shims. (6) Shims.
23. Make sure inner mast lower bearings are
properly shimmed in the intermediate mast by
rolling up and down and moving inner mast to
right and left. If clearance between both masts can
be detected, pull down the inner mast from the
bottom of intermediate mast. Inner lower bearings
can be easily extruded. Add shim 0.5 mm or 1 mm
to both inner lower bearings. If inner mast is stuck
and cannot move by rolling up and down, there
might be excessive shim. Pull out the inner mast
from the intermediate mast and remove shim 0.5
mm to both inner lower bearings. Repeat same
procedure of above until properly shimmed. There
is to be contact zero clearance (C) between inner
lower bearings and intermediate channel at
narrowest point.
Lift Trucks Mast System
16
IBCD527P
27. Install secondary cylinders (16) into the
stationary mast.
19
Disassembly & Assembly
24
10
17
9 23
IBCD524P
22
10
28. Install secondary cylinder mounting brackets (17)
over the secondary cylinders.
IBCD504S
31. Install regulator (22) to secondary cylinder and
tube ass’y (23) and bolts (24) to stationary mast.
(For B13/15/18/20T-2, B16/18/20X)
18
IBCD523P
29. Install top cylinder retainer bolts (18) for the
secondary cylinders.
25
IBCD520P
20
32. Connect chains (25) at the bottom of the mast.
19
21
27
IBCD521P
30. Install regulator (21) to secondary cylinder and
clamp (19) and bolt (20) to stationary mast.
(For D,G15/18/20S(C)-2, GC15/18/20S(C)-2,
B15/18S)
26
IBCD519P
33. Connect chains (26) at the chain bracket of
stationary mast upper.
34. Install sheave (27) of lift hose.
Lift Trucks Mast System
20
Disassembly & Assembly
28
IBCD518P
35. Install hoses (28) along with the hose support
clamps.
End by :
a. Install primary lift cylinder.
b. Install lift chain to be connected primary lift
cylinder.
Lift Trucks Mast System
21
Disassembly & Assembly
Testing & Adjusting
Mast And Carriage Bearings
Carriage Adjustment
NOTE: The standard, Full Free Lift and Full Free
Triple Lift carriage load bearings are all adjusted the
same way. The Full Free Triple Lift carriage is shown
in the following illustrations.
A
A
D580006
Undersize
98.5 mm (3.878 in)
D580007
Standard
99.0 mm (3.898 in)
D580008
Oversize
99.5 mm (3.917 in)
4. Shim bolt as needed to obtain a 4.0 to 6.0 mm
(.157 to .242 in) overlap (B) between bolt (3) and
the carriage stop on the inner upright.
(See Carriage Adjustment in Testing & Adjusting).
4
5(STD)
B
Bearing O.D.*
3. Equally shim both sides until contact (A) is made
(zero clearance) between bearings and inner mast
at narrowest point
Use the procedure that follows to adjust carriage
load bearings.
A
Bearing Size
* Permissible tolerance of L 0.08mm (.003in)
To make the carriage clearance adjustments,
carriage must be removed from the mast.
A
Part No.
3
C
D
5. Torque for screw.............34 L 7 NIm (25 L 5 lbIft)
C
6. Refer to “Carriage Assembly” of Disassembly &
Assembly.
C
B
B
6
5 (FF, FFT)
VIEW A-A
C
C
7
10
9
8
A
VIEW C-C
VIEW B-B
IBCD581I
Carriage Adjustment
(3) Upper Bearings. (4) Shims. (5) Bolt. (6) Screw.
(7) Side-roller Bearings. (8) Lower Bearings. (9) Pin-adjust.
(10) Bolt. (A) Zero Clearance.
(B) 4.0 to 6.0 mm. (.157 to .242 in) Clearance.
(C) Minimum Clearance. (D) 4.5 L 0.5 mm
1. Select lower bearings from the chart to obtain
minimum clearance (C) between bearings and
channel leg for full channel length. Use same
bearing in all two locations.
2. Select upper bearing from the chart to obtain
minimum clearance (C) between bearings and
channel leg for full channel length. Use same
bearing at all two locations. (For G20SC-2,
GC20SC-2, B20T, D20SC-2, and B20X, bearings
are same with upper, middle 4 locations.)
Lift Trucks Mast Systems
22
Testing & Adjusting
2. Make adjustments to chain anchor nuts (1) or
bolts (2) for equal tension of the mast and carriage
chains.
Chain Adjustments
Chain Adjustment Check
3. Put LOCTITE NO.242 Thread Lock on the threads
of the locknuts after the adjustment is completed.
IBCD505P
2
IBCD508P
Lift the carriage and mast high enough to put their
full weight on the carriage and mast chains. Check
the chains, and make sure the tension is the same.
Outer Lift Chains
(2) Chain Anchor Bolts.
Chain Adjustment
Chain Wear Test
If the tension is not the same on both chains, do the
procedure that follows:
Chain wear test is a measurement of wear of the
chain links and pins. Do the steps that follow to
check chain wear.
WARNING
1. Lift the mast and carriage enough to put tension
on the lift chains.
Personal injury can be caused by sudden
movement of the mast and carriage. Blocks must
be used to prevent the mast and carriage from any
movement while the adjustments are made. Keep
hands and feet clear of any parts that can move.
2. Measure precisely ten links of chain distance at
the center of pins in millimeter.
A chain wear gauge can also be used.
3. Calculate chain wear rate.
New one pitch = 15.88 mm
Chain wear rate (%)
Actual measurement - 158.8
=
158.8
x 100
WARNING
Do not put a lift truck into service if the chain wear
indication is 2% or more. A reading of 2% or more
could cause damage or injury to persons.
1
IBCD506P
Inner Lift Chains
(1) Chain Anchor Nuts.
4. If the chain wear indication is 2% or more, replace
the lift chain.
1. Lift the mast and carriage and put blocks under
the mast and carriage to release the tension from
the lift chains.
Lift Trucks Mast Systems
23
Testing & Adjusting
Carriage and Mast Height Adjustment
Forks Parallel Check
1. Move the mast either forward or backward so it is
in the vertical position.
1. Lift the mast and operate the tilt control lever, until
the top surface of the forks is parallel with the
floor. Place two straight bars, that are the same
width as the carriage, across the forks as shown.
Measure the distance from the bottom of each end
of the two bars to the floor. The forks must be
parallel within 3 mm (.12 in) for Full Tapered and
Polished (FTP) forks, all other forks 6.4 mm (.25
in), for their complete length.
2. Lower the carriage completely.
2. If not parallel, determine which one is defective
and replace it.
A
IDCS130S
Forks Parallel Check
(Typical Example)
IBCD585I
3. On Full Free Lift and Full Free Triple Lift models,
the bottom of the inner mast must be even with
the bottom of the stationary mast.
4. Measure the distance from the bottom of the inner
upright to the bottom of carriage bearing end.
5. The measurement (A) must be as follows:
<STD>
D,G15/18/20S(C)-2.......................22 mm(0.866 in)
B15/18S .........................................7 mm (0.276 in)
B16/18/20X, GC15/18/20S(C)-2,
B13/15/18/20T-2 ..........................- 6 mm(-0.236 in)
<FFL & FFTL>
D, G15/18/20S(C)-2......................36 mm (1.417in)
B15/18S .......................................21 mm (0.827 in)
GC15/18/20S(C)-2 .......................11 mm (0.433 in)
B16/18/20X, B13/15/18/20T-2
NOTE : If the above measurements are not correct,
make adjustments to the chains to get the correct
measurement. See Chain Adjustments in TESTING
AND ADJUSTING.
Lift Trucks Mast Systems
24
Testing & Adjusting
Tilt Cylinder Length Check
Tilt Cylinder Alignment
If the tilt cylinders are out of alignment, extra
stresses in the mast assembly and the mast hinge
area will result. To prevent damage, the tilt cylinders
must stop evenly at the end of the tilt back and tilt
forward strokes.
Tilt Angle Check
IDCD009P
1. Tilt the mast to full forward position. Measure the
extended length of the cylinder rods from the
cylinder housing to the mast. The difference of
length between the two cylinder rods must be
within 3.18 mm (.125 in) of each other.
IDCD008P
Tilt Angle Check (Typical Example)
Drift Test
The tilt angle of the mast must be checked in the full
tilt back and full tilt forward positions. A tilt indicator
or a protractor can be used to measure the angle.
Both sides of the mast must be checked to make
sure that the mast is not twisted.
Drift is movement of the mast or carriage that is the
result of hydraulic leakage in the cylinders or control
valve. Before testing the drift:
The tilt angle is determined by the tilt cylinders used.
See tilt cylinders in specifications to determine the tilt
angle from the cylinder being used.
WARNING
Personal injury can be caused by sudden movement
of the mast or carriage. Use wood blocks and
clamps to hold the mast in this position. Keep hands
and feet clear of any parts that can move.
1. Check the chain adjustment and tilt cylinder
alignment and make necessary adjustments.
2. Lift the mast approximately 762 mm (30 in). Use
wood blocks and clamps to hold the mast in this
position.
3. Check the mast hinge bolts to make sure they are
tight.
4. Remove the blocks and clamps and lower the
mast.
Lift Trucks Mast Systems
25
Testing & Adjusting
Drift Test For Lift System
1. Secure a rated capacity load on the forks of the lift
truck. Operate the lift truck through a complete lift
and tilt cycle until the oil is at normal temperature of
operation, 45 to 55 °C (113 to 131 °F).
2
2. Put the mast in a vertical position.
Raise a rated capacity load to a sufficient height to
test the lift cylinders.
3
3. Measure any drift of the carriage for a ten minute
period. Drift for all models shall not exceed 100.0
mm (4.00 in).
1
IBCD513P
Tilt Cylinder Adjustment
(1) Pivot eye. (2) Bolt. (3) Rod.
1. Loosen bolt (2) at pivot eye (1).
Tilt Cylinder Adjustment
2. Turn rod (3) into or out of pivot eye (1) to obtain
the correct length. The minimum length from the
end of rod to the rear face of eye is 16 mm.
WARNING
Tilt cylinder pivot eyes can loosen if the torque on
the pivot eye clamping bolt is not tight enough.
This will let the tilt cylinder rod turn in the tilt
cylinder eye. The cylinder rod may twist out of the
pivot eye and the tilt cylinder will be out of
alignment or may let the mast fall and cause
personal injury or damage. When the rod lengths
are made even, the tilt angle differences or the
mast alignment will no longer be a problem.
16mm
To correct the tilt angle or tilt cylinder length, an
adjustment must be made to the tilt cylinder as
follows :
EHCS046S
3. Tighten bolt (2) and the nut to a torque of 95 L 15
N•m (70 L 10 lb•ft).
Lift Trucks Mast Systems
26
Testing & Adjusting
(1) With chains adjusted for equal tension, run mast
to full lift. If mast does not kick (move) to one
side, no shims are needed. If mast does kick
(move) to one side, disconnect cylinder from the
bar on that side. Add shim, connect cylinder,
adjust chains and run mast to full lift to check for
kick. Repeat process if necessary. The total shim
pack must not be more than three shims
maximum.
Lift & Tilt Mounting Group
Adjustment
(2) Install bearing outer race to a depth of (F)
............................4.5 L 0.8 mm (.177 L .031 in).
A
(3) Tilt cylinder installation shown.
(4) (Full Free Lift Mast Only):
Tighten nuts until U-bolt is firm against cylinder,
do not apply standard torque.
1
3
VIEW A-A
B
B
2
(F)
VIEW B-B
4
IBCD508S
Lift Trucks Mast Systems
27
Testing & Adjusting
Mast mounting Group
Adjustment
2
3
2
1
IBCD502S
For B15/18/20T-2(36V)
1
3
IBCD509S
For D,G15/18/20S(C)-2, GC15/18/20S(C)-2
3
2
IBCD582I
For B16/18/20X, B13/15/18/20T-2(48V)
1
3
1. Tighten screw (1) that holds bearing (3) to hinge
bracket of stationary mast to a torque of 34 L7 NIm
(25 L 5 lbIft).
IBCD510S
2. Install roll pin (2) to a depth 2 ~ 3 mm (0.079 ~
0.118 in) from surface of bearing.
For B15/18S
3. Apply the crean grease to a surface of bearing.
4. Apply Loctite No242 to bolts and tighten with a
torque 180 L 20 NIm (130 L 15 lbIft).
Lift Trucks Mast Systems
28
Testing & Adjusting
SB2315E02
6. 2002
Operation &
Maintenance Manual
LIFT TRUCKS
B13T-2, B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2 (48V)
B15T-2, B18T-2, B20T-2 (36V)
Information Section
Table of Contents
Information Section
Maintenance Section
Table of Contents..................................................1
Foreword ...............................................................2
Inspection, Maintenance and Repair of Lift Truck
Fork...................................................................... 66
Tire Inflation Information .................................... 70
Torque Specifications......................................... 71
Lubricant Specifications ..................................... 73
Battery Discharge Indicator ................................ 76
Battery ................................................................ 77
Cold Storage Applications .................................. 79
Lubricant Viscosities and Refill Capacities......... 80
Maintenance Intervals ........................................ 81
When Required .................................................. 83
Every 10 Service Hours or Daily ...................... 101
First 50 -100 Service Hours or a Week ............ 107
First 250 Service Hours or a Month ................. 109
Every 250 Service Hours or Monthly................ 110
Every 500 Service Hours or 3 Months ............. 114
Every 1000 Service Hours or 6 Months ........... 119
Every 2000 Service Hours or Yearly ................ 126
Every 2500 Service Hours or 15 Months ......... 130
Safety Section
Owner/Operator Safety Overview .........................4
Safety Information .................................................9
Safety Operating Practices ...............................9
Capacity/Nameplate........................................10
Warning Signs and Labels ..............................10
General Hazard Information............................14
Operating Safety .............................................18
Operator Restraint System .............................19
Avoiding Lift Truck Tipovers............................22
How to Survive in a Tipover ............................27
General Section
Specifications ......................................................29
Noise and Vibration.............................................32
Capacity Chart ....................................................33
Serial Number .....................................................37
Operator’s Warning and Identification Plate .......38
Environment Protection Section
Environment Protection .................................... 132
Index Section
Operation Section
Index ................................................................ 133
Operator's Station and Monitoring Systems........40
Lift Truck Controls ...............................................46
Before Operating the Lift Truck ...........................50
Lift Truck Operation ............................................53
Operating Techniques.........................................56
Parking the Lift Truck ..........................................60
Lift Fork Adjustment ............................................62
Storage Information ............................................63
Transportation Hints............................................64
Towing Information .............................................65
• WORLDWIDE NETWORK
-1-
Information Section
Foreword
About This Manual
About Safety Section
This manual tells you how to operate your
DAEWOO lift truck safely and maintain it for long
truck life. Keep the manual in the storage pocket of
the seat so you can easily refer to it. We recommend
that all operators carefully read and understand this
manual before operating the lift truck. Both new and
experienced operators will find its information
useful.
The first two sections of this manual discuss safety.
First is an overview of owner and operator
responsibilities, along with a summary of OSHA/
ASME expectations. It also presents some
suggestions for operator training. The second safety
section gives you basic safety precautions. It also
shows you where to find warning labels used on the
lift truck. The warnings are reproduced here for you
to read.
You may notice slight differences between your lift
truck and trucks as they are shown and described in
this manual. This is normal. Because we strive
continuously to improve our lift trucks, your lift truck
may include advancements not presented here.
And, sometimes we remove guards and covers to
show details we couldn’t otherwise.
Before you operate or perform any maintenance on
this lift truck, read the safety information sections
carefully. Also locate and read the warning decal’s
on the truck itself.
Operator Restraint System(If Equipped)
If you ever have questions about your truck or about
this manual, your DAEWOO dealer can provide you
with latest available information.
Forklift trucks seldom tipover, but in the rare event
they do, the operator may be pinned to the ground
by the lift truck or the overhead guard. This could
result in serious injury or death.
Operator training and safety awareness is an
effective way to prevent accidents, but accidents
can stil happen. The DAEWOO operator restraint
system can minimize injuries. The DAEWOO
operator restraint system keeps the operator
substantially within the confines of the operator’s
compartment and the overhead guard.
Photographs or illutrations in this section guide the
operator through correct procedures of checking,
operation and maintenance of the DAEWOO
operator restraint system.
About General Section
This section tells you where to locate the various
serial numbers on your machine. Space is provided
for you to record the numbers right in this book for
easy reference should you ever need the numbers
for identification, warranty work, parts ordering, and
so on. We also explain here (and also in the safety
section) the importance of your machine’s capacity
load.
-2-
Information Section
About Operation Section
About Environment
Section
This section tells you about checking, starting,
operating, and stopping the lift truck. It describes lift
truck controls, gauges, and switches. It has
information about transporting and towing your lift
truck.
Protection
Note that Daewoo Industrial Vehicle Division is ISO
14001 certified which is harmonized with ISO 9001.
Periodic Environmental Audits & Environmental
Performance Evaluations have been made by
internal and external inspection entities. Life-cycle
Analysis has also been made through out the total
product life. Environmental Management System
includes Design for Environment from the initial
stage of the design.
Remember, however, the operating techniques
presented here are basic. Skill comes with
experience and training in using the lift truck and
learning what it can and cannot do.
Environment Management System considers
environmental laws & regulations,reduction or
elimination of resource consumption as well as
environmental emission or pollution from industrial
activities, energy saving, environment-friendly
product design(lower noise, vibration, emission,
smoke, heavy metal free, ozone depleting
substance free, etc.), recycling, material cost
reduction, and even environmentally oriented
education for the employee.
About Maintenance Section
The Maintenance Section tells you how to service
the lift truck. Topics are organized by service
intervals. Items without specific intervals are listed
under “When Required”.
Maintenance Intervals
We recommend using the truck service hour meter
to determine servicing intervals. You may also use
calendar intervals (daily, weekly, monthly, etc.) if
this is more convenient. Calendar intervals should
come as close as possible to service hour meter
intervals. Perform service at whichever interval
comes first.
Also note the following :
• If you operate your truck under extremely dusty or
wet conditions, lubricate it more often than is
specified in the “Maintenance Interval” chart.
• At each higher interval, also service the items
serviced at all previous intervals. For example, at
“Every 500 Service Hours or 3 Months,” also
service those items listed under “Every 250
Service Hours or Monthly,” and “Every 10 Service
Hours or Daily”.
-3-
Safety Section
Owner/Operator Safety Overview
Safety Message for Owner and
Operators
for the lift truck operator to be familiar with the
proper operation of the lift truck, to be alert and to
avoid actions or conditions which can result in an
accident.
Your DAEWOO equipment has been designed with
the safety of the persons who will operate and
service it in mind. However, our care in designing
this equipment does not guarantee that it will be
used in a safe manner. Safe operating practice is
where your responsibility and the responsible
actions of the persons who operate and maintain
this equipment take over.
Do not operate a lift truck if in need of repair,
defective or in any way unsafe. Report all defects
and unsafe conditions immediately. Do not attempt
any adjustments or repairs unless trained and
authorized to do so.
Owner/Employer Responsibility
The safety rules and regulations in this section are
representative of some, but not all rules and
regulations noted under the Occupational Safety
and Health Act (OSHA) and are paraphrased
without representation that the OSHA rules and
regulations have been reproduced verbatim.
Both the proposed Occupational Safety and Health
Act (OSHA) and the American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME) make you, the
employer, responsible for providing formal training
and a safe workplace environment for the use of this
equipment. Your responsibility includes establishing
daily inspections and scheduled maintenance
practices to ensure the equipment’s ongoing safe
operating condition.
