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Agenda
•
•
•
•
Bell ringer
Review Maritime Revolution
Transformations in Europe
Closure
Review
• What were the effects of the colonial reforms
and wars among imperial powers that
dominated the Americas during the 18th
century?
Unit 4: Global Interactions (1450
– 1750)
ESSENTIAL LEARNING: THE ATLANTIC
SYSTEM AND AFRICA (1550-1800)
Objectives
• Describe the importance of sugar production
to the European colonies of the West Indies
and to the expansion of African slave trade.
Essential Questions
• What was the importance of sugar production
to the European colonies of the West Indies
and to the expansion of African slave trade?
Target: Plantations in the West Indies
• Colonization before 1650
– Spanish settlers – sugar-cane cultivation after
1500.
– Tobacco (post-1600)
• First tobacco colonies – diseases, hurricanes,
native and Spanish attacks, shortages of
supply and labor.
• France and England allowed chartered
companies.
– Provided passage for indentured servants.
– Mid 1600s – Switch to sugar cane and African
slaves in the Caribbean.
– Portuguese first developed sugar plantations with
African slaves.
• Dutch West India Company control by 1635.
• Portugal reconquered Brazil by 1654.
• Sugar and slaves
– More sugar plantations in the West Indies = higher
volume of African slave trade.
– Less wealthy tobacco planters preferred
Indentured servants.
– Sugar cultivation = high land prices in West Indies.
Essential Questions
• What was the importance of sugar production
to the European colonies of the West Indies
and to the expansion of African slave trade?
Review
• What was the importance of sugar production
to the European colonies of the West Indies
and to the expansion of African slave trade?
Unit 4: Global Interactions (1450
– 1750)
ESSENTIAL LEARNING: THE ATLANTIC
SYSTEM AND AFRICA(1550-1800)
Objectives
• Evaluate the effect that sugar plantations had
on the natural environment and on living
conditions.
Essential Questions
• What effect did sugar plantations have on the
natural environment and on living conditions?
Target: Plantation Life in the 18th
Century
• Technology and environment
– Complex and expensive process to produce sugar
cane.
– High profits led planters to exploit nature.
– New animals and plants crowded out indigenous
species.
Fig. 19-CO, p. 504
• Slaves’ lives
– Most islands of the West Indies – 90% or more of
the inhabitants.
• 2-3% house servants, 70% worked the fields.
– Plantocracy held power.
– Small group of estate managers, government
officials, artisans, small farmers.
– Imported twice as many males as females.
– Fear.
– No schooling.
– Little time for family.
• Poor nutrition and overwork lowered fertility.
p. 513
– Disease killed many
• Seasoning – period of adjustment, average of 1/3 died.
• High mortality increased volume of slave trade.
– Elements of African culture in the West Indies.
– Harsh conditions in West Indies made some seek
freedom.
• Planters tried to curtail African cultural traditions.
• Free whites and free blacks
– French colony of San Domingue
• Grands blancs (“great whites”)
• Petits blancs (“little whites”)
• Free blacks – many owned property, some owned
slaves
– Manumission more common in Brazil, Spanish,
and French colonies
– Escaped slaves were part of the free black
population.
Essential Questions
• What effect did sugar plantations have on the
natural environment and on living conditions?
Agenda
Review
• What were the effects of the colonial reforms
and wars among imperial powers that
dominated the Americas during the 18th
century?
Unit 4: Global Interactions (1450
– 1750)
ESSENTIAL LEARNING: THE ATLANTIC
SYSTEM AND AFRICA (1550-1800)
Objectives
• Describe the relationship between private
investors and European governments in the
development of the Atlantic economy.
Essential Questions
• What was the relationship between private
investors and European governments in the
development of the Atlantic economy?
Target: Creating the Atlantic Economy
• Capitalism and mercantilism
– Success of 17th and 18th century Atlantic economy
depended on private enterprise.
