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Transcript
Preparing for lectures
• Lecturing styles
• Revising basic information
Lecture skills A
Listening
• Understanding lecture aims
• Understanding outlines
• Identifying main and secondary points
• Taking notes: annotating slides 1
Language focus
• Repetition and rephrasing
Follow up
• Taking notes: annotating slides 2
• Reviewing your notes
Preparing for
lectures
1
Lecturing styles
1.1
A.1 During your academic studies you will hear many different styles of lecturing. Watch three
lecture extracts that illustrate a reading style, a conversational style, and an interactive style.
What differences do you notice?
1 Reading style
2 Conversational style
3 Interactive style
1.2 a In pairs, discuss the following questions.
1 Which style do you find easiest to understand, and why?
2 Is there a style of lecturing that is common in your subject?
2
Revising basic information
Study tip A lecturer will assume that you already know certain information and build on this in
the lecture. It is helpful to prepare for a lecture by making sure you understand key terms and
concepts that your lecturer may use.
2.1 a You are going to watch extracts from a lecture given by Dr Maru Mormina with the title The
origins of human diversity. Read the notes from a previous lecture on her course.
• DNA = material inside the core (= nucleus) of each
cell in the body; it carries genetic information in
genes (= sections of the DNA)
• genetic information controls the cell’s chemistry
gives the body its characteristics & influences how
the body works
• genetic variation = differences between individuals
that are inherited (e.g. eye colour is inherited from
parents)
• genome = total set of genetic information of a living
thing (human, plant, etc.); located in chromosomes
(in centre of cells; control what living thing is like)
Dr Maru Mormina is a Research Fellow
at the Leverhulme Centre for Human
Evolutionary Studies, within the
Department of Biological Anthropology,
Cambridge University.
b In pairs, take it in turns to explain the following key terms without looking back at the notes.
DNA
genetic information
genetic variation
genome
38
© Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, Stuttgart 2012 | www.klett.de | Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Diese Probeseiten ermöglichen Ihnen eine konkrete inhaltliche Auseinandersetzung mit dem neuen Lehrwerk. Die hier dargestellten Texte, Bilder und
Illustrationen sind gezielt für bestimmte Lernsituationen und passgenau zu den Inhalten der Lehrpläne ausgesucht und verstärken die Lerneffekte. Die
methodische Abstimmung der Texte einerseits und Bilder andererseits wird durch diese Probeseiten verdeutlicht
Cambridge Adademic English, Student‘s Book
Lecture skills A
ISBN: 978-3-12-540284-3
1
Lecture skills A
Listening
3
Understanding lecture aims
3.1 a
1
2
3
b
4
A.2 As Dr Mormina introduces her lecture, she shows the following slide. Read the slide,
and then watch the extract and answer the questions.
What evolutionary mechanisms will Dr
The purpose of this talk
Mormina talk about in her lecture?
What word does Dr Mormina use to
• To explore some of the evolutionary
describe the biological diversity of
mechanisms responsible for the diversity of
human populations? Does she mean
human populations, mostly from a biological
that the diversity is large or small?
perspective but with some reference to
Which of the three topics on the slide
cultural diversity.
will Dr Mormina talk about most?
• Migration
In pairs, try to predict what Dr Mormina might
• Adaptation
say about each of the three headings on
• Culture
the slide.
Understanding outlines
4.1 a You are going to listen to Dr Mormina talk in more detail about how she will organise the
lecture. Before you listen, in pairs discuss which of the headings (a–f) are likely to follow
each of the two main section headings.
a
b
c
d
e
f
Gene flow (= migrations)
Culture
Geography and migrations
in human prehistory
Selection and
environmental adaptation
Natural selection
Mutation
Outline
• Biological mechanisms generating diversity: general background
•
•
•
• The structuring of human biological and cultural diversity
•
•
•
A.3 Watch the extract and complete the rest of the slide by writing in headings (a–f).
b
c What do you think Dr Mormina will talk about next?
5
Identifying main and secondary points
5.1 a
A.4 Watch the beginning of the next section of Dr Mormina’s talk and answer the following
questions.
1 What question does she ask at the end of the clip to indicate what she is going to say
next?
2 In pairs, discuss possible answers to her question.
Making predictions
during a lecture
Unit B, 3 p67
Study tip Many lecturers use questions to help them organise what they say and to indicate
to the audience what they are going to talk about. If the lecturer asks questions, main points
usually answer these questions directly.
39
© Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, Stuttgart 2012 | www.klett.de | Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Diese Probeseiten ermöglichen Ihnen eine konkrete inhaltliche Auseinandersetzung mit dem neuen Lehrwerk. Die hier dargestellten Texte, Bilder und
Illustrationen sind gezielt für bestimmte Lernsituationen und passgenau zu den Inhalten der Lehrpläne ausgesucht und verstärken die Lerneffekte. Die
methodische Abstimmung der Texte einerseits und Bilder andererseits wird durch diese Probeseiten verdeutlicht
Cambridge Adademic English, Student‘s Book
Lecture skills A
ISBN: 978-3-12-540284-3
2
Lecture skills A
b
A.5
Watch the rest of the section and read the transcript to check your predictions.