Please refer to 1910. 178 in Federal Register Vol.
37, No. 202, the National Fire Protection
Association No. 505 (NFPA), American Mational
Standard, ANSI B56. 1 Safety Standard for Low lift
and High Lift Trucks and subsequent revisions for a
complete list of OSHA rules and regulations as to
the safe operation of powered industrial lift trucks.
Since regulations vary from contry to country
outside in U.S.A., operate this lift truck in
accordance with local regulations.
This manual is intended to help you meet your
responsibilities. It identifies warning labels on the
equipment and explains what they mean.
It
describes some of the general and specific hazards
to be aware of when operating the equipment. It also
offers some suggestions for establishing workplace
rules and operator training programs.
Proposed changes to OSHA Safety and Health
Standards (29 CFR 1910) would adopt the ASME
B56.1a - 1995 Consensus Safety Standard for Low
Lift and High Lift Trucks.
As the owner/employer, you have the additional
responsibility to be certain that the equipment you
have placed into service is capable of doing its
intended job. This includes matching equipment
design to working conditions, capacity to the size of
loads it will be handling, and selecting suitable
attachments and options. This section of the manual
discusses these issues as well.
At the end of this overview, we list specific OSHA,
ASME, UL, NFPA and other published resources
you can consult for ways to help you comply with
safety requirements for the use of this equipment in
your workplace.
ASME B56.1a - 1995, Part II, Section 4 (General
Safety Practices), and Section 5 (Operating Safety
Rules and Practices) contains requirements for the
users (Owners and Operators) of powered industrial
trucks.
Requirements include : Operator qualifications and
training, operating safety rules, and maintenance
practices.
DAEWOO lift trucks are manufactured according to
the regulations and standards laid down in EU
Machinery Directive 98/37/EC and EMC directive
89/336//EC. Please refer to the Directives 89/6555/
EC and 89/391/EC and its amendments for the safe
use of DAEWOO lift trucks.
The most effective method of preventing serious
injury or death to the lift truck operator or others is
-4-
Safety Section
Operator Responsibility
Maintaining a Safe Workplace
If your job includes operating this equipment, you
should review this manual and get formal training in
how to operate it properly and safely. Furthermore,
you should ensure that your workplace is
maintained to assure your continued safety and the
safety of others around whom you work.
In addition, you, the operator, have responsibility to :
As we said, operators should recognize and avoid
hazards in the workplace. Although some injuries
occur because of unsafe operating practices, others
result from unnecessary workplace hazards. To
maintain a safe workplace environment for this
equipment, do the following :
• Remove physical hazards where the equipment
will be operated, in either the plant or the yard.
• Follow the safety practices in which you are trained
at all times, every day.
• Separate pedestrian and equipment traffic
wherever possible.
• Recognize and avoid potential hazards in your
work-place.
• Place convex mirrors at blind intersections.
• Understand and abide by the Warning labels
attached to the equipment.
• Require the use of horns at intersections or when
approaching pedestrian areas.
• Inspect the equipment for its serviceability at the
beginning of each shift.
• Establish equipment speed limits.
• Report immediately any service problems you
notice before you use the equipment or that
develop while you are using it.
• Consider installing and maintaining backup alarms
and flashing caution lights on equipment.
• Use edge guards, levelers and trailer locks on
docks.
• Report immediately any unsafe workplace
conditions that threaten your safety or the safety of
others.
• When the equipment is driven onto trailers, use
wheel chocks and jack supports if necessary to
prevent creeping and possible collapse.
• Avoid horseplay or other reckless actions that may
endanger yourself or others.
• Develop workplace safety rules for all employees.
In short, every operator of this equipment has the
responsibility to use common sense at all times and
to make safety his or her number one job priority.
• Post these rules conspicuously in the areas where
they apply.
Many appropriate workplace rules are published by
OSHA, ASME, and the National Safety Council.
(See the list below under "Information Resources for
Operation, Maintenance, and Safety.") We
recommend that you consult these publications as
you develop safety rules for your workplace.
-5-
Safety Section
Maintaining the Machine to the
Job
Maintenance Practices
Well maintained equipment is safer equipment. A
regular program of scheduled maintenance should
be part of your facility’s ongoing safety program.
Daily inspections or inspections at the start of every
shift are required by OSHA. Your DAEWOO dealer
can help you train your operators for this task and
provide you with genuine replacement parts and
service
equipment
when
scheduled
(or
unscheduled) maintenance and repairs are needed.
Every employer must ensure that equipment is
properly suited to the job it must perform. It should
be selected with conditions and capacity well in
mind, otherwise operators and other workers may
face hazards resulting directly from wrong
equipment selection. Furthermore, equipment
suited for one job or environment may not be
suitable at all when moved to a different work area.
Although operators have a daily responsibility to
inspect and report service problems, OSHA and
ASME
standards
require
that
equipment
maintenance and repair be performed by authorized
mechanics only. Understand what is reasonable to
expect in this area, and leave the serious
maintenance and repair tasks to professional
mechanics and technicians.
Equipment should be used for its intended purpose
only. For example, lift truck forks should never
serve as man-lifts or mobile work platforms.
Warning Signal Options
ASME section 4.15 Warning Devices, requires that
every truck be equipped with an operator controlled horn, whistle, gong or other sound
producing device.
The user (Owner/Operator) shall determine if
operating conditions require the truck to be
equipped with ADDITIONAL sound – producing or
visual devices, and be responsible for providing and
maintaining such devices. Your DAEWOO dealer
can provide effective warning signal devices to meet
the conditions of your application.
Modifications
Many times the addition of a special attachment can
affect the ability of equipment to operate at the
capacity originally intended. When modifications
potentially change equipment safety, OSHA and
ASME require you to obtain written approval from
the manufacturer. If a modification changes a
machine’s capacity, the machine’s capacity/
nameplate must also be changed. Consult your
DAEWOO dealer before making modifications to
your equipment.
-6-
Safety Section
Operator Safety Training
• What are the specific features of our loading
docks, ramps, or railcar loading facilities?
Although this manual contains much information
about safety practices, it is not meant to be a
training manual for new operators. An employer’s
responsibility extends far beyond handing an
employee this or any other document and saying
"read this to learn how to operate this equipment."
• What specialized attachments are used on our
equipment?
• What personal equipment or special clothing is
necessary to operate the equipment in our work
environment? (hard hats, seat restraints,
respirators, protective shoes or gloves, etc.)
Formal Training
• Are operators conducting daily inspections prior to
shift start?
OSHA and ASME require formal training for new
operators and refresher training for experienced
operators, along with appropriate on-the-job
supervision. Furthermore, training must be tailored
to the specific conditions of your workplace and the
workplace rules you have developed to protect your
employees. Whenever work conditions change in
ways that affect operator safety, training for the new
conditions must be provided. Of course, before any
employee can be selected to operate industrial or
construction type equipment, the employee must
meet the employer’s specific visual, auditory,
physical and mental ability standards.
• Does our equipment require any special refueling
procedures?
One additional recommendation: ask those
employees who work around (but do not operate)
the equipment for suggestions about what the
operators should be aware of.
Practical Training
The questions above and others like them can help
you design an appropriate training course for your
operators. But above all, be sure that your training
incorporates a significant portion of practical
experience.
Inspection Training
OSHA furthermore requires that operators be
trained to conduct daily equipment safety
inspections. The goal of these inspections is to
prevent any piece of equipment in need of repairs
from being placed into service and thereby
endangering personnel. Your DAEWOO dealer can
help with suggestions as you develop training to
comply to this and to other OSHA/ASME
requirements.
Recognition
A key part of any training program is recognition.
Think of ways you can recognize the achievement of
those who successfully complete this important
training.
Certificates,
licenses,
patches,
authorization cards and the like set these individuals
apart and help create a lasting attitude of
commitment to the job.
Training Program Development
As noted above, OSHA/ASME requires your
training to be designed around the conditions
present in your operation. To ensure this, ask
yourself specific questions, including (but not limited
to) the following :
• In what areas of our workplace does operating ing
the equipment pose hazards to pedestrians?
• What hazards must operators be trained to deal
with?
• Does our workplace have any one-way aisles,
speed zones, high noise, low light, or fire hazard
areas?
-7-
Safety Section
Information Resources for
Operation, Maintenance and
Safety
• Publications Concerning Safe Handling and
Storage of LP Gas. Available from: National LP
Gas Association, 1301 West 22nd Street,
Oakbrook, IL 60521.
The following publications contain instructions and
standards for the operation, maintenance, and
safety issues you may want to consider :
• Other OSHA regulations which may be applicable
to the place of use.
You can receive help in applying information from
these sources to your workplace by contacting
OSHA or your Worker’s Compensation Insurance
Company.
• General Industry Standards, OSHA 2206: "OSHA
Safety and Health Standards (29 CFR 1910)",
"Subpart N-Materials Handling and Storage", 29
CFR 1910.178 powered industrial trucks;
1910.177 – "Servicing Multi-Piece and Single Rim
Wheels." Available from: Superintendent of
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, DC 20402.
• National Fire Protection (NFPA) 505, "Powered
Industrial Trucks, Type Designation, Areas of Use,
Maintenance, and Operation. Available from:
Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
Printing Office, Washington DC 20402.
• ASME B56.1a – 1995: "Safety Standard for Low
Lift and High Lift Trucks" (Safety Code or Powered
Industrial Trucks). Available from: Society of
Mechanical Engineers, United Engineering
Center, 345 E. 47Th Street, New York, NY 10017.
• NFPA 58: "Storage and Handling Liquefied
Petroleum Gases". Available from: National Fire
Protection Association. Inc.. Batterymarch Park,
Quincy, MA 02269.
• National Safety Council Data Sheets: "1-66 Writing and Publishing Employee Safety
Regulations; "479 - Liquefied Petroleum Gases for
Industrial Trucks"; "195.71 - The "In-Plant
"Pedestrian". Available from: National Safety
Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL
60611.
• Accident Prevention Manual for Industrial
Operations : Two volumes: "Administration and
Programs", and "Engineering and Technology".
Available from: National Safety Council, 444 North
Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611.
• UL 583 Standard for Safety for Electric – Battery
Powered Industrial Trucks.
• UL 558 Standard for Internal Combustion Engine –
Powered Industrial Trucks.
-8-
Safety Section
Safety Information
The following section of this manual discusses both
general and specific safety issues for your
equipment. It gives you basic safety precautions. It
also shows you where to find warning labels used
on this equipment. The warnings themselves are
reproduced here for you to read.
WARNING
WARNING : Indicates a potentially hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, COULD
result in DEATH or SERIOUS INJURY.
Before you operate or perform any maintenance on
this equipment, read this Safety Information section
carefully. Also carefully read the operation and
other sections of this manual and heed all of the
safety information they contain. Also locate, read,
and understand the warning decal’s on the
equipment itself.
CAUTION
CAUTION : Indicates a potentially hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, MAY
result in INJURY.
Pay attention to this safety alert symbol. Be alert
to its warning. It means your safety is involved.
Safe Operating Practices
Warning messages appear with the safety alert
symbols. They explain the hazard, either in words
or by internationally recognized pictures.
Always use common sense and be alert for possible
hazards. Most accidents happen because someone
failed to follow basic safety rules or take obvious
precautions. Often you can avoid an accident by
recognizing situations that might be hazardous.
Furthermore, anyone who operates, maintains, or
repairs this equipment should have the necessary
training, skills, and tools.
The dangers, warnings, and cautions in this manual
and on the equipment cannot cover every possible
circumstance that might involve a hazard. You must
ensure that your operating techniques, tools, and
work procedures are safe for you and others. You
should also make sure that the equipment will not be
damaged or made unsafe by your chosen
operation, maintenance, or repair procedures.
Improper operation, maintenance, or repair of this
equipment can be dangerous and could result in
injury or death.
The information in this manual was current at the
time the manual was written. However,
specifications, torques, pressures, measurements,
adjustments, and illustrations can change at any
time. These changes can affect equipment service.
Before starting any job, obtain the most current and
complete information. Consult your DAEWOO
dealer for the most current information.
Do not operate or perform any lubrication,
maintenance, or repair on this equipment until you
have read and understood the operation,
maintenance, and repair information in this manual.
You will find safety precautions and warnings both in
this manual and on the equipment itself. If you
ignore these warnings, bodily injury or death could
occur to you or to others.
The safety rules and regulations in this section
represent some, but not all rules and regulations of
the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA).
They are paraphrased without representation that
the OSHA rules and regulations have been
reproduced verbatim.
Hazards are identified by the exclamation point (!)
"Safety Alert Symbol" followed by words such as
"DANGER," "WARNING," or CAUTION."
DANGER
The best method for preventing serious injury or
death is for the operator to be familiar with the
proper operation of the equipment. Be alert and
avoid actions or conditions that can result in an
accident.
DANGER : Indicates an imminently hazardous
situation which, if not avoided, will result
in DEATH or SERIOUS INJURY.
-9-
Safety Section
Capacity/Nameplate
Warning Signs and Labels
DO NOT exceed machine capacity load as
described on the capacity/nameplate attached to
your machine.
Many specific warning labels (safety signs) are
displayed on your lift truck. This section of the
manual shows their exact location and describes
the hazard involved. Please take the time to become
familiar with these warning labels.
Also make sure that you can read all warning labels.
Clean or replace any you cannot read or in which
you cannot see the pictures. Clean warning labels
with a cloth, water, and soap. Never use solvent,
gasoline, or any other cleaning agent that may
damage the label and make it unreadable.
Replace any damaged, missing, or unreadable
label. If a replaced part had a label, install a new
label on the replacement part. Your DAEWOO
dealer has new labels.
Located on the right side of the operator’s seat on
the battery cover.
The remainder of this safety section presents the
wording of the safety labels that should be on your
lift truck. It also tells you where on the truck to find
the labels.
The capacity/nameplate gives the lift truck capacity
by weight and distance to the load center. For
example, a capacity load of 3000 lb at 24 in means
that the machine can lift 3000 lb if the load center is
not more than 24 in from both the horizontal and
vertical faces of the forks.
General Warnings to Operator
To determine the load center: measure from the
face of the forks to the gravitational center of the
load. Before you lift any load, be sure that the weight
and load center combination is within the capacity
given on the capacity/nameplate.
The capacity shown on the nameplate is for the lift
truck as it left the factory. Later changes to the truck
or its attachments can reduce its actual rating.
Located on the battery cover to the right side of the
operator’s seat.
WARNING
Only trained and authorized personnel may
operate this machine. For safe operation, read
and follow the Operation and Maintenance
Manual furnished with this machine and
observe the following warnings :
1. Before starting machine, check all controls and
warning devices for proper operation.
2. Refer to machine capacity/nameplate for
allowable machine capacity. Do not overload.
- 10 -
Safety Section
Operate machines equipped with attachments as
partially loaded machines when not handling a
load.
3. Put directional control or shift lever in neutral
before "ON-OFF" switch is turned on.
4. Start, turn, and brake smoothly. Slow down for
turns and slippery or uneven surfaces. Use
extreme caution when turning on inclines.
5. Travel with load as low as possible and tilted
back. If load interferes with visibility, travel with
load trailing.
6. On grade operations, travel with load up grade.
7. Watch out for pedestrians and obstructions.
Check overhead clearances.
Located on the right side of the operator station.
8. Do not permit riders on forks or machine at any time.
Battery Restraint Warning
9. Do not allow anyone to stand or pass under the
elevated portion of any machine.
10. Be sure operating surface can safely support
machine.
11. Operate machine and attachments only from
operator's position.
12. Do not handle unstable or loosely stacked loads.
13. Use minimum tilt when picking up or depositing
a load.
14. Use extreme care when handling long, high, or
wide loads.
IA9O2001
15. Forks should be completely under load and
spread apart as far as load permits.
Located on the front of battery cover.
16. Machine should be equipped with overhead
guard or equivalent protection where load
requires it. Use load back rest extension. Use
extreme caution if operating without these
devices.
WARNING
Before operating truck, ensure that hood is
securely locked by hood latch, and turn stopper
to locking position. Otherwise, a battery may
come out of a truck in case of tipover. It could
cause the risk of serious injury or death.
17. Parking-Lower lifting mechanism to floor. Put
directional control or shift lever in neutral. Set
parking brake. Turn "ON-OFF" switch off. Chock
wheels if machine is on incline. Disconnect
battery when storing electric machines.
18. Observe safety rules when handling fuel for
engine powered machines and when charging
batteries for electric machines.
Training Required
Service Warning
To
Operate
Or
WARNING
Improper operation or maintenance could result
in injury or death. Do not operate or work on this
truck unless you are properly trained. Read and
understand the operation and maintenance
manual. Additional manuals are available from
DAEWOO dealers.
- 11 -
Safety Section
No Riders Warning
No Standing On Forks Warning, No
Standing Under Forks Warning
WARNING
WARNING
To avoid personal injury, allow no riders. A lift
truck is designed for only one operator and no
riders.
Do not stand or ride on the forks. Do not stand
or ride on a load or pallet on the forks. Do not
stand or walk under the forks.
Hand Placement Warning
WARNING
IA8O1005
Located on the mast.
Load Backrest
Warning
No hands. Do not place hands in this area. Do
not touch, lean on, or reach through the mast or
permit others to do so.
Must
Be
In
Place
WARNING
Operation without this device in place may be
hazardous.
Located on the mast.
Located on the load backrest.
- 12 -
Safety Section
Apply Parking Brake Warning
Battery Disconnect Before Servicing
Warning
WARNING
WARNING
When leaving machine apply parking brake!
Parking brake is not automatically applied.
Disconect battery from truck and also discharge
high voltages from capacitor banks with a 150
ohm, 25 watt Resistor before attempting to
service this truck.
IA8O1007
Located on the top left side of the cowl.
IA8O4006
Overhead Guard Must Be In Place
Warning
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
WARNING
Operation without this device in place may be
hazardous.
This
guard
conforms
to
A.N.S.I.B56.1 and F.E.M. Section IV. This design
has been tested with an impact.
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
IA8O1008
Located outside top frame member of overhead
guard.
- 13 -
Safety Section
General Hazard Information
WARNING
Many countries apply recognized standards and/or
regulations to lift truck use, operation, and
maintenance.
Install any seat to this seat frame. Switch must
shut off all power when operator is not seated.
In the USA, see current revisions of :
• 29 Code Federal Register 1910.178 powered
industrial trucks.
WARING
• American National Standard, ANSI B56.1a - 1995
Safety Standard for Low Lift and High Lift trucks.
INSTALL ANY SEAT TO THIS SEAT
FRAME SWITCH MUST SHUT OFF
ALL POWER WHEN OPERATION IS
• National Fire Protection (NFPA) 505, Powered
Industrial Trucks, Type Designation, Areas of Use,
Maintenance, and Operation.
NOT SEATED.
IA1O1010
• Other OSHA regulations which may be applicable
to the place of use.
Lift Trucks Temporarily Out Of Service
IOSO014P
• Attach a tag that says "DO NOT OPERATE" (or
similar warning) to the start switch or somewhere
obvious on other controls before the truck is
serviced or repaired. You can get these tags from
your DAEWOO dealer.
Protective Clothing/Gear
• Always wear a hard hat, safety glasses, and other
protective gear, according to your job conditions.
• Never wear loose clothing or jewelry. These can
catch on controls or on moving parts of the lift truck
and cause you to lose control or pull you into the
equipment.
- 14 -
Safety Section
Protective Guards and Covers
Maintenance
• Double-check that all guards and protective covers
are securely in place on your truck.