– Growth of the Atlantic economy was one part of
the development of modern capitalism –
economic system of large financial institutions
– 17th century – slow economic growth in Europe
led many to seek profits in colonial products like
sugar and tobacco.
• Banks, joint-stock corporations, insurance.
– Mercantilism – European states controlled trade
and accumulated capital in the form of gold and
silver.
• Chartered companies.
• High tariffs and restrictions excluded foreigners.
Map 19-1, p. 517
• The Atlantic Circuit
– Clockwise network of sea routes connecting
Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
• First leg: Europe to Africa (manufactured goods)
• Second leg: Africa to the Americas (slaves – Middle
Passage)
• Third leg: the Americas to Europe (raw materials)
Map 19-2, p. 519
p. 518
– Not the only route.
• European ships to Indian Ocean and Asia, Asia to Africa
and Americas.
• Triangular Trade –Americas to West Africa, Africa to the
West Indies, West Indies to New England.
• Brazil and Angola
– Europe = principal market for American plantation
products.
– African slave trade
• Flow of sugar to Europe depended on the flow of slaves
from Africa.
• Chartered companies.
Essential Questions
• What was the relationship between private
investors and European governments in the
development of the Atlantic economy?
Agenda
Review
• What was the relationship between private
investors and European governments in the
development of the Atlantic economy?
Unit 4: Global Interactions (1450
– 1750)
ESSENTIAL LEARNING: THE ATLANTIC
SYSTEM AND AFRICA (1550-1800)
Objectives
• Describe how sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding
contacts in the Atlantic compared with its
contacts with the Islamic world.
Essential Questions
• How did sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding
contacts in the Atlantic compare with its
contacts with the Islamic world?
Target: Africa, the Atlantic, and Islam
• The Gold Coast and the Slave Coast
– African kings and merchants sold slaves and
goods.
– Textiles, hardware, and guns in high demand.
– Europeans forced to observe African trading
customs.
– Most common sources of slaves – prisoners of
war.
• The Bight of Biafra and Angola
– Bight of Biafra.
• Regional merchants sold people.
• Giant fairs.
– Angola – greatest source of slaves.
• Markets.
• Effect of droughts.
– Atlantic trade among African regions expanded
and prospered because European merchants and
African elites benefitted.
• Foreign goods made Africans more wealthy and
powerful.
Map 19-3, p. 521
Essential Questions
• How did sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding
contacts in the Atlantic compare with its
contacts with the Islamic world?
Agenda
Review
• What was the relationship between private
investors and European governments in the
development of the Atlantic economy?
Unit 4: Global Interactions (1450
– 1750)
ESSENTIAL LEARNING: THE ATLANTIC
SYSTEM AND AFRICA (1550-1800)
Objectives
• Describe how sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding
contacts in the Atlantic compared with its
contacts with the Islamic world.
Essential Questions
• How did sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding
contacts in the Atlantic compare with its
contacts with the Islamic world?
Target: Africa’s European and Islamic
Contacts
• North Africa – part of the Islamic world.
• Sub-Sahara – gradually learned of Muslim
beliefs from traders.
• 16th century – Ottoman Empire annexed most
of North Africa.
• Until 1590, the Sahara remained an effective
barrier against invasion from northern states.
• Few statistics of the slave trade to the Islamic
north.
– 1600-1800: 850,000 to Muslim North Africa.
• Most in the Islamic world were soldiers or
servants.
• Enslavement of “pagans.”
• Islam forbade enslavement of Muslims.
• Limited European cultural influence.
• European trade was larger.
– 1550-1800: 8 million v. 2 million
• Effects on Africa’s population
– Sub-Sahara still large.
– Localities suffered high losses.
– Ability to recover from losses was related to the
number of women who were shipped away.
– Sub-Saharan economies
• Limited volume of manufactured imports did not
overwhelm African products.
– Profits mostly went to European merchants and
ship owners.
– European manufacturers profited as well.
Essential Questions
• How did sub-Saharan Africa’s expanding
contacts in the Atlantic compare with its
contacts with the Islamic world?