Well, certainly because over, over many, many years we have had to adapt to
different environments so the challenges that our ancestors encountered in Africa
are very different from an environmental perspective, from the challenges that
they might have found in Siberia. So the, the body has adapted in different ways
to respond to these different challenges. But also the fact that, er, after their
origin in, in Africa humans spread all over the world and from that moment on,
populations became isolated and therefore they evolved independently, er, finding
different ways, different solutions to the different environments. So migrations,
human dispersals, have played a role in generating this, erm, array of biological
diversity. But also culture contributes to, er, our differences, and the reason why
I like this picture so much is because the differences you see between these
different faces has not only to do with the way they look, but also with the way
they dress. So culture also contributes, and particularly language, also contributes
to generate … to generating diversity.
5.2 a Look at some of the points Dr Mormina makes and decide which are main points (MP) and
which are secondary or supporting points (SP).
1 People adapt to their environments.
2 The environments of Africa and Siberia are different.
3 People migrated to different environments.
4 Culture is important in creating diversity.
5 Language plays a part in creating diversity.
b What language does Dr Mormina use in this section to highlight that there are three main
points?
6
Taking notes: annotating slides 1
Many lecturers today use slides to illustrate their lectures and give out copies of these slides on a
handout for students. However, there will be more information in the lecture than appears on the
slides, so it is important to annotate slides on a handout during the lecture.
6.1 a You are going to watch Dr Mormina explain how gene flow plays a role in generating diversity.
Before you watch, in pairs discuss what you think the slide and notes mean.
b
1
2
3
4
5
A.6 Watch the extract and annotate the slide with the notes (1–5) in the appropriate place
(a–e).
have different characteristics
Biological mechanisms generating
populations intermix
migration in one direction
diversity: GENE FLOW
many more different forms
a
subset with new characteristics
b
moves to new region
a
(= gene flow)
b
(e.g. yellow and green)
d
c
Population A
c
(= polymorphic)
d
(= genetic bottleneck)
Population B
e
e
(= diversity is changed)
40
© Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, Stuttgart 2012 | www.klett.de | Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Diese Probeseiten ermöglichen Ihnen eine konkrete inhaltliche Auseinandersetzung mit dem neuen Lehrwerk. Die hier dargestellten Texte, Bilder und
Illustrationen sind gezielt für bestimmte Lernsituationen und passgenau zu den Inhalten der Lehrpläne ausgesucht und verstärken die Lerneffekte. Die
methodische Abstimmung der Texte einerseits und Bilder andererseits wird durch diese Probeseiten verdeutlicht
Cambridge Adademic English, Student‘s Book
Lecture skills A
ISBN: 978-3-12-540284-3
3
Lecture skills A
Language focus
7
Repetition and rephrasing
Lecturers often repeat information, particularly in conversational and interactive styles, if it is
important or if they think it may be difficult for you to understand. They may rephrase or repeat
information in order to give you a second opportunity to understand, and it is important to listen
carefully for this. For example, in the lecture extract in 6.1 ‘different characteristics’ is rephrased
as ‘look different’.
These are two different populations. Erm, one could think individuals in these
populations have different characteristics, look different.
Follow up
7.1
A.7 Listen and complete the following extracts from Dr Mormina’s lecture. Underline the
words that are rephrased.
centre
1 So I spoke about mutations because at the heart of, at the
of it
all, there’s the process of mutation. Mutation is what generates diversity.
2 However, at about ten thousand years, the agricultural populations,
, that were, developing, or that were domesticating species were
only in these pockets.
3 … and therefore they evolved independently finding different ways, different solutions to
have played a role in
the different environments. So migrations,
generating this, erm, array of biological diversity.
4 But then the weather changes again and at around twelve thousand years we enter into
, we’re living
the Holocene. And the Holocene is the period, the
in now.
5 It is around this time that some species like, er, begin to dwindle, begin to, erm,
.
6 But we can also use indirect evidence, which is the distribution of genetic diversity
, how this
today, and from that we infer back, we look back and
diversity might have been generated.
8
Taking notes: annotating slides 2
8.1
A.8 Listen to another extract from Dr Mormina’s lecture and add your own notes to the
following slide. In pairs, compare your notes.
Biological mechanisms generating
diversity: GENE FLOW
Study tip If you have time, review your notes a day or two after a lecture. This will help you to
remember the information in the lecture, and also identify any gaps in your understanding.
9
Reviewing your notes
9.1 In pairs, look back at the two slides you annotated in this unit and take it in turns to explain
each slide.
41
© Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, Stuttgart 2012 | www.klett.de | Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Diese Probeseiten ermöglichen Ihnen eine konkrete inhaltliche Auseinandersetzung mit dem neuen Lehrwerk. Die hier dargestellten Texte, Bilder und
Illustrationen sind gezielt für bestimmte Lernsituationen und passgenau zu den Inhalten der Lehrpläne ausgesucht und verstärken die Lerneffekte. Die
methodische Abstimmung der Texte einerseits und Bilder andererseits wird durch diese Probeseiten verdeutlicht
Cambridge Adademic English, Student‘s Book
Lecture skills A
ISBN: 978-3-12-540284-3
4