Whenever you perform all maintenance, do the
following :
• Be careful when removing cover plates. Gradually
back off the last two bolts or nuts located at
opposite ends of the cover but do not remove them
completely. Pry the cover loose to relieve any
spring or other pressure. Then remove the last two
bolts or nuts.
• Park the lift truck in an authorized area. This area
should be LEVEL. If the area is not level, block the
drive wheels.
Housekeeping
• Apply the parking brake.
• Keep the lift truck clean. Be sure the steps and
floor are free of dirt and debris, grease and oil,
tools or other items.
• Turn key switch OFF. Remove the key.
• Fasten down all loose items, such as tools, that are
not part of the lift truck.
• Never store maintenance fluids in glass
containers.
• Air under pressure can cause personal injury.
Wear a protective face shield, protective clothing,
and protective shoes when you use pressure air
for cleaning. The maximum air pressure permitted
for cleaning is 205 kPa (30 psi).
• Use cleaning fluids carefully.
Fluid Penetration
• Report any needed repairs as soon as you become
aware of them.
• When you check for fluid leaks, especially if the
fluid is under pressure, always use a board or
cardboard. NEVER USE YOUR BARE HAND.
Fluid escaping under pressure can penetrate your
skin and muscle tissue, causing serious injury and
possible death. Fluid that is injected into your skin
must immediately be removed (surgically) by a
doctor.
• Lower the forks and tilt the mast forward until the
fork tips touch the ground or floor.
Pressure Air
• Learn and use work site hand signals. Accept
signals from one person only.
• Never permit any unauthorized person on the lift
truck.
• Before operating the lift truck, properly latch the
engine compartment.
Asbestos
No asbestos is used in any component of this lift
truck.
• Never clean electrical components with steam,
solvent, or high pressure air.
Crushing or Cutting Prevention
Lift Chains
• Support the mast and carriage when working
beneath them. Hydraulic cylinders should not be
depended on to hold them up. If a control is moved
or if a hydraulic line breaks, the component will fall.
• Before operating the lift truck, inspect the part of
the chain that travels over the crosshead roller.
The movement of the chain over the roller is a
special source of wear.
• Never make adjustments when the lift truck is
moving. When the engine is operating, make
adjustments only when specified.
• Inspect chain link pins before operating the truck.
They must not extend outside of the bore hole. Any
link pin that extends beyond its connecting link
may be broken inside its bore hole.
• Remember that clearances for implement linkages
will increase or decrease as the implement moves.
• Inspect the chain anchor and links for wear.
- 15 -
Safety Section
Burn Prevention
• Keep a safe distance from all rotating and moving
parts.
Oils
• Moving fan blades will throw or cut any object that
falls or is pushed into them. Make sure no objects
come near fans.
• Avoid contact with hot oil and the components that
carry or contain hot oil. Personal injury can result
from such contact.
• Handle wire rope cable with gloves. A kinked or
frayed wire rope cable is not safe to use.
• At operating temperature, the hydraulic oil and
hydraulic tank are hot and can be under pressure.
• When driving retainer pins, clear the area of
people. Wear protective glasses. Retainer pins
struck with force can fly out and cause injury.
• The hydraulic tank filler cap should be removed
only after the engine is stopped and the filler cap is
cool enough to remove with your bare hand.
• Before striking any object, clear the area of people.
Flying chips and debris can cause injury.
• Remove the hydraulic tank filler cap slowly. This
will relieve pressure, if any.
Falling Objects Protective Structure
(FOPS) Overhead Guard
• Before you disconnect or remove any lines,
fittings, or related items, relieve all pressure in the
oil system.
• This is an attached guard located above the
operator's compartment and secured to the lift
truck.
Batteries
• Battery acid can cause severe burns. Fumes from
batteries can explode or cause fire.
• To avoid possible weakening of the Falling Objects
Protective Structure (FOPS), consult a DAEWOO
dealer before altering, by adding weight to, welding
on, or cutting or drilling holes into the structure.
• When checking, charging, or servicing a battery,
never smoke or in any other way expose the
battery to flames or sparks. Never set chains or
metallic tools on top of a battery. This could cause
an electrical short circuit, arcing, flames, and
explosion.
• The overhead guard is not intended to protect
against every possible impact. The overhead
guard may not protect against some objects
penetrating into the operator's station from the
sides or ends of the lift truck.
• The end of the charging period, as the battery
approaches a full charge condition, is an especially
hazardous time for highly explosive gases.
• The lift truck is equipped with an overhead guard
(FOPS) as standard. If there is a possibility of
overhead objects falling through the guard, the
guard must be equipped with smaller holes or a
plexiglass cover.
• Any altering done that is not specifically authorized
by DAEWOO invalidates DAEWOO's FOPS
certification.
• Add only distilled water to a "wet" battery. Never
add acid.
• Always follow the battery manufacturer's
instructions when preparing a dry charged battery
for service.
• The protection offered by this FOPS will be
impaired if it has been subjected to structural
damage. Structural damage can be caused by an
overturn accident, by falling objects, etc.
• Do not mount any item such as fire extinguishers,
first aid kits and lights by welding brackets to or
drilling holes in any FOPS structure. See your
DAEWOO dealer for mounting guidelines.
- 16 -
Safety Section
Fire or Explosion Prevention
• Tighten all hose and line connections to the
recommended torque. Replace if you find any of
the following conditions :
• Always remember that most lubricants are
flammable.
- Damaged or leaking end fittings.
- Chafed or cut outer covering and exposed wire
reinforcing.
• Never smoke in areas where batteries are charged
or where flammable materials are stored.
- Local ballooning in any outer covering.
• Keep electrical connections tight and clean. Check
for loose or frayed wiring every day. Before
operating the lift truck, have any loose or frayed
electrical wires tightened, repaired, or replaced.
- Kinking or crushing in a flexible part of the hose.
- Armor that is embedded in the outer covering.
- Displaced end fittings.
• Store all lubricants in properly marked containers.
Keep such containers where unauthorized
persons will not have access to them.
• Check all clamps, guards, and heat shields for
proper installation. Prevent these parts from
vibrating or rubbing against other parts and
causing excessive heat during operation.
• Oily rags or other flammable material must also be
stored in a protective container in a safe place.
Do not change any factory set adjustment values
unless you have both authorization and training.
Especially Safety equipment and switches may not
be removed or adjusted incorrectly. Repairs,
adjustments and maintenances that are not correct
can make a dangerous operating condition.
• Never weld or flame cut on pipes or tubes that
contain flammable fluids. Before welding or flame
cutting, empty the pipes and tubes of the
flammable fluids and clean them thoroughly with
nonflammable solvent.
For any checkup, repair, adjustments, maintenance
and all other work concerning your forklift truck,
please contact your DAEWOO dealer. We would
like to draw your attention to the fact that any
secondary damages due to improper handling,
insufficient maintenance, wrong repairs or the use
of other than original DAEWOO spare parts waive
any liability by DAEWOO.
• Do not allow flammable materials, such as oil and
grease, accumulate on the lift truck.
• Never expose the lift truck to burning brush.
• Be sure that shields that protect hot exhaust
components from oil in the event of a line, tube, or
seal failure are properly installed.
• Keep a fire extinguisher available and know how to
use it. Inspect and service the fire extinguisher as
recommended on its instruction plate.
Lines, Tubes and Hoses
• Never bend or strike high pressure lines. Lines,
tubes, or hoses that are bent or damaged should
not be installed on the lift truck.
• Leaking oil lines, tubes, and hoses can cause fires.
Repair any that are loose or damaged. Contact
your DAEWOO dealer.
• Use caution when checking for leaks. Use a board
or cardboard; never use your bare hand. See
"Fluid Penetration" in the Safety section for more
details.
- 17 -
Safety Section
Operating Safety
• Before operating the lift truck move all hydraulic
controls to the HOLD(center) position and place
the directional control lever in NEUTRAL.
Mounting and Dismounting
• Apply the parking brake.
• Use only the steps and/or handholds provided to
mount and dismount the lift truck.
• Remove any obstacles from the path of the lift
truck. Watch for hazards such as curbs, blocks,
and posts.
• Face the lift truck and use both hands. Be
especially careful in wet or slippery conditions.
• Make sure all controls work properly.
• Do not try to climb on or off the lift truck when you
are carrying anything that prevents you from using
both hands.
While Operating the Lift Truck
• Do not jump off the lift truck.
• Always wear seat belt.
• Never get on or off a lift truck that is moving.
• Always obey traffic rules and posted warning
signs.
Before Operating the Lift Truck
• Be aware of load limits on floors (including truck
bed and railcar floors) and watch for adequate
overhead clearance.
• Operate the lift truck from the operator's station
only.
• Always use an overhead guard, especially in high
stacking area or with unstable loads.
• Fasten the seat belt.
• Adjust the seat so you have full pedal travel when
your back is against the seat back.
• Watch for falling objects when stacking. Be sure
the truck has a load back rest extension and an
overhead guard.
• Verify that the horn, lights, and backup alarm (if
equipped) are working properly.
• Never turn or travel with an elevated load.
• Before turning on the key or beginning to move the
lift truck, be sure no one is working on, underneath,
or close to it. There should be no people in the
immediate area.
• Operate the lift truck in reverse when carrying
bulky loads, for better visibility. Look in your
direction of travel.
• Travel with load uphill on inclines and downgrades.
• Avoid turning on grades or use extreme caution.
• Tilt an elevated load forward as low as possible
and only when you are directly over the unloading
area.
• Apply the parking brake any time you leave the lift
truck.
Lift Truck Parking
IOSO014P
• If there is a "DO NOT OPERATE" or similar
warning tag attached to the start switch or
controls, do not move the lift truck or operate any
of its controls.
• Park in authorized areas only. Never block traffic.
• Exposure to the elements can cause lift truck
system electrical damage or failure. If you are
parking the lift truck for an extended period of time,
- 18 -
Safety Section
Operator Restraint System
(If Equipped)
choose an area where the electrical system will be
protected from moisture.
• Park the lift truck on a level surface. (If you must
park on an incline, block the drive wheels.)
Warning Signs and Labels
Your DAEWOO lift truck has the following tipover
warning decals.
• Lower the forks and tilt the mast forward until the
fork tips touch the ground or floor.
Make sure that you can read all safety signs. Clean
or replace these if you cannot read the words or see
the pictures. when cleaning the labels use a cloth,
water and soap. Do not use solvent, gasoline, etc.
You must replace a label if it is damaged, missing or
cannot be read. If a label is on a part that is
replaced, make sure a new label is installed on the
replaced part. See you DAEWOO Lift Truck dealer
for new labels.
The most effective method of preventing serious
injury or death to yourself or others is to familiarize
yourself with the proper operation of the lift truck, to
be alert, and to avoid actions or conditions which
can result in an accident.
• Place the directional control lever in NEUTRAL.
• Apply the parking brake.
• Turn the key switch OFF and remove the key.
WARNING
Tipover can occur if the truck is improperly
operated. In the event of a tipover, injury or
death could result.
"Survive in tipover" decal
IB9O0002
"Survive in tipover" decal
IB9O0003
- 19 -
Safety Section
WARNING
"Fasten seat belt" decal
Your DAEWOO truck comes equipped with a
DAEWOO operator restraint system. Should it
become necessary to replace the seat for any
reason, it should only be replaced with another
DAEWOO operator restraint system.
"Survive in tipover" decal
If Optional Suspension Seat Equipped
IB9O0004
The “Survive in tipover” warning is located on the
overhead guard. It shows the proper use of the
operator restraint system.
Forward and Backward
Adjustment
Seat Adjustment
Front-to
-backadjustment
adjustment
Front-to-back
IC1O0085
Lever
Backrest Inclination
IB9O0005
Move the lever, slide the seat to the desired
position, and release the lever.
IC1O0086
Weight adjustment
Press the weight adjustment
lever only downwards.
Adjustment to driver's
weight in 9 steps.
Press the appropriate
lever at the bottom against
the stop the weight
adjustment.
Switches over automatically
to the 50 kg position.
IB9O0006
Adjust the seat before operating the lift truck. After
adjusting, joggle the seat to make sure it is properly
locked, DO NOT adjust the seat while the truck is in
motion.
IC1O0087
- 20 -
Safety Section
Seat Belt
2. Replace the seat belt assembly every 3 years
even if it passes visual inspection.
For replacement, see the date of manufacture
labelled on the back side of the belt.
IB9O0007
The Operator Restraint System, Prevents the
operator from jumping from the operator’s
compartment in the event of a forward or side
tipover.
INSO019S
3. In the event of a tipover, the seat and restraint
system should be inspected for damage and
replaced, if necessary.
The system is designed to keep the operator on the
seat and in the operator’s compartment in the event
of a tipover.
NOTE : Operator restraints shall be examined at the
regular truck service intervals, it is
recommended that they be replaced if any
of the following conditions are found :
Inspection
• Cut or frayed strap
• Worn or damaged hardware including anchor points
• Buckle or retractor malfunction
• Loosen stitching
WARNING
The seat belt may cause the operator to bend at
the waist. If you are pregnant of have suffered
from some abdominal disease, consult a doctor
before you use the seat belt.
INSO017S
1. If the seat belt is torn, if pulling motion is
interrupted during extension of the belt, or if the
belt cannot be inserted into the buckle properly,
replace the seat belt assembly.
Fasten the Seat Belt
Tung
Buckle
INSO020S
IB9O0009
- 21 -
Safety Section
Avoiding Lift Truck Tipovers
1. Grip the plate (connector) of the belt and pull the
belt from the retractor. Then insert the plate into
the slot of the buckle until a snap is heard.
Pull on the belt to confirm it is latched.
Lift Truck Stability
2. Make sure the belt is not twisted.
WARNING
If you fasten the belt across your abdomen, the
belt may injure your abdomen in an accident.
INSO023I
Counterbalanced lift truck design is based on the
balance of two weights on opposite sides of a
fulcrum (the front axle). The load on the forks must
be balanced by the weight of the lift truck.
The location of the center of gravity of both the truck
and the load is also a factor. This basic principle is
used for picking up a load. The ability of the lift truck
to handle a load is discussed in terms of center of
gravity and both forward and sideways stability.
INSO021S
Center of Gravity (CG)
3. Be sure to fasten the belt across your hips, not
across your abdomen.
NOTE : The belt is designed to automatically adjust
to your size and movement. A quick pull on
the belt will confirm that the automatic
adjuster will hold the belt position in the
event of an accident.
Release the Seat Belt
CG
INSO024I
The point within an object, at which the whole weight
of the object may be regarded as being
concentrated, is called the center of gravity or CG. If
the object is uniform, its geometric center will
coincide with its CG. If it is not uniform, the CG could
be at a point outside of the object. When the lift truck
picks up a load, the truck and load have a new
combined CG.
INSO022S
Push the button of the buckle to release the belt.
The belt will automatically retract when released.
Hold the plate of the belt and allow the belt to slowly
retract.
- 22 -
Safety Section
Stability and Center of Gravity
CG truck
Combined CG
Lift Truck Stability Base
CG load
CG-Truck will tip over
INSO025I
INSO027I
The stability of the lift truck is determined by the
location of its CG; or, if the truck is loaded, the
combined CG of the truck and load. The lift truck has
moving parts and, therefore, has a CG that moves.
The CG moves forward or backward as the mast is
tilted forward or backward. The CG moves up or
down as the mast moves up or down. The CG and,
therefore, the stability of the loaded lift truck, is
affected by a number of factors such as:
For the lift truck to be stable (not tip over forward or
to the side), the CG must stay within the area of the
lift truck stability base – a triangular area between
the front wheels and the pivot of the steer wheels. If
the CG moves forward of the front axle, the lift truck
will tip forward. If the CG moves outside of the line
on either side of the stability base, the lift truck will
tip to the side.
WARNING
• the size, weight, shape and position of the load
• the height to which the load is lifted
Dynamic forces (braking, acceleration, turning)
also affect stability and can produce tipover
even when the CG is within the stability triangle.
• the amount of forward or backward tilt
• tire pressure
Capacity Load (Weight and Load Center)
• dynamic forces created when the lift truck is
accelerated, braked or turned
• condition and grade of surfaces on which the lift
truck is operated
CG load
Combined CG
INSO028I
The capacity load of the lift truck is shown on the
capacity/nameplate riveted to the truck. It is
determined by the weight and load center. The load
center is determined by the location of the CG of the
load.
CG truck
INSO026I
These same factors are also important for unloaded
lift trucks. They tip over sideways easier than a
loaded lift truck carrying its load in the lowered
position.
The load center shown on the nameplate is the
horizontal distance from the front face of the forks,
or the load face of an attachment, to the CG of the
- 23 -
Safety Section
load. The location of the CG in the vertical direction
is the same as the horizontal dimension.
Remember that, unless otherwise indicated, the
capacity load shown on the nameplate is for a
standard lift truck with standard backrest, forks and
mast, and having no special-purpose attachment. In
addition, the capacity load assumes that the load
center is no further from the top of the forks than it is
from the face of the backrest. If these conditions do
not exist, the operator may have to reduce the safe
operating load because the truck stability may be
reduced. The lift truck should not be operated if its
capacity/nameplate does not indicate capacity load.
INSO031S
DON’T go over rough terrain! If unavoidable, slow
down.
NOTE : If the load is not uniform, the heaviest
portion should be placed closer to the
backrest and centered on the forks.
NOTICE
1. Capacity/Nameplates originally attached to
forklifts sold by DAEWOO shall not be removed,
altered or replaced without DAEWOO’s approval.
2. DAEWOO assumes no responsibility for lift trucks
placed in service without a valid DAEWOO
Nameplate.
INSO032S
DON’T start, turn, or stop quickly.
Sudden movement can cause the lift truck to
tipover.
3. If necessary to change your specification, contact
your DAEWOO lift truck dealer.
Safe Driving Practices
INSO033S
DON’T crowd. Maintain a safe distance from the
edge of docks, ramps and platforms. Always watch
“tail swing”
INSO030S
DON’T overload. Always handle loads within the
rated capacity shown on the capacity plate.
- 24 -
Safety Section
INSO037S
INSO034S
DON’T drive on soft ground.
DON’T elevate tilted loads !
This can also cause the lift truck to tipover forward.
INSO035S
INSO038S
DON’T turn on, or drive across an incline.
DON’T pick up an off center load ! Such a load
increases the possibility of a tipover to the side.
INSO036S
DON’T tilt elevated loads forwards !
This can cause the lift truck to tipover forward.
INSO039S
DON’T drive on slippery surfaces ! Sand, gravel, ice
or mud can cause a tipover. If unavoidable, slow
down.
- 25 -
Safety Section
INSO040S
INSO043I
DON’T attempt to pick up or deposit a load unless
the lift truck is level.
DON’T travel with the mast raised.
INSO041S
DON’T jump off if your truck starts to tipover !
Stay in your seat to survive.
INSO042I
DON’T compromise safety. Wear a hard hat if
required on your job site.
- 26 -
Safety Section
How to Survive in a Tipover
FASTEN SEAT BELT
WARNING
WARNING
TIPOVER CAN OCCUR
IF TRUCK IS IMPROPERLY
OPERATED.
INJURY OR DEATH
COULD RESULT.
DON'T JUMP
HOLD ON TIGHT TO
STEERING WHEEL
BRACE FEET
LEAN AWAY
FROM IMPACT
LEAN
FORWARD
IN CASE OF TIPOVER
HOLD ON TIGHT
INSO048I
Hold on tight.
FASTEN SEAT BELT
INSO045I
FASTEN SEAT BELT
In the event of a tipover, the risk of serious injury or
death will be reduced if the operator is using the
operator restraint system and follows the
instructions provided.
WARNING
TIPOVER CAN OCCUR
IF TRUCK IS IMPROPERLY
OPERATED.
INJURY OR DEATH
COULD RESULT.
DON'T JUMP
HOLD ON TIGHT TO
STEERING WHEEL
BRACE FEET
LEAN AWAY
FROM IMPACT
LEAN
FORWARD
IN CASE OF TIPOVER
BRACE FEET
FASTEN SEAT BELT
WARNING
TIPOVER CAN OCCUR
IF TRUCK IS IMPROPERLY
OPERATED.
INJURY OR DEATH
COULD RESULT.
DON'T JUMP
HOLD ON TIGHT TO
STEERING WHEEL
BRACE FEET
LEAN AWAY
FROM IMPACT
INSO049I
LEAN
FORWARD
IN CASE OF TIPOVER
Brace your feet and keep them within the operator’s
compartment.
FASTEN SEAT BELT
FASTEN SEAT BELT
INSO046I
WARNING
TIPOVER CAN OCCUR
IF TRUCK IS IMPROPERLY
OPERATED.
INJURY OR DEATH
COULD RESULT.
DON'T JUMP
HOLD ON TIGHT TO
STEERING WHEEL
BRACE FEET
LEAN AWAY
FROM IMPACT
LEAN
FORWARD
IN CASE OF TIPOVER
Always use operator restraint system.
FASTEN SEAT BELT
WARNING
TIPOVER CAN OCCUR
IF TRUCK IS IMPROPERLY
OPERATED.
INJURY OR DEATH
COULD RESULT.
DON'T JUMP
HOLD ON TIGHT TO
STEERING WHEEL
BRACE FEET
LEAN AWAY
FROM IMPACT
LEAN AWAY
LEAN
FORWARD
IN CASE OF TIPOVER
INSO050I
Lean away from the direction of fall.
DON'T JUMP
INSO047I
DON’T jump.
- 27 -
Safety Section
FASTEN SEAT BELT
WARNING
TIPOVER CAN OCCUR
IF TRUCK IS IMPROPERLY
OPERATED.
INJURY OR DEATH
COULD RESULT.
DON'T JUMP
HOLD ON TIGHT TO
STEERING WHEEL
BRACE FEET
LEAN AWAY
FROM IMPACT
LEAN
FORWARD
IN CASE OF TIPOVER
LEAN FORWARD
INSO051I
Lean forward.
- 28 -
General Section
Specifications
CHARACTERISTICS
1
Manufacturer
DHI&M
2
Model
3
4
5
6
7
8
Capacity
Load center
Power type
Operator type
Tire
Wheels (x=driven)
9
10
12
DIMENSIONS
maximum fork height with rated load
Lift with std.
two-stage mast
free lift
Fork carriage
ISO Class
at rated load center
distance
Electric, Diesel, Gasoline, LP-Gas
Stand-on, Rider-seated
P=pneumatic, E=elastic, C=cushion
number of front/rear
Spacing (Min. X Max.)
Tilt of mast
forward / backward
Overall
dimensions
length to fork face
width
mast lowered height
mast extended height
overhead guard height
seat height
23
23a
Aisle width with pallets 1000 X 1200 crosswise
Aisle width with pallets 800 X 1200 lengthwise
PERFORMANCE
Out side turning radius
Load moment constant (from center of front wheel to fork face)
24
25
Speeds
26
28
30
32
Travel
loaded/unloaded
Lift
loaded/unloaded
Lowering
loaded/unloaded
Max. Drawbar pull
loaded
Max. gradeability
loaded
WEIGHT
Total weight (With minimum weight of battery)
33
with load
front/rear
without load
front/rear
Axle load
34
B15T-2
1500(3000)
500(24)
Electric
Rider-seated
P, E, C
2 X /1
mm
in
mm
in
deg
3300(130)
130(5)
II
35 X 100 X 900
1.4 X 4 X 35.4
240 X 905
9.4 X 35.6
5/7
3300(130)
130(5)
II
35 X 100 X 900
1.4 X 4 X 35.4
240 X 905
9.4 X 35.6
5/7
mm(in)
mm(in)
mm(in)
mm(in)
mm(in)
mm(in)
mm(in)
mm(in)
1838(72.4)
1070(42.1)
2149(84.6)
4350(171.3)
1970(77.6)
904(35.6)
1472(58.0)
366(14.4)
1853(73.0)
1070(42.1)
2149(84.6)
4350(171.3)
1970(77.6)
904(35.6)
1487(58.5)
366(14.4)
mm(in)
mm(in)
3164(124.6)
2983(117.4)
3179(125.2)
2998(118.0)
km/h
mph
mm/s
fpm
mm/s
fpm
kg(lb)
%
14.5/16.0
9.0/9.9
390/630
76.8/124.0
500/450
98/89
1750(3852)
23
13.8/15.5
8.6/9.6
370/630
72.8/124.0
500/450
98/89
1450(3190)
23
kg
kg
lb
kg
lb
2883(6343)
3484/649
7665/1428
1377/1506
3029/3313
2957(6505)
3910/547
8602/1203
1364/1593
3007/3511
2/1
18 X 7-8
18 X 7-8
1242(48.9)
890/0(35/0)
85(3.3)
100(3.9)
foot/hydraulic
hand/mech
2/1
18 X 7-8
18 X 7-8
1242(48.9)
890/0(35/0)
85(3.3)
100(3.9)
foot/hydraulic
hand/mech
48/440
700(1540)
4.0(5.3) X 2
8.5(11.4)
TR
ODB
15580(2260)
13960(2025)
48/440
700(1540)
4.0(5.3) X 2
8.5(11.4)
TR
ODB
17170(2490)
13960(2025)
mm(in)
mm(in)
Fork
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
B13T-2
1250(2500)
500(24)
Electric
Rider-seated
P, E, C
2 X /1
kg(lb)
mm(in)
thickness X width X length
13
DHI&M
48V
CHASSIS
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
number of front/rear
size
front
size
rear
Tires
Wheelbase
Tread
Ground clearance
Brake
front/rear
loaded
loaded
Service brake
Parking brake
mm(in)
mm(in)
mm(in)
mm(in)
loaded
loaded
DRIVE
45
Battery
47
Electric motors
54
55
Control type
Axle
57
System pressure
Volt/Capacity-Max.
Weight (Minimum)
Drive motor (1HR Rating)
Hydraulic motor (20% Duty)
Drive/Pump
Brake type
Lift
Attachment
V/AH
kg(lb)
kw(hp)
kw(hp)
Type
Type
kPa(psi)
kPa(psi)
- 29 -
General Section
1
DHI&M
DHI&M
DHI&M
36V
DHI&M
B18T-2
1750(3500)
500(24)
Electric
Rider-seated
P, E, C
2 X /1
B20T-2
2000(4000)
500(24)
Electric
Rider-seated
E
2 X /2
B15T-2
1500(3000)
500(24)
Electric
Rider-seated
P, E, C
2 X /1
B18T-2
1750(3500)
500(24)
Electric
Rider-seated
P, E, C
2 X /1
B20T-2
2000(4000)
500(24)
Electric
Rider-seated
C
2 X /1
3300(130)
130(5)
II
35 X 100 X 900
1.4 X 4 X 35.4
240 X 905
9.4 X 35.6
5/7
1961(77.2)
1070(42.1)
2149(84.6)
4350(171.3)
1970(77.6)
904(35.6)
1595(62.8)
366(14.4)
3300(130)
135(5.3)
II
40 X 100 X 900
1.4 X 4 X 35.4
240 X 905
9.4 X 35.6
5/7
2006(79.0)
1102(43.4)
2149(84.6)
4350(171.3)
1970(77.6)
904(35.6)
1635(64.4)
371(74.6)
3000(118)
130(5)
II
35 X 100 X 1050
1.4 X 4 X 41
240 X 905
9.4 X 35.6
5/7
1853(73.0)
1070(42.1)
2000(78.7)
4045(159.2)
2120(83.5)
904(35.6)
1487(58.5)
366(14.4)
3000(118)
130(5)
II
35 X 100 X 1050
1.4 X 4 X 41
240 X 905
9.4 X 35.6
5/7
1961(77.2)
1070(42.1)
2000(78.7)
4045(159.2)
2120(83.5)
904(35.6)
1595(62.8)
366(14.4)
3000(1180)
130(5)
II
10 X 100 X 1050
1.4 X 4 X 41
240 X 905
9.4 X 35.6
5/7
1997(78.6)
1070(42.1)
2000(78.7)
4045(159.2)
2120(83.5)
904(35.6)
1626(64)
371(14.6)
9
10
12
3287(129.4)
3106(122.3)
3320(130.7)
3139(123.6)
3179(125.2)
2998(118.0)
3287(129.4)
3106(122.3)
3323(130.8)
3142(123.7)
23
23a
13.5/15.5
8.4/9.6
350/630
68.9/124.0
500/450
98/89
1100(2420)
23
13.0/15.0
8.1/9.3
320/630
63.0/124.0
500/450
98.4/88.6
1255(2767)
23
12.4/13.1
7.8/8.2
350/560
69/110
500/450
98/89
1080(2736)
24
12.1/12.8
7.6/8
330/560
65/110
500/450
98/89
1130(2486)
23.5
11.8/12.5
7.4/7.8
280/560
55/110
500/450
98/89
1240(2728)
23.1
3080(6776)
4292/538
9442/1184
1419/1661
3122/3554
3580(7893)
5012/568
11050/1252
1759/1821
3878/4015
3137(6916)
3992/645
8734/1182
1462/1675
3223/3693
3265(7198)
4377/638
9550/1148
1505/1760
3318/3880
3577(7885)
4888/689
10509/1376
1566/2011
3452/4433
32
2/1
18 X 7-8
18 X 7-8
1350(53.1)
890/0(35/0)
85(3.3)
100(3.9)
foot/hydraulic
hand/mech
2/2
200 X 50-10
16 X 6-8
1390(54.7)
912/197(36.0/7.8)
85(3.3)
100(3.9)
foot/hydraulic
hand/mech
2/1
18 X 7 X 12.12
18 X 7 X 12.12
1242(48.9)
890/0(35/0)
85(3.3)
100(3.9)
foot/hydraulic
hand/mech
2/1
18 X 7-12.12
18 X 7-12.12
1350(53.1)
890/0(35/0)
85(3.3)
100(3.9)
foot/hydraulic
hand/mech
2/1
18 X 7-12.12
18 X 7-12.12
1350(53.1)
890/0(35/0)
85(3.3)
100(3.9)
foot/hydraulic
hand/mech
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
48/510
800(1760)
4.0(5.3) X 2
8.5(11.4)
TR
ODB
17170(2490)
13960(2025)
48/585
1050(2315)
4.0(5.3) X 2
8.5(11.4)
TR
ODB
21550(3126)
13960(2025)
36/680
880(1936)
3.6(4.8) X 2
7.8(10.4)
TR/TR
ODB
17170(2490)
13960(2025)
36/765
985(2167)
3.6(4.8) X 2
7.8(10.4)
TR/TR
ODB
19440(2820)
13960(2025)
36/850
1090(2398)
3.6(4.8) X 2
7.8(10.4)
TR/TR
ODB
21575(3128)
13960(2025)
DHI&M
48V
- 30 -
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
24
25
26
28
30
33
34
45
47
54
55
57
General Section
100 mm
23
100 mm
16
39
17
S.I.P
10
20
4
19
9
18
13
21
INTERSECTING RIGHT
ANGLE AISLE
22
38
15
IA8O3006
- 31 -
General Section
Noise and Vibration
Noise
unit:dB(A)
Noise Level [ Unit : dB(A) ]
Sound Pressure Level at
Operator's Ear (Leq.)
Model
Sound Pressure Level at
By-stander Position (AS 3713)
AS 3713
prEN 12053
Drive-By
Lifting Mode
70.7
73.1
71.0
71.0
65.4
69.8
68.0
68.0
B15T-2 (36V)
B18T-2 (36V)
B20T-2 (36V)
B13T-2 (48V)
B15T-2 (48V)
B18T-2 (48V)
B20T-2 (48V)
* Test Model : B20T-2(36V), B20T-2(48V)
Vibration (weighted overall value)
unit:m/sec2
Measuring Place
Model
B13T-2 (48V)
B15T-2 (48V)
B18T-2 (48V)
B20T-2 (48V)
Seat
Steering
Wheel
Floor
Plate
0.27
0.49
0.40
* Test course : Concrete road
- 32 -
General Section
Capacity Chart
SOLID SOFTER TIRE
MODEL
STD, FFL
B13T-2 (48V)
kg
FFT
kg
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
A
B
C
D
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
A
B
C
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
mm
A. 3700 ~ 5000 mm MAST
B. 5500 mm MAST
C. 6000 mm MAST
A. 2000 ~ 4500 mm MAST
B. 5000 mm MAST
C. 5500 mm MAST
D. 6000 mm MAST
B15T-2 (48V)
kg
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
mm
kg
A B
C
D E
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
A B C
D E
F
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
mm
A. 2000 ~ 4000 mm MAST
B. 4500 mm MAST
C. 5000 mm MAST
D. 5500 mm MAST
B18T-2 (48V)
kg
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
mm
A. 3700 ~ 4000 mm MAST
B. 4500 mm MAST
C. 4800 mm MAST
D. 5000 mm MAST
E. 6000 mm MAST
A B C
kg
D
E
F
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
E. 5500 mm MAST
F. 6000 mm MAST
A B
C D
E
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
mm
A. 2000 ~ 3700 mm MAST
B. 4000 mm MAST
C. 4500 mm MAST
D. 5000 mm MAST
E. 5500 mm MAST
F. 6000 mm MAST
mm
A. 3700 ~ 4000 mm MAST
B. 4500 mm MAST
C. 4800 ~ 5000 mm MAST
D. 5500 mm MAST
- 33 -
E. 6000 mm MAST
ID5O0004
General Section
Capacity Chart
SOLID SOFTER TIRE
MODEL
STD, FFL
B20T-2 (48V)
kg
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
A
FFT
kg
B
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
A
B
C
D
E
F
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
mm
mm
A. 4000 mm MAST
B. 4500 mm MAST
C. 4750 mm MAST
D. 5000 mm MAST
A. 2700 ~ 4000 mm MAST
B. 4500 mm MAST
E. 5500 mm MAST
F. 6000 mm MAST
ID5O0007
- 34 -
General Section
Capacity Chart - with side shifter
SOLID SOFTER TIRE
MODEL
STD, FFL
B13T-2 (48V)
kg
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
kg
A
B
C D
E F
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
A B C
D E
F
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
mm
A. 2000 ~ 3300 mm MAST
B. 3500 ~ 4000 mm MAST
C. 4500 mm MAST
D. 5000 mm MAST
B15T-2 (48V)
kg
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
mm
A. 3700 ~ 4000 mm MAST
B. 4500 mm MAST
C. 4800 mm MAST
D. 5000 mm MAST
E. 5500 mm MAST
F. 6000 mm MAST
kg
A B C
D
E
F
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
E. 5500 mm MAST
F. 6000 mm MAST
A B C
E
D
F
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
mm
A. 2000 ~ 3300 mm MAST
B. 3500 ~ 4000 mm MAST
C. 4500 mm MAST
D. 5000 mm MAST
kg
B18T-2 (48V)
FFT
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
mm
A. 3700 ~ 4000 mm MAST
B. 4500 mm MAST
C. 4800 mm MAST
D. 5000 mm MAST
E. 5500 mm MAST
F. 6000 mm MAST
kg
A B C
D
E
F
G
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
E. 5500 mm MAST
F. 6000 mm MAST
A B C
D
E
F
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
mm
A. 2000 ~ 3300 mm MAST
B. 3500 ~ 3700 mm MAST
C. 4000 mm MAST
D. 4500 mm MAS
E. 5000 mm MAST
F. 5500 mm MAST
G. 6000 mm MAST
mm
A. 3700 ~ 4000 mm MAST
B. 4500 mm MAST
C. 4800 mm MAST
D. 5000 mm MAST
- 35 -
E. 5500 mm MAST
F. 6000 mm MAST
ID5O0006
General Section
Capacity Chart - with side shifter
SOLID SOFTER TIRE
MODEL
STD, FFL
B20T-2 (48V)
kg
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
A
FFT
B
kg
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
2000
1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
A
B
C
D
E
F
500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
mm
mm
A. 4000 mm MAST
B. 4500 mm MAST
C. 4750 mm MAST
D. 5000 mm MAST
A. 2700 ~ 4000 mm MAST
B. 4500 mm MAST
E. 5500 mm MAST
F. 6000 mm MAST
ID5O0007
- 36 -
General Section
Serial Number
Serial Numbers Locations
Both the lift truck and its motors have serial
numbers. You can record them in this manual for
quick reference.
Use the spaces provided below the illustrations.
ID5O0029
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
IA8O2001
Lift Truck Serial Number
I
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
Drive Motor Serial Number Left :
Right :
ID5O0008
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
ID5O0009
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
Hydraulic/Power Steering Motor Serial Number
I
- 37 -
General Section
Operator’s Warning and Identification Plate
Familiarize yourself with the information on the ldentification, Lift Capacity and Attachment Plates. Do not
exceed allowable lift truck working capacity load ratings.
Operator’s Warning Plate
Identification, Lift Capacity and
Attachment Plate
Lift Truck Capacity Rating
DO NOT exceed allowable lift truck working
capacity load ratings.
The capacity of the lift truck is given by weight and
distance to the load center. For example: a capacity
of 1200kg(2540 lb) at 600mm (24in) means that the
lift truck can lift 1200kg (2640lb) if the load center is
600 mm (24in) from both the vertical and horizontal
faces of the forks.
Located on the battery cover to the right side of the
operator’s seat.
Before attempting to lift any load, ensure that the
weight and load center combination is within the
capacity of the lift truck as shown on the capacity
rating plate. To determine the load center, measure
the distance from the face of the carriage to the
gravitational center of the load.
The rated capacity on the plate refers to the capacity
of the lift truck as it left the factory. Subsequent
changes of any form to the equipment or battery can
alter the lift truck’s rating.
The rated capacity of the lift truck applies to
operating conditions where the lift truck is on level
ground. The capacity of the lift truck is reduced on
inclines.
Below are abbreviations that may appear on the
Identification, Lift Capacity and Attachment Plate
and their meanings.
Mast Abbreviations
The identification plate indicates the type of mast
installed on the lift truck when it left the factory. The
type of mast is indicated by an abbreviation.
- 38 -
STD
- Standard Mast(single inner member, low
free lift).
FF
- Full Free Lift Mast (single inner member,
with high free duplex or multiple cylinder.)
General Section
FFT
- Triple Lift Mast (two inner members) with
either low or full free lift.
QUAD - Quadruple (Quad) Mast (three inner
members).
C
SPEC - Special Mast, such as non-telescopic or
double mast, not within the other
classifications.
NOTE : When only a mast-type is listed on the
identification plate, a standard carriage and
forks are used.
Attachment Abbreviations
Special Forks)
- Special Carriage-increased width, height
or outreach.
SSS
- Shaft-type Sideshift Carriage.
HSS
- Hook-type Sideshift Carriage(ITA).
ISS
- Integral Sideshift Carriage(ITA).
CW
- Special Counterweight.
SF
- Special Forks.
SS-SWS - Sideshift-Swing Shift.
ROTC
- Rotating Carriage.
- Carton Clamp.
RC
- Roll Clamp.
LS
- Load Stabilizer.
LH
- Log Handler.
PWH
- Pulp Wood Handler.
SS-ST - Sideshift-Side Tilt Carriage.
NOTE : Numbers following this abbreviation
indicate number and/or length of forks.
- Ram or Boom
CC
(Includes
SC
RAM
BC
- General Clamp (other than Bale, Carton
or Roll).
- Bale Clamp.
DBCBH - Double Cube Block Handler
HFP
- Hydraulic Fork Positioner, Non Sideshift.
CR
- Crane Arm or Crane Boom.
TH
- Tire Handler.
CTH
- Container Top Handler.
CSH
- Container Side Handler
LP
- Load Push Device, Non Sideshift.
LPP
- Load Push-Pull Device, Non Sideshift.
- 39 -
Operation Section
Operator’s Station and Monitoring Systems
Read and understand the “Safety”, “Operation” and “Maintenance” sections before operating the lift truck.
Key Switch
Seat Switch
IA8O3001
IB9O008P
The key switch is located on the right side of the
steering column.
The seat switch is located under the operator’s seat.
OPEN - When the operator’s seat is in the
up position the electrical circuits are
disconnected.
CLOSE - When the operator’s seat is in
the down position(operator seated) the
electrical circuits are connected.
The power steering pump motor is activated when
the key switch is turned to ON and the seat switch is
closed.
IA8O3002
OFF - Turn the key switch to OFF (1) to
disconnect the electrical circuits.
ON - Turn the key switch the ON (2) to con
nect the electrical circuits. If the key switch
is left in the ON position when the operator
leaves the lift truck, the LCD display will
show a flashing “EE”.
The power steering pump motor is activated when the
key switch is turned to ON and the seat switch is closed.
NOTE : The power steering pump motor will shut off if
the directional lever is left in NEUTRAL and no
control levers are actuated for approximately
six seconds. The motor will be turned on when
any control lever is used.
- 40 -
Operation Section
Monitoring Systems Indicator
Battery Discharge Indicator with
Interrupt
IA8O3007
IA8O3007
Located on the middle of the console cover panel.
Indicates the battery state of charge, as
shown by the LCD display on the
instrument panel. A fully charged battery
will cause a “6” segments displayed on the
display. As the battery is discharged, the LCD
display will count down 6,5,4,3 etc, until “EL” is
displayed.
The symbols shown on the instrument panel identify
different features of the lift truck. The symbol for
each feature is identified and an explanation of the
function and location is described on the following
pages.
Run Time Diagnostic
When “1 segment” is flashed the battery has
reached 80% discharge level, the Micro-Controller
will cause the display to continuously index through
the entire range to signal, to the operator, that the
battery is discharged and lift interrupt is imminent. If
the warning is ignored lift interrupt will prevent the lift
and tilt from operating and a “EL” (zero) will be
flashed on the display.
Replacement of the discharged battery will reset the
lift interrupt and normal operation will resume again.
IA8O3007
While operating the lift truck, diagnostic checks are
constantly being made. The LCD display is used to
indicate the following discrepancies from normal
operation.
- 41 -
Operation Section
Power On Indicator
Fault Detection Circuit
IA8O3007
IA8O3007
When the key switch is on and the seat
switch is open an “EE” will flash on the
display. This is to remind the operator to
turn the key switch OFF when leaving the
During lift truck operation the drive
hydraulic pump circuits are continuously
monitored for power circuit failure.
Additional drive and pump circuit
components are tested each time the key switch is
turned on. Should a fault be detected, the lift truck
will shut off and the display will alternately flash “F”
and a code.
lift truck.
Static Return to Off
The “F” plus code indicates the component failure.
(Codes are listed on the schematic diagram on the
inside of the control panel door and in the service
manuals.)
No LCD Display
IA8O3007
If the directional control lever is placed in
forward or reverse and/or the accelerator
is depressed before both the key switch is
turned to ON and the seat switch is
closed, an “EE” will be shown on the display and the
lift truck will not operate. The directional control
lever must be returned to neutral and/or the
accelerator released before the lift truck will
operate.
IA8O3007
If the LCD display does not show any
indication when the key switch is on and
theseat switch is closed, the line fuse and
key fuse should be checked.
On performance modes it is necessary to release
the park brake to clear the “EE” from the display.
NOTE : The LCD display indicates the lift truck
discrepancies described, but will
automatically return to the battery
discharge with interrupt function when the
problem is corrected.
- 42 -
Operation Section
Over Temperature
Self-Diagnostics Indicator
IA8O3007
IA8O3007
IIf the control panel or motors should
overheat, The high temperature symbol
will be shown on the LCD display. Lift
truck performance will be reduced until
operating temperatures return to normal. When this
occurs, the lift truck should be parked and permitted
to cool.
The LCD display is also used as an indicator for the
self-diagnostics system built into the “MicroController.” A service mechanic can completely
troubleshoot the electrical functions without
additional diagnostic equipment.
See the topic “Self-Diagnostics” in the Maintenance
Section of this manual for further information on
your particular model for self-diagnostics.
NOTE : Refer to the “Test and Adjusting” section of
the Service Manual or contact your
DAEWOO Lift Truck dealer.
Brief instructions are also printed on the wiring
diagram and schematic, located on the back side of
the control panel cover.
Motor Brushes Wear Indicator
IA8O3007
The “E1” or “E2” code is displayed when
the motor brushes are worn and need to
be replaced. Replace the brushes to
reduce the risk of armature damage from
overworn brush.
- 43 -
Operation Section
Parking Brake Indicator
Front and Rear Floodlights Switch
IA8O3009
IB9O061P
P
The LCD below parking brake symbol will
be lit when the park brake is applied.
Located on the right side of the instrument panel,
below the display panel.
OFF - Push down on the left side of the
switch to turn both front and rear flood
lights off.
Service Hour Meter
Front Floodlights - Push down on the
right side of the switch, to the first position,
to turn the front floodlights on.
Front and Rear Floodlights - Push down
on the right side of the switch, to the
second position, to turn both the front and
rear floodlights on. The rear floodlights are
optional.
IA8O3008
Located on the RIGHT side of cowl.
Indicates the total number of hours the lift
truck has operated. Use it to determine
service intervals.
- 44 -
Operation Section
Horn Button
Seat Adjustment
Adjust the seat at the beginning of each shift or
when changing operators.
Adjust the seat to allow full travel of all pedals with
the operator seated against the seat back.
The seat must be adjusted with the operator seated.
IA8O3010
Located in the center of the steering
wheel.
Push in on the horn button to sound the
horn.
Tilt Steering Column
IA1O3013
Move the lever to adjust the seat forward or
backward. Release the lever. Move the seat slightly
to lock it.
Emergency Switch (If Equipped)
1
ON
OFF
IA8O3011
Located on the lower front of the steering column.
To adjust the steering column, raise the handle(1)
and move the steering column to the desired
position. Release the handle and the steering
column will remain in the desired position.
ID5O0011
OFF - Push the emergency switch button
to disconnect the electrical circuits.
(It must be done after the key switch is
turned off)
ON - Pull the emergency switch button to
connect the electrical circuit.
- 45 -
Operation Section
Lift Truck Controls
Parking Brake Lever
Service Brake Pedal
NOTICE
Do not engage the parking brake while the lift truck
is moving unless an emergency arises. The use of
the parking brake as a service brake in regular
operation will cause severe damage to the parking
brake system.
IB9O020P
Service Brake - The service brake pedal is located
on the floor of the operator’s compartment.
Depress the service brake pedal to slow or
stop the lift truck. Drive circuit will be
interrupted while the pedal is depressed.
Release the service brake pedal to allow
the lift truck to move.
IA8O3012
B15/18/20T-2(36V), B13/15/18T-2(48V)
B20T-2(48V)
P
Parking Brake - The parking brake lever
is located on the left side of the cowl.
Parking Brake Engaged - Pull the
parking brake lever up, which will engage
the interlock switch that shuts off power to
the drive motor.
Parking Brake Disengaged - Push the
parking brake lever down to release the
parking brake.
- 46 -
Operation Section
Accelerator Pedal
Directional Control Lever
NOTICE
The service brake and accelerator pedals should
not be used at the same time, except for emergency
situations. Use of both the brake and accelerator
pedals at the same time may cause the drive motor
to overheat.
IA8O3016
Forward - Push the lever forward. The lift
truck will move forward.
Neutral - Move the lever to center
position. The lift truck should not move
when lever is in neutral.
If the operator leaves the seat, or turns the key
switch off, the lever must be returned to NEUTRAL.
The lift truck will not move until accelerator pedal is
released and lever is returned to NEUTRAL.
ID5O0016
Accelerator Pedal - The accelerator pedal is
located on the floor of the operator’s compartment.
NOTE : Wait Mode of Operation - This condition will
go into effect when the following occurs.
The seat switch is closed, key switch is on
and the directional control lever is left in
NEUTRAL for more than five seconds, with
no operator input to any control.
Push down the pedal to increase travel speed.
If the accelerator pedal is depressed before the key
switch is turned to the ON position, the lift truck will
not move until the pedal is released and depressed
again.
The line contactor will open and the power steering
motor will turn off to conserve energy. The lift truck
will remain in this mode until the operator moves the
directional control lever, pushes on the accelerator
pedal and/or moves any control valve lever.
Release the pedal to decrease travel speed.
Film for Function of Pedals (If Equipped)
Reverse - Pull the lever toward the
operator. The lift truck will move in
reverse.
NOTE : The directional control lever can be used
for electrical braking(plugging). To slow or
stop the lift truck when traveling in either
direction, move the directional control lever
to the opposite direction of travel while
keeping the accelerator depressed. The lift
truck will slow to a complete stop and then
accelerate in the opposite direction.
IB9O013P
This film shows the function of the brake and
accelerator pedals.
When the operator raises off the seat (seat switch
opens) while the lift truck is in motion, the drive
- 47 -
Operation Section
Tilt Control Lever
motor will lose power. When this occurs, release the
accelerator, close the seat switch(operator seated),
move the directional control lever to NEUTRAL and
then to desired direction of travel. Push down on the
accelerator.
Lift Control Lever
ID5O0014
The forks’ tilt control is located at the operator’s right
side front. The tilt control lever is the lever at the
center.
Tilt Forward - Push the lever forward
smoothly to tilt the forks forward.
ID5O0013
The forks’ lift control is located at the operator’s right
side front. The lift control lever is the lever at the left.
Hold - Release the tilt lever. The lever will
return to the center(hold) position and the
forks will remain in the position they are in.
Lower - Push the lever forward smoothly
to lower the lift forks.
Tilt Back- Pull the lever back smoothly to
tilt the forks back.
Hold - Release the lift lever. The lever will
return to the center(hold) position and the
forks will remain in the position they are in.
NOTE : To prevent a sudden change of position of
the load, operate all lift, tilt and attachment
controls smoothly. Never tilt an elevated
load forward past vertical.
Raise - Pull the lever back smoothly to
raise the lift forks.
NOTE : To prevent a sudden change of position of
the load, operate all lift, tilt and attachment
controls smoothly.
- 48 -
Operation Section
Sideshift Attachment Control (If
Equipped)
ID5O0015
The sideshift attachment control is located at the
operator’s right side front. The sideshift attachment
control lever is the lever at the right.
Sideshift Left - Push the lever forward
smoothly to shift the carriage to the left.
Sideshift Hold - Release the sideshif
attachment lever. The lever will return to
the center(hold) position and sideshifting
action will stop.
Sideshift Right - Pull the lever back
smoothly to shift the carriage to the right.
NOTE : To prevent a sudden change of position of
the load, operate all lift, tilt and attachment
controls smoothly.
- 49 -
Operation Section
Before Operating the Lift Truck
Walk-Around Inspection
For your own safety and maximum service life of the
lift truck, make a thorough walk-around inspection
before mounting the lift truck or starting to move it.
Look for such items as loose bolts, trash build-up, oil
leaks, condition of tires, mast, carriage, forks or
attachments.
IA8O3022
6. Inspect the tires and wheels for proper inflation,
cuts, gouges, foreign objects and loose or
missing nuts.
7. Inspect the overhead guard for damage, loose
or missing mounting bolts.
8. Inspect the hydraulic system for leaks, worn
hoses or damaged lines.
IA8O3020
1. Inspect the operator’s compartment for
looseitems and clean any mud or debris from the
floor plates for safe footing.
9. Inspect the drive axle housing and the ground
for oil leaks.
2. Inspect the instrument panel for damage to the
indicator display.
3. Test the horn and other safety devices for proper
operation.
10
IA8O3045
10. Disconnect the battery. Raise the lever bracket
assembly to the full upright position. Tilt the
steering column to the full upright position.
IA8O3021
WARNING
4. Inspect the mast and lift chains for wear, broken
links, pins and loose rollers.
Batteries give off flammable fumes that can
explode.
5. Inspect the carriage, forks or attachments for
wear, damage and loose or missing bolts.
Do not smoke when observing the battery
electrolyte levels.
Electrolyte is an acid and can cause personal
injury if it contacts skin or eyes.
Always wear protective glasses when working
with batteries.
- 50 -
Operation Section
IA8O3024
IA8O3025
11. Release the battery restraint lever in front of
battery cover. Raise the seat and cover
assembly.
15. Adjust the steering wheel to comfortable
position. Grasp the steering wheel and raise the
handle to release the steering column. PULL the
steering column BACK or PUSH FORWARD to
obtain the most comfortable position. RELEASE
the knob and make sure the steering column is
locked in this position.
12. Inspect the battery compartment for loose
connections and frayed cables.
13. Observe the battery electrolyte level for proper
level. Lower the seat and cover assembly and
the lever bracket assembly and connect the
battery to the lift truck. Secure the battery
restraint properly.
WARNING
Personal injury may occur from accidents
caused by improper seat adjustment. Always
adjust the operator’s seat before operating the
lift truck.
IA8O3026
16. With the seat switch closed and the directional
lever in NEUTRAL, turn the key switch ON.
Observe the battery discharge indicator.
Seat adjustment must be done at the beginning
of each shift and when operators change.
IA1O3013
IA8O3007
14. Position the seat by operating the lever and
moving the seat forward or backward to a
comfortable position.
17. Make sure the battery is charged before
operating the lift truck. A fully charged battery
will cause “6 Segments” to be displayed on the
BDI display.
- 51 -
Operation Section
Better Battery Performance
NOTICE
The lift truck operator must not start his shift with a
battery that has been taken off a charger too soon.
A battery should never be disconnected from a
charge until the charge cycle has been completed.
The batteries that have been fully charged should
have a tag attached for identification.
In Operation, a battery should be discharged then
recharged in 8 to 12 hours, depending on the
charger type. Then, they should be allowed to cool
and stabilize 4 to 8 hours. Repeated undercharging
must be prevented. It can damage the battery.
If there is an indication of low battery operation, the
lift truck operator should return the lift truck to the
battery charging area.
NOTE : Refer to the Maintenance Section of this
guide for additional battery exchanging and
charging information.
- 52 -
Operation Section
Lift Truck Operation
Be sure no one is working on or near the lift truck.
Keep the lift truck under control at all times.
Reduce speed when maneuvering in tight quarters
or when braking over a rise.
Do not allow the lift truck to overspeed downhill. Use
the service brake pedal to reduce speed when
traveling down hill.
IB9O020P
4. Push down on the service brake pedal and
release the parking brake.
NOTICE
Do not move directional control lever from one
direction to the other(plug) when the drive wheels
are off the ground and rotating at full speed.
Damage can occur to the control panel.
1. Adjust the operator’s seat.
IA8O3029
5. Turn the key switch ON. Raise the attachments to
the travel position.
IB9O018P
2. Fasten the seat belt (if equipped).
3. Move the directional control lever into the
NEUTRAL position, if it is not already in this
position.
IA8O3030
6. Move the directional control lever to the desired
direction of travel.
- 53 -
Operation Section
IB9O020P
IB9O020P
7. Release the service brake pedal.
11. Hold the accelerator pedal down until the lift
truck nearly comes to a complete stop. Release
the accelerator pedal.
12. Push down on the service brake pedal to bring
the lift truck to a complete stop and hold it.
13. To change direction, continue to push down on
the accelerator pedal until the desired travel
speed in the opposite direction is obtained.
14. Do not use electrical braking (plugging) to stop
the lift truck where the stopping distance is too
short.
Instead, release the accelerator pedal, push
down on the service brake pedal, and bring the
lift truck to a smooth stop.
ID5O0016
8. Push down on the accelerator pedal to reach the
travel speed. Release the pedal to decrease
travel speed.
9. Electrical braking (plugging) can be used to slow
or stop the lift truck or to change the lift truck
direction of travel.
See the section below, “Eletrical Braking
(Plugging)” for an explanation of electrical
braking.
IA8O3032
10. Move the directional control lever to the opposite
direction of lift truck travel.
- 54 -
Operation Section
Electrical Braking (Plugging)
IA8O3030
Electrical braking uses the drive motor’s own power
to slow, stop or change direction when traveling in
either direction. It is a more gradual type of stop,
compared to using the service brakes. Electrical
braking can be used for normal operation where
there is adequate time and distance to stop safely.
Electrical braking should NOT be used for sudden or
emergency stops.
To start electrical braking, move the directional
control lever to the opposite direction while keeping
the accelerator pedal depressed.
The lift truck dirve control senses that the motors are
turning opposite to the vehicle direction of travel and
immediately goes into the plugging mode.
Motor rotation is retarded at a predetermined rate by
electrical braking (plugging).
If the accelerator pedal is kept depressed, the drive
control will slow the lift truck to a complete stop and
then accelerate in the opposite direction.
- 55 -
Operation Section
Operating Techniques
NOTE : The illustrations used here are typical examples and may not look exactly like to your particular lift truck.
Inching into Loads
Lifting the Load
1. Move the lift truck slowly forward into position and
engage the load. Lift truck should be square with
load. The forks should be spaced evenly between
pallet stringers and as far apart as the load will
permit.
IC6O005I
1. Lift the load carefully and tilt the mast back a short
distance.
2. Tilt the mast further back to cradle the load.
IC6O003I
2. Move the lift truck forward until the load touches
the carriage.
IC6O006I
3. Operate the lift truck in reverse until the load is
clear of the other loads.
IC6O004I
4. Lower the load to the travel position before
turning or traveling.
CAUTION
The forklift truck must not be used to push loads
or other vehicles.
Only the moving equipment supplied or the rear
hook for towing must be used.
- 56 -
Operation Section
Traveling
Turning
Whether you are traveling with or without a load,
keep the fork as low as possible, while still
maintaining good clearance above the floor.
IA103040
1. When turning sharp corners, keep close to the
inside corner. Begin the turn when the inside
drive wheel meets the corner.
IC6O007I
1. Carry the load as low as possible, but maintain
clearance.
IA103041
2. In narrow aisles, keep as far from the stockpile as
possible when making a turn into the aisle. Allow
for counterweight swing.
IC6O007I
2. On grades, alway travel with the load on the
“uphill” side, as shown above.
NOTE : The MicroCommand control uses the steer
wheel angle signals to adjust drive motor
speeds to match the steering cramp angle.
With steer wheel cramp angles of 20° or
more, the MicroCommand control limits
drive motor speed to both drive motors.
Limiting motor speed when turning reduces
lift truck rotational speed while maintaining
traction and power to both drive wheels.
IC6O008I
3. Travel in reverse with bulky loads. This gives you
better vision.
- 57 -
Operation Section
Unloading
IA8O3039
3. As the steer wheel angle increases, the inside
drive motor speed is progressively slowed down
with respect to the outside drive motor speed. It is
essentially switched OFF when the steer wheel
cramp angle is 45°.
IC6O009I
1. Move the lift truck into the unloading position.
2. Do not tilt the mast forward until it is directly over
the unloading area.
WARNING
Do not tilt the mast forward with the load unless
directly over the unloading area, even if the
power is off.
IA8O3040
4. At a steer wheel cramp angle of 75°, the inside
drive motor rotation is reversed and its speed will
progressively increase as the cramp angle
increases.
5. At a steer wheel cramp angle of 90°, the inside
drive motor rotation, in reverse, is as fast as the
outside drive motor rotation in forward.
IC6O010I
This causes the lift truck to turn about a point
midway between the two drive tires.
3. Deposit the load and back away carefully to free
the forks.
4. Lower the carriage and forks to either travel
position or park position.
- 58 -
Operation Section
Lifting Drums or Round Objects
IA1O3043
1. Block the drums or round objects. Tilt the mast
forward and slide the fork tips along the floor to
get under the load.
IA1O3044
2. Tilt the mast back slightly until the load is cradled
on the forks before lifting.
3. Lift the load to the travel position.
- 59 -
Operation Section
Parking the Lift Truck
NOTICE
Parking or storage of electric lift trucks outdoor can
cause lift truck system damage or failure.
Park or store all electric lift trucks inside a building to
protect electrical system from moisture damage.
When leaving the operator’s station, park the lift
truck in authorized areas only. Do not block traffic.
IA8O3043
B15/18/20T-2(36V), B13/15/18T-2(48V)
Park the lift truck level, with the forks lowered and
the mast tilted forward until the fork tips touch the
floor. Block the drive wheels when parking on an
incline.
B20T-2(48V)
IB9O020P
3. Engage the parking brake.
1. Apply the service brake to stop the lift truck.
IA8O3044
ID5O0017
4. Tilt the mast forward and lower forks to the
ground.
2. Move the directional control lever into NEUTRAL.
- 60 -
Operation Section
IA8O3001
IA8O3046
7. Block the wheels if parking on an incline.
5. Turn key switch to OFF and remove the key.
ID5O0018
B15/18/20T-2(36V)
B13/15/18/20T-2(48V)
6. Disconnect the battery.
- 61 -
Operation Section
Lift Fork Adjustment
WARNING
When adjusting the fork spread, be careful not
to pinch your hand between forks and the
carriage slot.
Hook-on type Fork
IB9O019P
1. Move up the hook pin to the free position in each
fork to side the fork on the carriage bar.
2. Adjust the forks in the position most appropiate
for the load and as wide as possible for load
stability.
3. When adjusting the forks, make sure that the
weight of the load is centered on the truck.
4. After adjustment, set the fork locks to keep the
forks in place.
WARNING
Make sure the forks are locked before carrying a
load.
- 62 -
Operation Section
Storage Information
Before Storage
When storing the lift truck for an extended period of
time, take the following measures to ensure that it
can be returned to operation with minimal service.
1. After every part is washed and dried, the machine
should be housed in a dry building. Never leave it
outdoors. In case it has to be left outdoors, lay
wooden boards on the ground, park the machine
on the boards and cover it with canvas, etc.
2. Lubricate, grease and replace oil before storage.
3. Apply a thin coat of grease to exposed hydraulic
cylinder piston rods.
4. Cover the battery after removing terminals, or
remove it from the machine and store it
separately.
During Storage
Drive the truck for a short at least once a month.
This coats moving part surfaces with a new film of
oil. Charge the battery at this same time.
After Storage
After storage(when it is kept without cover or rustpreventive operation once a month is not made),
you should apply the following treatment before
operation.
1. Remove the drain plug on hydraulic tank and
drain any accumulated water.
2. Wipe off grease from hydraulic cylinder piston
rod.
3. Measure specific gravity and check that the
battery is charged.
4. Drive at low speed to make sure moving parts in
drive gear boxes are well oiled.
- 63 -
Operation Section
Transportation Hints
Shipping
6. Disconnect the battery.
Check travel route for overpass clearances. Make
sure there is adequate clearance if the lift truck
being transported is equipped with a high mast,
overhead guard or cab.
7. Block the tires and secure the lift truck with
tiedowns.
Machine Lifting
Information
To prevent the lift truck from slipping while loading,
or shifting in transit, remove ice, snow or other
slippery material from the loading dock and the truck
bed before loading.
and
Tiedown
NOTICE
Improper lifting or tiedowns can allow load to shift
and cause injury and/or damage.
NOTICE
Obey all state and local laws governing the weight,
width and length of a load.
Observe all regulations governing wide loads.
1. Weight and instructions given herein apply to lift
trucks as manufactured by DAEWOO.
2. Use properly rated cables and slings for lifting.
Position the crane for level lift truck lift.
NOTICE
3. Spreader bar widths should be sufficient to
prevent contact with the lift truck.
Remove ice, snow or other slippery material from
the shipping vehicle and the loading dock.
4. Use the tiedown locations provided for lift truck
tiedown.
Check the state and local laws governing weight,
width and length of a load.
Contact your DAEWOO Lift Truck dealer for
shipping instructions for your lift truck.
IA1O3049
1. Always block the trailer or the rail car wheels
before loading the lift truck.
2. Position the lift truck on the trailer or the rail car.
3. Apply the parking brake and place the
transmission control in NEUTRAL.
4. Tilt the mast forward and lower forks to the floor.
5. Turn key switch OFF and remove the key.
- 64 -
Operation Section
Towing Information
Consult your DAEWOO Lift Truck dealer for
towing a disabled lift truck.
WARNING
Personal injury or death could result when
towing a disabled lift truck incorrectly.
Block the lift truck wheels to prevent movement
before releasing the brakes. The lift truck can
roll free if it is not blocked.
Follow the recommendations below to properly
perform the towing procedure.
The towing instructions given here are for moving a
disabled lift truck only a short distance at low speed
[no faster than 1.2 mph (2 km/h)] to a convenient
location for repair. These instructions are for
emergencies only. If long-distance moving is
required, always haul the lift truck.
IB9O011P
B15/18/20T-2(36V), B13/15/18T-2(48V)
You must provide shielding on the towing lift truck to
protect the operator if the tow line or bar should
break.
Do not allow an operator to sit on the lift truck being
towed unless the steering and braking can be
controlled.
The operator on the towed lift truck must always
steer in the direction of the tow line pull.
Inspect the tow line or bar and make sure it is in
good condition and has enough strength for the
towing situation involved. For a disabled lift truck
stuck in mud or when towing on a grade, use a
towing line or bar with a strength of at least 1.5 times
the gross weight of the towing lift truck.
B20T-2(48V)
1. Release the parking brake.
Keep the tow line angle to a minimum. Do not
exceed a 30˚ angle from the straight-ahead position.
Connect the tow line as low as possible on the lift
truck being towed.
NOTICE
Release the parking brake to prevent excessive
wear and damage to the parking brake system.
Use gradual and smooth lift truck movement.
Moving the lift truck quickly could overload the tow
line or bar and cause it to break.
2. Release the service brake pedal.
3. Turn the key switch OFF.
Normally, the towing lift truck should be at least as
large as the disabled lift truck. It should have
enough brake capacity, weight, and power to control
both lift trucks for the grade and distance involved.
4. Disconnect the battery.
5. Fasten the tow bar to the lift truck.
A larger towing lift truck or additional lift trucks
connected to the rear could be required to provide
sufficient control and braking when moving a
disabled lift truck downhill. This will prevent it from
rolling uncontrolled.
6. Remove any wheel blocks. Tow the lift truck
slowly. Do not tow any faster than 2 km/h (1.2
mph).
The requirements of each towing situation will be
affected by many conditions. Minimum towing lift
truck capacity is required on smooth, level surfaces,
while maximum capacity is needed on inclines or on
poor surface conditions.
Be sure all necessary repairs and adjustments
have been made before a lift truck that has been
towed to a service area is put back into
operation. Personal injury or death could result.
WARNING
- 65 -
Maintenance Section
Inspection, Maintenance and Repair of Lift Truck Forks
The following section gives practical guidelines for
inspection, maintenance and repair of lift truck forks.
It also provides general information on the design
and application of forks and the common cause of
fork failures.
Users may also refer to the International
Organization For Standardization-ISO Technical
Report 5057-Inspection and Repair of Fork Arms
and ISO Standard 2330-Fork Arms-Technical
Characteristics and Testing.
Lift truck forks can be dangerously weakened by
improper repair or modification. They can also be
damaged by the cumulative effects of age,
abrasion, corrosion, overloading and misuse.
While there are no specific standards or regulations
in the United States, users should be familiar with
the requirements for inspection and maintenance of
lift trucks as provided by the 29 Code Federal
Register 1910.178 Powerd Industrial Truck, and
ANSI/ASME Safety Standard(s) B56.1, B56.5 or
B56.6 as applicable to the type of machine(s) in use.
A fork failure during use can cause damage to the
equipment and the load. A fork failure can also
cause serious injury.
A good fork inspection and maintenance program
along with the proper application can be very
effective in preventing sudden on the job failures.
Repairs and modifications should be done only by
the fork manufacturer or a qualified technician who
knows the material used and the required welding
and heat treatment process.
Users should evaluate the economics of returning
the forks to the manufacturer for repairs or
purchasing new forks. This will vary depending on
many factors including the size and type of fork.
Forks should be properly sized to the weight and
length of the loads, and to the size of the machine
on which they are used. The general practice is to
use a fork size such that the combined rated
capacity of the number of forks used is equal to or
greater than the “Standard(or rated) Capacity” of the
lift truck.
The individual load rating, in most cases, will be
stamped on the fork in a readily visible area. This is
generally on the top or side of the fork shank.
• A fork rated at 1500 pounds at 24 inch load center
will be stamped 1500 X 24.
• A fork rated at 2000 kg at 600 mm load center will
be stamped 2000 X 600.
The manufacturer identification and year and date
of manufacture is also usually shown.
Some countries have standards or regulations
which apply specifically to the inspection and repair
of forks.
- 66 -
Maintenance Section
Causes of Fork Failure
• Repetitive Overloading
Repetitive cycling of loads which exceeds the
fatigue strength of the material can lead to fatigue
failure. The overload could be caused by loads in
excess of the rated fork capacity and by use of the
forks tips as pry bars. Also, by handling loads in a
manner which causes the fork tips to spread and
the forks to twist laterally about their mountings.
Improper Modification or Repair
Fork failure can occur as a result of a field
modification involving welding, flame cutting or
other similar processes which affect the heat
treatment and reduces the strength of the fork.
In most cases, specific processes and techniques
are also required to achieve proper welding of the
particular alloy steels involved. Critical areas most
likely to be affected by improper processing are the
heel section, the mounting components and the fork
tip.
• Wear
Forks are constantly subjected to abrasion as they
slide on floors and loads. The thickness of the fork
blade is gradually reduced to the point where it
may not be capable of handling the load for which
it was designed.
Bent or Twisted Forks
• Stress Risers
Forks can be bent out of shape by extreme
overloading, glancing blows against walls or other
solid objects or using the fork tip as a pry bar.
Scratches, nicks and corrosion are points of high
stress concentration where cracks can develop.
These cracks can progress under repetitive loading
in a typical mode of fatigue failure.
Bent or twisted forks are much more likely to break
and cause damage or injury. They should be
removed from service immediately.
Overloading
Extreme overloading can cause permanent bending
or immediate failure of the forks. Using forks of less
capacity than the load or lift truck when lifting loads
and using forks in a manner for which they were not
designed are some common causes of overloading.
Fatigue
Parts which are subjected to repeated or fluctuating
loads can fail after a large number of loading cycles
even though the maximum stress was below the
static strength of the part.
The first sign of a fatigue failure is usually a crack
which starts in an area of high stress concentration
This is usually in the heel section or on the fork
mounting.
As the crack progresses under repetitive load
cycling, the load bearing cross section of the
remaining metal is decreased in size until it
becomes insufficient to support the load and
complete failure occurs.
Fatigue failure is the most common mode of fork
failure. It is also one which can be anticipated and
prevented by recognizing the conditions which lead
up to the failure and by removing the fork service
prior to failing.
- 67 -
Maintenance Section
Fork Inspection
First Installation
1. Inspect forks to ensure they are the correct size
for the truck on which they will be used. Make
sure they are the correct length and type for the
loads to be handled.
If the forks have been previously used, perform
the “12 Month Inspection”.
If the forks are rusted, see “Maintenance and
Repair”.
2. Make sure fork blades are level to each other
within acceptable tolerances. See “Forks, Step
4,” in the “2000 Service Hours or Yearly” in
“Maintenance Intervals”
ID5O0019
Establish a daily and 12 month inspection routine by
keeping a record for the forks on each lift truck.
Initial information should include the machine serial
number on each the forks are used, the fork
manufacturer, type, original section size, original
length and capacity. Also list any special
characteristics specified in the fork design.
3. Make sure positioning lock is in place and working
Lock forks in position before using truck. See
“Forks, Step 7”, in the “2000 Service Hours or
Yearly” in “Maintenance Intervals”.
Record the date and results of each inspection,
making sure the following information is included.
Daily Inspection
• Actual wear conditions, such as percent of original
blade thickness remaining.
1. Visually inspect forks for cracks, especially in the
heel section, around the mounting brackets, and
all weld areas. Inspect for broken or jagged fork
tips, bent or twisted blades and shanks.
• Any damage, failure or deformation which might
impair the use of the truck.
• Note any repairs or maintenance.
2. Make sure positioning lock is in place and
working. Lock the forks in position before using
the truck. See “2000 Service Hours or Yearly” in
“Maintenance Intervals”.
An ongoing record of this information will help in
identifying proper inspection intervals for each
operation, in identifying and solving problem areas
and in anticipating time for replacement of the forks.
3. Remove all defective forks from service.
- 68 -
Maintenance Section
12 Months Inspection
With the fork restrained in the same manner as its
mounting on the lift truck, apply the test load twice,
gradually and without shock. Maintain the test for 30
seconds each time.
Forks should be inspected, at a minimum, every 12
months. If the truck is being used in a multi-shift or
heavy duty operation, they should be checked every
six months. See “Forks” in the “2000 Service Hours
or Yearly” in “Maintenance Intervals.”
Check the fork arm before and after the second
application of the test load. It shall not show any
permanent deformation.
Consult the fork manufacturer for further information
as may be applicable to the specific fork involved.
Testing is not required for repairs to the positioning
lock or the markings.
Maintenance and Repair
1. Repair forks only in accordance with the
manufacturer’s recomendations.
Most repairs or modifications should be done only
by the original manufacturer of the forks or an
expert knowledgeable of the materials, design,
welding and heat treatment process.
2. The following repairs or modifications SHOULD
NOT be attempted.
• Flame cutting holes or cutouts in fork blades.
• Welding on brackets or new mounting hangers.
• Repairing cracks or other damage by welding.
• Bending or resetting.
3. The following repairs MAY be performed.
• Forks may be sanded or lightly ground, to
remove rust, corrosion or minor defects from the
surfaces.
• Heel sections may be ground with a carbon
stone to remove minor surface cracks or
defects. Polish the inside radius of the heel
section to increase the fatigue life of the fork.
Always grind or polish in the direction of the
blade and shank length.
• Repair or replace the positioning locks on hook
type forks.
• Repair or replace most fork retention devices
used with other fork types.
4. A fork should be load tested before being
returned to service on completion of repairs
authorized and done in accordance with the
manufacturer’s recommendations.
Most manufacturers and standards require the
repaired fork to be tested with a load 2.5 times the
specified capacity and at the load center marked
on the fork arm.
- 69 -
Maintenance Section
Tire Inflation Information
Tire Inflation
Tire Shipping Pressure
The inflation pressures shown in the following chart
are cold inflation shipping pressures for tires on
DAEWOO lift trucks.
Size
Ply Rating
or
Strength Index
Shipping
Pressure
kPa
psi
1000
145
B13/15/18T-2
18 x 7 -8
IA1O4001
16
The operating inflation pressure is based on the
weight of a ready-to-work lift truck without
attachments, at rated payload, and in average
operating conditions. Pressures for each application
may vary and should always be obtained from your
tire supplier.
WARNING
Personal injury or death could result when tires
are inflated incorrectly.
Use a self-attaching inflation chuck and stand
behind the tread when inflating a tire.
Tire Inflation Pressures Adjustment
A tire inflation in a warm shop area, 18˚C to 21˚C
(65˚F to 70˚F), will be underinflated if the lift truck
works in freezing temperatures. Low pressure
shortens the life of a tire.
Proper inflation equipment, and training in
using the equipment, are necessary to avoid
overinflation. A tire blowout or rim failure can
result from improper or misused equipment.
NOTICE
Set the tire inflation equipment regulator at no more
than 140 kPa(20 psi) over the recommended tire
pressure.
- 70 -
Maintenance Section
Torque Specifications
Torque for Standard Bolts, Nuts
and Taperlock Studs
Metric Hardware - This lift truck is almost totally
metric design. Specifications are given in metric and
U.S. Customary measurement. Metric hardware
must be replaced with metric hardware. Check parts
books for proper replacement.
NOTICE
NOTE : Use only metric tools on most hardware for
proper fit. Other tools could slip and
possibly cause injury.
The following charts give general torques for bolts,
nuts and taperlock studs of SAE Grade 5 or better
quality.
Torque for Standard Hose Clamps
- Worm Drive Band Type
Torques for Bolts and Nuts With
Standard Threads
NOTICE
The following chart gives the torques for initial
installation of hose clamps on new hoses and for
reassembly or retightening of hose clamps on
existing hose.
1
1
1 Newton meter (N•m) is approximately the same
as 0.1 kg•m.
- 71 -
1 Newton meter (N•m) is approximately the same
as 0.1 kg•m.
Maintenance Section
Torque for Metric Fasteners
Torques for Taperlock Studs
NOTICE
Be very careful never to mix metric with U.S.
customary (standard) fasteners. Mismatched or
incorrect fasteners will cause lift truck damage or
malfunction and may even result in personal injury.
Original fasteners removed from the lift truck should
be saved for reassembly whenever possible. If new
fasteners are needed, they must be of the same size
and grade as the ones that are being replaced.
The material strength identification is usually shown
on the bolt head by numbers.(8.8, 10.9, etc.) The
following chart gives standard torques for bolts and
nuts with Grade 8.8.
1
NOTE : Metric hardware must be replaced with
metric hardware. Check parts book for
proper replacement.
1 Newton meter (N•m) is approximately the same
as0.1 kg•m.
- 72 -
1
1 Newton meter (N•m) is approximately the same
as 0.1 kg•m.
2
ISO-International Standard Organization.
Maintenance Section
Lubricant Specifications
Lubricant Information
Hydraulic Oil
Some classifications and abbreviations we use in
this section follow S.A.E. (Society of automotive
Engineers) J754 nomenclature and others follow
S.A.E. J183.
All MIL specifications are U.S.A. Military.
Recommended oil viscosities are given in the
“Lubricant Viscosities” chart later in this section of
the manual.
Greases are classified according to the National
Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) based on ASTM
D217-68 worked Penetration characteristics which
give a defined consistency numbel.
The following commercial classifications can be
used in the hydraulic system.
Chain and Linkage Oils (DEO or
EO)
• ISO 6743/4
• AFNOR NFE 48-603
• DIN 51524 TEIL 2
• HAGGLUNDS DENISON
• CINCINNATI
HM
HM
H-LP
HFO-HF2
P68, 69, 70
Viscosity : ISO VG 32
These oils should have antiwear, antifoam, antirust
and antioxidation additives for heavy duty use as
stated by the oil supplier. ISO viscosity grade of 32
would normally be selected.
NOTICE
Correct Hydraulic Oil should be used to achieve
maximum life and performance from hydraulic
system components. The following hydraulic Oil is
recommended in most hydraulic and hydrostatic
systems.
IA8O4001
Use following engine oils are recommended for use
on chains and linkages.
• European oil specification CCMC D3.
Make-up oil added to the hydraulic tanks must mix
with the oil already in the systems. Use only
petroleum products unless the systems are
equipped for use with special products.
• API Specification CD, CD/SF, CE
• Military specifications MIL-L-2104D or E
If the hydraulic oil becomes cloudy, water or air is
entering the system. Water or air in the system will
cause pump failure. Drain the fluid, retighten all
hydraulic suction line clamps, purge and refill the
system.Consult your DAEWOO Lift Truck dealer for
purging instructions.
- 73 -
Maintenance Section
Drive Axle Oil
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
NOTE : Do not use Gear Oil in the final drives or
differentials. Gear Oil can cause seal
material to fail and possibly leak oil.
Select an oil that meets below specifications.
NOTE : Failure to follow the recommendation will
cause shortened life due to excessive gear
wear.
Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF)
The following AFT products are authorized for use.
TOTAL
AGIP
ARAL
AVIA
BP
CHEVRON
DEA
ELF
ESSO
FINA
MOBIL
PENNZOIL
SHELL
TEXACO
WINTERSHALL
The API CD/TO-2 specification or MIL-L-2104D, E
or F oils could be used.
FLUIDE II D
ROTRA ATF
DEXRON II
ATF 33/F
SGF 84
ATF 33
FLUID ATF 66M
FLUID ATF 33G
AUTRAN ATF
AUTRAN DX II
AUTRAN G
AUTOMATIC
TRANSMISSION FLUID
DEAFLUID 1585
DEAFLUID 9226
DEAFLUID 9330
TRANS-O-MATIC
ELFMATIC G2 DEXRON 22329
ELFMATIC G2 DEXRON 22011
ELFMATIC F
TYPE SUFFLIX A
ATF D-21065
ATF D-21611
ATF D-22079
Purfimatic FLUID
DEXRON II D-22233
Purfimatic 33G
ATF 200
ATF 210
ATF 220
TYPE F ATF
DONAX TM
ATF DEXRON II D-21666
DONAX TG PLUS D-22543
DONAX TG D-21126
DONAX TF
TEXAMATIC FLUID 1585
TEXAMATIC FLUID 9226
TEXAMATIC FLUID 9330
ATF 2543 A
ATF DEXRON
ATF 33F
NOTE : Multi-grade oils are not blended by
DAEWOO for use in transmissions. Multigrade oils which use high molecular weight
polymers as vicosity index improvers lose
their viscosity effectiveness by permanent
and temporary shear of the viscosity index
improver and therefore, are not
recommended for transmission and drive
train compartments.
Lubricating Grease
Use Multipurpose Molybdenum Grease (MPGM) for
all lubrication points. If MPGM grease can not be
used, a multipurpose type grease which contains
3% to 5% molybdenum disulfide can be used.
NLGI NO.2 grade is suitable for most temperatures.
Use NLGI No.1 or No.0 grade for extremely low
temperature.
- 74 -
Maintenance Section
Brake Fluid
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
IA8O4003
Located on the right side of the control valve cover.
Located on the left side of the cowl.
Use heavy duty hydraulic brake fluid certified by the
oil supplier to meet SAE J1703f latest revision, DOT
3 or DOT 4 specifications.
Use heavy duty hydraulic brake fluid certified by the
oil supplier to meet ISO 6743/4 HM, ISO VG 10
latest revision.
- 75 -
TOTAL
Azolla ZS 10
AGIP
Acer 10
BP
Energol HP 10
HLP 10
CALTEX
Spindurn 10
ELF
Spinelf 10
ESSO
Nuto H 10
Spinesso 10
FINA
Hydran 10
MOBIL
Velocite oil No. 5
Velocite oil E
SHELL
Tllvs oil C10
Morlina 10
Maintenance Section
Battery Discharge Indicator
The battery discharge indicator should be observed
frequently before and during operation.
gravity. This specification varies with different
battery manufacturers. See the manufacturer’s
specifications for specific gravity at 80% discharge.
If information is not available from the battery
supplier, use 1.140 specific gravity level.
IA8O3007
A fully charged battery will cause a “6 segments” to
be displayed on the LCD display. As the battery is
discharged, the LCD display will count down, 6, 5, 4,
and etc., until “EL” is displayed. When the battery
reaches 80% discharge level, the Micro-Controller
will cause the LCD display to continuously index
through the entire range (1 through 6 segments ) to
signal that the battery is discharged and lift interrupt
is imminent.
IA8O3007
If the warning is ignored, lift interrupt will
prevent the hydraulic pump motor from
operating and an “EL” will be displayed on
the LCD display.
To prevent over-discharge, the lift interrupt should
not be reset by disconnecting and reconnecting the
battery.
If the batteries are weak, have them charged or
replaced.
The batteries should not be discharged below 80%
of the full charge as indicated by their specific
- 76 -
Maintenance Section
Battery
to cool and stabilize, A battery should never be
disconnected from a charger until the charge cycle
has been completed.
WARNING
When using pressure air for cleaning purposes,
wear a protective face shield and protective
clothing. Maximum air pressure must be below
207 kPa (30 psi).
Low battery operation must be prevented.
Operation with a low battery may cause damage to
the battery. Low battery operation will cause higher
than normal current in the electrical system. This
can damage contactor tips or shorten motor brush
life.
Do not smoke near batteries that are being
stored or when checking the electrolyte level.
Electrolyte is an acid solution and can cause
personal injury. Avoid contact with skin and
eyes.
Batteries that have been fully charged should have
a tag attached for identification.
A battery should be recharged in 8 to 12 hours after
being discharged, depending on the charger type,
then allowed to cool and stabilize 4 to 8 hours.
Repeated undercharging must be prevented
because it can damage the battery.
Maximum life and performance of lift truck batteries
is dependent on the operator, battery charging,
maintenance and service.
A battery requires an equalizing charge at least
once every 20 normal charge/discharge cycles. This
helps correct and prevent unequal cell specific
gravity (SG) readings. An “equalizing charge” is a
cycle charge with modification, given usually at an
interval to bring all cells up to a state of equal
charge. An equalizing charge usually adds three to
four more hours to the cycle charge, at a low finish
rate. It is usually given when the specific gravity
(SG) of electrolyte has a variation of more than 20
points (.020) from cell to cell, after a regular cycle
charge.
Most dirt and dust picked up by the battery can
usually be blown off with low pressure compressed
air.
However, if cells are overfilled and electrolyte
collects on the covers, the top of the battery will stay
wet.
If necessary, clean the top of the battery with a
solution of baking soda and hot water.
NOTICE
A “cycle charge” will completely recharge the
battery. The typical cycle charge for a fully
discharged battery usually is an eight-hour charge.
The battery must be recharged before it has been
discharged over 80% of the rated capacity of the
battery. The work shift of the lift truck can be
planned so the battery will not be discharged more
than 80%.
Vent caps must be tight to prevent soda solution
from entering battery cells.
To make the solution, add 0.5 kg (1 lb) of baking
soda to 4 liters (1 gallon) of water. Use a brush
having flexible bristles. Apply the soda solution to
the top of the battery until the cleaning action of the
soda stops.
A battery should never be left in a discharged state
because of sulfate formation. This reduces battery
life drastically. To extend life always recharge the
battery without delay after it has been discharged.
After cleaning action has stopped, rinse batteries
thoroughly with water. Dry the batteries with low air
pressure.
Repeated over discharging of the battery will
damage the cells, which will shorten battery life and
increase operating cost. Battery life(number of
cycles) decreases as the depth of discharge
increases. The estimated life of
the battery
The lift truck operator must not start his shift with a
battery that has been taken off a charger too soon.
Batteries are designed to be charged and allowed
- 77 -
Maintenance Section
discharged to 80% will be approximately twice as
long as if it were discharged 100%.
NOTICE
The battery’s maximum temperature is critical. The
electrolyte temperature should never exceed 43˚C
(110˚F) either while operating or charging. If higher
temperatures are maintained through use or abuse,
reduced battery service life can be expected.
• DISPOSAL OF OLD BATTERY
Careless disposal of a battery can harm the
environment and can be dangerous to persons.
Always dispose of a battery to an authorized
personnel only.
Do not attempt to open or dismantle a battery or a
cell.
Battery condition is important for a long life. The
elecrolyte level should be maintained at the
recommended levels and the battery should be kept
clean and dry. “Washing down” batteries at different
time periods will reduce the chance of “grounds”
caused by electrolyte spills and corrosion. If done
often enough, just washing with water alone will
eliminate the need for using baking soda. If not, a
solution of baking soda and water must be used to
wash battery at different time periods.
Add water at regular intervals. Enough water should
be added to bring the electrolyte approximately 13.0
mm (.50 inch) above the plates. This is a simple
matter with the use of an automatic cell filler, which
shows a light when the correct level has been
reached. Water should always be added before
charging to be sure thorough mixing with acid when
gassing occurs near the end of charging period. Use
distilled water or have the water supply analyzed.
Charge batteries correctly. It is important that all
batteries should be charged according to the
manufacturer’s instructions. Most of the charging
equipment is fully automatic and should be checked
periodically. Never operate the lift truck with a fully
discharged battery because this will damage the
battery.
When charging, proper provision must be made for
venting of the charging gases. Battery container lids
and the covers of battery compartments must be
opened or removed. The vent plugs should stay on
the cells and remain closed.
When a battery charger operates correctly and
brings a good battery up to full charge, the current
readings will level to the “finish rate.” The charging
voltage will stabilize, the specific gravity will stop
rising and normal gassing can be seen.
- 78 -
Maintenance Section
Cold Storage Applications
Hydraulic System
When an electric lift truck is operated in cold storage
applications, at temperatures as low as -20˚C (-4˚F),
the battery capacity is decreased. Operation at cold
temperatures can also cause mechanical failures,
short circuits and too much wear due to the
formation of ice crystals.
The direct cause of these problems is the extreme
changes in temperature in combination with
humidity in the air which can result in condensation.
To protect the electric lift truck’s components and
decrease the effects of the cold temperature,
perform the following items before you put the lift
truck to work in cold storage applications.
Drain the hydraulic system and fill it with SAE 5.
MIL-H-5606A hydraulic oil
Battery
Lift Chains
There is a reduction in battery capacity in cold
storage applications. For this reason, it is important
to :
1. Remove the chains Clean them in a
nonflammable cleaning solvent.
1. Be sure the battery is completely charged at the
start of each work cycle.
2. Put the chains in molybdenum disulfide (MPGM)
grease for one hour. Then, before installation,
hang the chains, where they will not move, for
three hours.
2. If possible, keep the lift truck in a warm storage
area when it is not in use.
3. Do not store a discharged battery at below
freezing temperature.
IA8O4004
3. Put MPGM grease on the chains at one-week
intervals.
IA8O3007
4. Check chains very carefully for wear on the link
plate edges, caused when they run over the
sheaves. Check the chains regularly for cracked
links, loss of shape in the holes, and corrosion.
Observe the battery discharge indicator frequently.
- 79 -
Maintenance Section
Lubricant Viscosities and Refill Capacities
Lubricant Viscosities
Refill Capacities
REFILL CAPACITIES-(APPROXIMATE)
LUBRICANT VISCOSITIES
FOR AMBIENT (OUTSIDE) TEMPERATURES
C
Compartment
Oil
or System Viscosities Min Max
ISO VG 22 -30
Hydraulic and
Power Steering ISO VG 32 -20
System
ISO VG 46 -10
ISO 6743/4 HM
ISO VG 68 0
36V ATF
-20
SAE
-20
*Drive
10
W
API
Axle 48V
CD/TO-2 SAE
Housing
+10
30
*Brake 36V SAE J1703f
Reservoir 48V ISO VG 10 -30
F
Min
Max
+20
-22
+68
+30
-4
+86
+40
+14 +104
+50
+32 +122
+80
-4
+176
+22
-4
+72
+50
+50 +122
+50
-22 +122
* For the detailed information about the lubricant
specifications, see “Lubricant Specifications”
section.
The SAE grade number indicates the viscosity of oil
A proper SAE grade number should be selected
according to ambient temperature.
- 80 -
Compartment
or System
Liters
U.S.
Gal
Imperial
Gal
Hyraulic & Power
Steering System
18
5
4.5
Drive Axle Housing
0.7
0.18
0.15
Brake Reservoir
0.6
0.16
0.13
Maintenance Section
Maintenance Intervals
Every 250 Service Hours or Monthly
NOTICE
Brake Oil Level - Check ................................... 110
Drive Axle Oil Level - Check ............................ 111
Parking Brake - Test ........................................ 111
Hydraulic Oil Level - Check .............................. 112
Wheel Bolts - Check......................................... 112
Mast, Carriage, Lift Chains & Attachments - Inspect,
Lubricate .......................................................... 113
All maintenance and repair, except every 10 service
hours or daily, on the lift truck must be performed by
qualified and authorized personnel only.
NOTICE
Careless disposal of waste oil can harm the
environment and can be dangerous to persons.
Always dispose of waste oil to an authorized
personnel only.
Every 500 Service Hours or 3 Months
Tilt Cylinders - Check, Adjust, Lubricate .......... 114
Crosshead Rollers - Inspect ............................. 115
Mast Hinge Pins - Lubricate ............................. 116
Steering Mechanism - Lubricate ...................... 116
Drive Axle Oil - Change.................................... 116
Overhead Guard - Inspect................................ 116
Control Panel - Clean, Inspect ......................... 117
Directional Lever - Check ................................. 118
Quick Reference to
Maintenance Schedule..............................82
When Required
Self Diagnostics - Test ........................................83
Carriage Roller Extrusion - Adjust.......................96
Head Capacitor - Discharge ...............................96
Brushes - Check, Replace ..................................97
Fuses - Replace ..................................................99
Seat - Lubricate.................................................100
Every 1000 Service Hours or 6 Months
Drive Axle Oil - Change.................................... 119
Drive Motor - Clean, Inspect ............................ 119
Hydraulic Return Filter - Change...................... 121
Tires and Wheels - Inspect, Check .................. 121
Hydraulic Pump Motor - Clean, Inspect .......... 122
Lift Chains - Test, Check, Adjust ...................... 124
Every 10 Service Hours or Daily
Walk-Around Inspection - Inspect .....................101
Mast Channels - Lubricate ................................103
Battery - Check, Exchange, Charge .................103
Indicator - Check ...............................................105
Tires and Wheels - Inspect ...............................106
Back-up Alarm (If Equipped) - Test...................106
Every 2000 Service Hours or Yearly
Steer Wheel Bearings - Reassemble ............... 126
Forks - Inspect ................................................. 127
Air Breather - Change ...................................... 129
First 50 - 100 Service Hours or a Week
Every 2500 Service Hours or 15 Months
Drive Axle Oil - Change.....................................107
Hydraulic Oil & Strainer - Check, Change ........ 130
First 250 Service Hours or a Month
Hydraulic Return Filter - Change.......................109
- 81 -
Maintenance Section
Air Breather
Change
Back-up Alarm(If Equipped)
Battery
Test
106
Check,Exchange,Charge 103
129
Brake Oil Level
Brushes
Check
Check, Replace
110
97
Carriage Roller Extrusion
Control Panel
Crosshead Rollers
Directional Lever
Drive Axle Oil
Drive Axle Oil Level
Drive Axle Oil(36V)
Adjust
Clean, Inspect
Check
Check
Change
Check
Change
96
117
116
118
107
111
119
Drive Axle Oil(48V)
Drive Motor
Change
Clean, Inspect
116
119
Forks
Fuses
Head Capacitor
Hydraulic Oil & Strainer
Hydraulic Oil Level
Hydraulic Pump Moter
Hydraulic Return Filter
Indicator
Lift Chains
Mast Carriage, Chains & Attachments
Mast Channels
Mast Hinge Pins
Overhead Guard
Parking Brake
Seat
Self Diagnostics
Steer Wheel Bearings
Steering Mechanism
Tilt Cylinders
Tires & Wheels
Tires & Wheels
Walk-Around Inspection
Wheel Bolts
Inspect
127
Replace
99
Discharge
96
Check,Change
130
Check
112
Clean, Inspect
122
Change
109,121
Check
105
Test, Check, Adjust
124
Inspect,Adjust,Lubricate 113
Lubricate
103
Lubricate
116
Inspect
116
Test, Adjust
111
Check, Lubricate
100
Test
83
Reassemble
126
Lubricate
116
Check,Adjust,Lubricate
114
Inspect
106
Inspect,Check
121
Inspect
101
Check, Inspect
112
- 82 -
2500 Service Hours or 15 Months
2000 Service Hours or a Year
1500 Service Hours or 9 Months
1000 Service Hours or 6 Months
250 Service Hours or a Week
EVERY
10 Serive Hours or a Day
250 Service Hours or a Month
PAGE
50-100 Service Hours or a Week
SERVICES
When Required
ITEMS
FIRST
500 Service Hours or 3 Months
Quick Reference to Maintenance Schedule
Maintenance Section
When Required
You must read and understand the warnings and instructions contained in the Safety section of this manual,
before performing any operation or maintenance procedures.
Self Diagnostics - Test
5. Move the key switch to OFF.
Prepare for the Self - Diagnostic Test
The Micro-Controller has a built-in diagnostic
system to provide aid in rapid troubleshooting of lift
truck problems.
NOTE : Make sure the battery is fully charged
before any of the following tests are made.
After the self-diagnostics tests have been started,
the procedure does not have to be completed. At
any point the procedure can be interrupted, and the
lift truck made ready for operation.
ID5O0018
B15/18/20T-2(36V)
IA8O4005
1. Park the lift truck level, with the forks lowered and
the mast tilted forward until the fork tips touch the
floor.
B13/15/18/20T-2(48V)
6. Disconnect the battery.
2. Block the drive wheels.
3. Release the parking brake.
IA8O4006
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
IA8O3026
4. Move the directional control lever to NEUTRAL.
- 83 -
Maintenance Section
ID5O0020
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
8. Discharge the head capacitor. See topic “Head
Capacitor” in this section.
7. Remove the control panel cover.
WARNING
Personal injury could result if head capacitor
has not been discharged properly.
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
The HEAD capacitor must be discharged before
any contact with the electrical control system is
made.
ID5O0021
Before touching any electrical components,
remove rings, watches and other metallic
objects from the hands and arms, then
discharge the HEAD capacitor.
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
ID5O0022
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
9. Disconnect line fuse to prevent lift truck
movement.
IA8O4007
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
- 84 -
Maintenance Section
IA8O4065
IA8O4006
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
B13/15/18/20T-2(48V)
B13/15/18/20T-2(48V)
12. Connect the battery.
10. Loosen the four screws to remove the logic unit
cover.
IA8O3002
13. Turn the key switch to ON. If the line fuse has not
been disconnected the LCD display will show a
“d”. Further testing is not possible until the line
fuse is disconnected.
IA8O4010
11. Toggle the diagnostic switch from the “Run” to
the “Diagnostic” position.
- 85 -
Maintenance Section
Perform the self - Diagnostic Tests
The tests will be performed in order. The LCD
display will advance one number upward, upon the
successful completion of each test. If the test
detects a failure, the number will not advance. See
the “Service Manual” testing and adjusting section
of “Lift Trucks Micro-Controller Control System” to
see if the failed component should be replaced or
repaired.
A test that failed can be bypassed to test remaining
components by moving the diagnostic toggle switch
from “Diagnostic” to “Run” and back to “Diagnostic”.
The tests are performed as follows :
IA8O3007
An “A0” will be displayed, in the LCD, if
the logic module circuitry is correct.
An “F” will be displayed, in the LCD, if a failure is
detected.
Logic Module Circuitry
A “d” will be displayed, in the LCD, if the line fuse
has not been disconnected.
Seat Switch
ID5O0021
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
IB9O008P
Close the seat switch by depressing the seat and
then release.
ID5O0022
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
The logic module circuitry will be automatically
checked if the line fuse has been disconnected.
IA8O3007
The seat is depressed, the LCD
display “A1”.
And the seat is released, the LCD
display “A0”.
If still “A0” or “A1”, a failure has been detected.
- 86 -
Maintenance Section
Directional Control Lever
IA8O3007
The directional control lever is forward,
the LCD display “A3”.
And the directional control lever is
neutral, the LCD display “A0”.
IA8O3026
Move the directional control lever from neutral to
reverse to neutral.
If still “A0” or “A3”, a failure has been detected.
Lift Control Lever
IA8O3007
The directional control lever is reverse,
the LCD display “A2”.
And the directional control lever is
neutral, the LCD display “A0”.
ID5O0013
Pull the lift control lever slowly to maximum position
and then release.
If still “A0” or “A2”, a failure has been detected.
IA8O3026
IA8O3007
Move the directional control lever from neutral to
forward to neutral.
The LCD display the speed that
the lift lever is set to. As lever is
,
,
pulled back, 1 through 3 will be
shown.And the lift control lever is
released, the LCD display “A0”.
If still “A0”, a failure has been detected.
- 87 -
Maintenance Section
Tilt Control Lever
IA8O3007
With the auxiliary control lever in
maximum position, the LCD will
display “A7” and “A0” when the lever is
released.
ID5O0014
Pull the tilt control lever to maximum position and
then release.
Parking Brake Lever
IA8O3007
With the lift control lever in maxmum
position, the LCD will display “A6” and
“A0” when the lever is released.
IA8O3043
Pull the parking brake lever to maximum position
and then release.
If still “A0” or “A6”, a failure has been detected.
Auxiliary Control Lever
IA8O3007
With the parking brake lever in
maximum position, the LCD will
display “A9” and “A0” when the lever is
released.
ID5O0015
Pull the auxiliary control lever to maximum position
and then release. If there is no auxiliary control
lever, skip to next procedure.
If still “A0” or “A9”, a failure has been detected.
- 88 -
Maintenance Section
Accelerator Pedal
IA8O3007
The LCD display “AC” and then
contactors are activated in order.
(Line contactor
bypass contactor
left forward direction contactor
right forward direction contactor
left
reverse direction contactor
right reverse
direction contactor)
IA8O3031
Depress the accelerator pedal fully and then
release.
Reverse
Side)
Direction
Contactor
(Right
This completes the self-diagnostics tests.
Turn the key switch to the OFF position and
disconnect the battery.
IA8O3007
NOTE : If the lift truck still has a problem after the
Self-Diagnostic tests have been completed,
see the Service Manual or contact your
DAEWOO Lift Truck dealer for additional
information.
The accelerator pedal is depressed, the speed
symbols are increase from 0 to 10 on the LCD.
The accelerator pedal is released, the speed
symbols are decrease to 0.
If the speed symbols are not full on the LCD,
a failure has been detected.
Contactor Test Switch
IA8O4012
1. Move the slide switch to the “Run” position.
IA8O4011
Move the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch from DIAG to
RUN and then back to DIAG position.
- 89 -
Maintenance Section
ID5O0021
IA8O4006
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
ID5O0022
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
2. Install the logic unit cover.
3. Connect line fuse.
IA8O4013
4. Install the control panel cover.
5. Connect the battery.
- 90 -
Maintenance Section
Diagnostic tests
Diagnostic procedure is essentially the same as the standard model’s, but contains some additional tests.
Refer to the following table, and previous text and pictures to determine correct diagnostic procedure.
Display status
Step
Procedure
Circuit
Active
Normal
1
Turn the key switch on with
battery connected
Internal circuit
Fuse removal
A0
2
Depress the seat and then release
Seat switch
A1
A0
3
Release the park brake level and move the
directional lever to reverse then to neutral
A2
A0
A3
A0
Directional switch
4
Move the directional lever to forward
then to neutral
5
Pull the lift lever to maximum position
and then release
Lift switch
1, 2, 3
A0
6
Pull the tilt lever to maximum position and
then release
Tilt switch
A6
A0
7
Pull the auxiliary lever to maximum position
and then release
Auxiliary switch
A7
A0
8
Pull enough the parking brake lever
and then release
Parking brake switch
A9
A0
9
Depress the accelerator pedal to maximum
and then release
Accelerator control
Accelerator
Speed symbol
10
Move the DIAG/SETUP switch to RUN
position and then back to DIAG position
Contactors
Line
Bypass
Left Fwd
Right Fwd
Left Rev
Right Rev
AC
11
Pull the tilt lever and then release
See "Store error codes"
Error Codes
12
The end of the diagnostics
E
NOTE : You must ask DEAWOO service man for fine tuning of logic assembly.
- 91 -
Maintenance Section
Stored error Codes
Service Records Saving
The logic card will remember up to 24 of the last
error codes. This is useful in case the truck has an
intermittent problem, or thermal condition, and the
operator cannot remember what exactly happened.
By analyzing the contents of the last 24 Error codes,
one may recall the last thermal conditions or error
codes that have appeared on the display. These
error codes are accessed at the end of selfdiagnostics, by using the following procedure.
To save service records, the following procedures
are used at the end of self-diagnostics and service
record are numbers between 1-9.
1. Move the direction control lever to the forward
position after accessing the error codes and
displaying “E”.
2. Display shows a solid “8d” move the DIAG/RUN/
SETUP switch to the SETUP position and back
to DIAG two times.
1. Access the self diagnostics procedure as
previously described.
3. Pull the tilt lever to maximum position and then
release.
2. Either step through the diagnostic procedure, or
override each test by moving the DIAG/RUN/
SETUP switch from DIAG to RUN and back to
DIAG until the contactor testing is complete.
4. A saved service records will show for a few
seconds.
5. Wait until the display will show a flashing “8d”, the
display indicates that a service record have been
saved.
3. Cycle the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch once more,
and cycle through the contactor testing again.
The error codes can now be accessed one at a time
by moving the TILT lever to maximum and then back
to NEUTRAL position. This will display the most
recent error code. By cycling the lever more times,
more error codes will appear on the display, up to a
total of twenty four. When the display shows a solid
“E”, it indicates that all of the error codes have been
displayed. It is also possible that all error codes may
be the same, and the display will not change
between lever cycles.
6. Turn OFF the key switch.
Error Codes Erasing
To erase all of the error codes, the following
procedures are used at the start of self-diagnostics.
1. Move the direction control lever to the reverse
and the DIAG/RUN/SETUP switch to the DIAG
position.
2. Turn on the key switch and wait until display
shows a solid “8b”, then move the DIAG/RUN/
SETUP switch to the SETUP position and back to
DIAG two times. And move the direction lever to
neutral.
3. Wait until the display show “A0”, the display
indicates that all error codes have been erased.
- 92 -
Maintenance Section
Programmable or Settable Feature
The logic card contains a number of features which are either settable or programmable. The following is a list
of the features, however the “Service Manual” or your DAEWOO dealer should be consulted in determining
which options may be beneficial to the application.
PROGRAM FEATURE
DESCRIPTION
0
Creep Speed
1
Maximum steering speed
2
Electrical assist brake
3
Discharged battery reset value
4
Top travel speed Limit
6
Wait timer
7
Discharged battery drive speed
8
Acceleration travel speed time
9
Excessive Drive motor current
10
Battery type selection
11
Maximum idle speed
12
Maximum lift 1. speed
13
Maximum lift 2. speed
14
Maximum tilt speed
15
Maximum Auxiliary Speed
16
Hydraulic Ramp Timer
- 93 -
Maintenance Section
Possible Stored Error
The following are the possible error codes stored in memory. Most error codes are identical to the one
displayed during RUN. See “Service Manual” for further explanation and troubleshooting of any of the following
error codes.
ERROR CODES
DESCRIPTION
F0
Excessive drive motor current
F2
Drive circuit problem (Left side short)
"F2" (Flashing)
Drive circuit problem (Right side short)
F3
Pump circuit problem (Short)
F4
Drive and pump circuit problem (All short)
F5
Drive circuit problem (Left side open)
"F5" (Flashing)
Drive circuit problem (Right side open)
F6
Pump circuit problem (Open)
F7
Drive and pump circuit problem (All open)
FA
Angle circuit problem
Fb
Battery abnormal condition
Fd
Pressure switch circuit problem
E1
Drive motor brush problem
E2
Pump motor brush problem
Ec
Controller thermal problem
Ed
Drive motor thermal problem
EP
Pump motor thermal problem
EL
Battery lock-out
Non Stored Error
The following are error codes not stored in memory. Most error codes are identical to the one displayed during
RUN. See “Service Manual” for further0 explanation and troubleshooting of any of the following error codes.
ERROR CODES
EE
"EE" (Flashing)
DESCRIPTION
Static Return to OFF error (SRO)
Seat switch circuit problem
- 94 -
Maintenance Section
General Displaying Codes
The following are the general displaying codes and indicate any operation status
GENERAL CODES
DESCRIPTION
OK
System normal operation
PP
Wait operation
E
8b/A0
8d/"8d" (Flashing)
The end or the diagnostics
Error code erase (preparation/completion)
Service record save (preparation/completion)
- 95 -
Maintenance Section
Carriage Roller Extrusion - Adjust
Head Capacitor - Discharge
1. Set the mast vertical.
WARNING
2. Lower the carriage completely.
Personal injury could result if head capacitor
has not been discharged properly.
3. On full free lift and full free triple lift models, the
bottom of the inner mast must be flush with the
bottom of the stationary mast.
Battery voltage and high amperage are present.
The HEAD capacitor must be discharged before
any contact with the electrical control system is
made.
INNER MAST
Before touching any electrical components,
remove rings, watches and other metallic
objects from the hands and arms, then
discharge the HEAD capacitor.
A
Carriage roller
extrusion
IB2O638I
4. Measure the distance from the bottom of the inner
upright to the bottom of carriage bearing.
5. The measurement (A) must be as follows in Chart
below.
Height of carriage roller extrusion (A)
STD mast
FF mast
FFT mast
-6
8
8
IA8O4007
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
ID5O0020
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
The head capacitor is located in the control panel at
the rear of the lift truck.
- 96 -
Maintenance Section
Brushes - Check, Replace
Refer to “Drive Motor” and/or “Hydraulic Pump
Motor” section in “Every 1000 Service Hours or 6
Months” section of “Maintenance Intervals” if brush
wear is suspected.
Brush Seating
1. All new drive and hydraulic motor brushes must
be seated. For drive motor brush seating, lift the
front of the lift truck until the drive wheels are off
the floor and free to turn. Put adequate stands
under the frame to support the lift truck.
ID5O0018
B15/18/20T-2(36V)
NOTICE
Do NOT move the directional control lever from one
direction to the other when the drive wheels are off
the ground and rotating at full speed.
Damage can be caused to the control panel.
B13/15/18/20T-2(48V)
1. Disconnect the battery.
ID5O0023
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
IA8O4013
2. Remove the control panel cover.
3. Before touching any electrical components, the
HEAD capacitor must be discharged. Put a 90
ohm, 30 watt resistor in position between the
terminals of the HEAD capacitor as shown. Hold
the resistor in this position for approximately ten
seconds. This will discharge the capacitor.
4. Perform any necessary maintenance and repair
at this time.
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
5. Install the control panel cover.
2. Use a brush seating stone for drive and hydraulic
motors.
6. Connect the battery.
- 97 -
Maintenance Section
3. Put the seating stone in position on the
commutator. Operate the motor slowly and move
the seating stone from side to side, at the back
edge of the brushes for a short time. This will take
the shine off the commutator and seat the
brushes.
NOTICE
Do NOT let the seating stone stay in contact with the
commutator for too long. It will cause more wear
than necessary to the brushes and the commutator.
ID5O0025
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
4. Check the contact surface of the brushes. At least
85% of the brush contact surface must show
contact with the commutator. If necessary repeat
the seating procedure.
NOTE : Do NOT use a brush seating stone that is
shorter than 63.5 mm (2.50 inch).
WARNING
Pressure air can cause personal injury.
When using pressure air for cleaning, wear a
protective face shield, protective clothing and
protective shoes.
ID5O0024
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
The maximum air pressure must be below 205
kPa (30 psi) for cleaning purposes.
5. While operating the motor slowly, blow out all of
the abrasive grit and dust with 205 kPa (30 psi)
air pressure.
- 98 -
Maintenance Section
Fuses - Replace
The fuses are located in the control panel and fuse
box at the rear of the lift truck.
They protect the electrical system from damage
caused by overloaded circuits. Change a fuse if the
element separates. If the element of a new fuse
separates, have the circuit checked and repaired.
ID5O0034
NOTICE
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
Replace fuses with the same type and size only.
Otherwise, electrical damage can result.
Key switch- 10 amps
If it is necessary to replace fuses frequently, an
electrical problem may exist. Contact your
DAEWOO Lift Truck dealer.
ID5O0021
B13/15/18/20T-2 (48V)
Main Fuse - 600 amps
IA8O4018
Horn
- 10 amps
DC/DC converter - 10 amps
Lights(1)
- 10 amps
Lights(2)
- 10 amps
2
1
ID5O0035
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
Main Fuse (1) - 600 amps
HYD Fuse (2) - 350 amps
IA8O4019
B15/18/20T-2 (36V)
- 99 -
Maintenance Section
Seat - Lubricate
IA8O3003
Check the operation of the seat adjusters. Make
surethat the seat slides freely on its track. Lightly oil
the seat slider tracks.
- 100 -
Maintenance Section
Every 10 Service Hours or Daily
You must read and understand the warnings and instructions contained in the Safety section of this manual,
before performing any operation or maintenance procedures.
Walk-Around Inspection - Inspect
IA8O4025
IA8O4024
1. Inspect the operator’s compartment for loose item
and clean any mud or debris from the floor plates.
6. Inspect the tires, valve stems and wheels for cuts,
gouges, foreign objects and loose or missing
nuts. Refer to “Tires and Wheels” in “Every 10
Service Hours or Daily” section, if repairs or
replacement is necessary.
2. Inspect the instrument panel for damage to the
Iindicator display.
3. Test the horn and other warning devices for
proper operation.
IA8O4026
7. Inspect the overhead guard for damage, loose or
missing mounting bolts.
IA8O4005
4. Inspect the mast and lift chains for wear, broken
links, pins and loose rollers.
5. Inspect the carriage, forks or attachments for
wear, damage and loose or missing bolts.
IA8O4027
8. Inspect the hydraulic system for leaks, worn
hoses or damaged lines.
- 101 -
Maintenance Section
IA8O3026
IA8O4028
9. Inspect the drive axle housing and the ground
for oil leaks. Refer to “Drive Axle Oil” in “Every
1000 Service Hours or 6 Months” section, if an
oil leak is found.
12. Move the directional lever to NEUTRAL.
IA8O3002
13. Turn the key switch to ON.
IA8O4029
10. Adjust the operator’s seat.
IA8O3007
IA8O4030
11. Adjust the steering wheel to a comfortable
position.
14. Check the LCD display for battery discharge
status. A fully charged battery will be displayed
on the LCD display.
15. Check the operation of parking brake, service
brake, controls and other devices that may be
equipped on your lift truck.
- 102 -
Maintenance Section
Mast Channels - Lubricate
Battery - Check, Exchange, Charge
Battery Access
Park the lift truck level, with the forks lowered and
the mast tilted forward until the fork tips touch the
floor.
IA8O4031
The channels on the roller-type mast require a
break-in period. Apply a light film of lubricant on the
channels where the rollers ride. This will prevent
metal peel until the rollers set a pattern.
ID5O0018
B15/18/20T-2(36V)
B13/15/18/20T-2(48V)
1. Disconnect the battery.
2. Tilt the steering column to the full upright position
and move the seat fully rearward.
IA8O4033
3. Release the hood latch lever which retain the seat
and battery cover.
4. Raise the seat and battery cover.
- 103 -
Maintenance Section
Check Electrolyte
3. Check the specific gravity of the battery. If the
specific gravity reading is below 1.150, the
battery must be charged.
NOTICE
The battery should not be used if a difference in
specific gravity between two cells is greater than
.020. If this condition exists, the battery should be
put on an equalization charge. If this does not
correct the condition, consult your battery supplier.
IA8O4034
1. Inspect the battery compartment for loose
connections, frayed cables and properly secured
battery restraint.
4. Check the electrolyte level of all cells. Maintain
the electrolyte level about 13 mm (.50 inch)
above the plates. Add water as needed. Use only
distilled water. Add water before charging the
battery.
2. Clean the top of the battery. If necessary, clean
the top of the battery with a solution of baking
soda and hot water.
5. Lower the seat and battery cover. To closed
position and secure with the latch on the front of
the cover.
6. Connect the battery.
NOTICE
Vent caps must be tight to prevent soda solution
from entering battery cells.
Battery Exchanging
A clean battery top is essential to avoid conductive
paths on higher voltage batteries.
NOTE : Batteries should be changed, water added
and charged only in areas where proper
protective and ventilation facilities are
provided.
To make the solution, add 0.5 kg (1 lb) of baking
soda to 4 liters (1 gallon) of water. Use a brush
having flexible bristles. Apply the soda solution to
the top of the battery until the cleaning action of the
soda stops. After cleaning action has stopped, rinse
batteries thoroughly with water. Dry the batteries
with low air pressure.
1. Refer to “Battery Access” topic for battery access.
2. Cover the battery with hinged battery cover or
with plywood.
3. Install insulated battery tree and hoist, of
sufficient capacity, to the battery.
4. Remove the battery. Recharge the battery.
5. Install a fully charged battery.
6. Remove the battery tree. Remove hinged battery
cover or plywood from the top of the battery.
7. Connect the battery.
IA8O4035
8. Lower the seat and battery cover to closed
position and secure with the latch on the front of
the cover.
9. Adjust the seat position.
- 104 -
Maintenance Section
Battery Charging
WARNING
When charging, proper provision must be made
for venting of the charging gases. Battery
container lids and the covers of battery
compartments must be opened or removed. The
vent plugs should stay on the cells and remain
closed.
With Battery Installed in Lift Truck
B20T-2(48V)
1. Refer to “Battery Access” topic for battery access.
2. Engage the parking brake.
2. Connect the battery to the charger and charge the
battery. Observe safety warnings for charging
batteries.
3. When the battery is fully charged, disconnect the
battery from the battery charger.
4. Connect the battery to the lift truck.
5. Lower the seat and battery cover to closed
position and secure with the latch on the front of
the cover.
6. Adjust the seat position.
IA8O3026
Indicator - Check
3. Move the directional control lever to the
NEUTRAL position.
4. Close the seat switch.
IA8O3001
1.