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Transcript
Ancient Indian Civilizations
2500 B.C. – A.D. 550
Indus River Valley Civilization

Objectives:


Examine the role geography and climate
played in the settlement of the Indian
subcontinent.
Investigate how people in the Indus River
Valley civilization lived.
Geography



Indian Subcontinent
 Extends southward
from central Asia to
Indian Ocean
Himalayas Mountains
 Slowed entry to
India
 Separates India
from Asia
Khyber Pass
 Permitted travel to
India
Geography


Indus & Ganges Rivers
 Drained into the
Indo-Gangetic
Plain
Deccan
 Plateau with mild
summer
Mount Everest
"Head of the World"


Peak at 29,029 ft above sea level
International border between China and Nepal runs across
the precise summit point
Climate



Southwest Monsoon
provides much of the rain
fall in India
Timing of Monsoon
 Late=crops fail
 Too Much rain=floods
countryside
Temperatures
 Along Coast and
Deccan=mild summer
 Indo Gangetic Plain=up
Early Civilizations
2500 B.C – 1500 B.C.



Ancient Cities of Harappa and Mahenjo Daro
 Large and well planned
 Water system with public bath and brick sewers
 Strong central fortress citadel, built on a brick
platform
Farming
 Grew cotton, wheat,
barley, and rice
Produced cotton cloth,
pottery, bronze, gold
and silver items
Harappans

Religion




Believed to Worshiped a mother
goddess of fertility
Used bulls, buffalo, and tigers in
religious rituals
Held ceremonies in home or around
sacred trees
What happen to the
Harappans?????


Several unburied skeletons found at
Mahenjo Daro
Violence? Earthquakes? Floods?
Indo-Aryan Migrates

Objectives


Explain how live in northern India changed
with the coming of the Indo-Aryans
Identify the major contributions of the
Indo-Aryans to the ancient Indian society
Nomadic Indo-Aryans





Came from North of the Black &
Caspian Sea
Sheep & cattle herders and Skilled
Warriors
Vedas- great works of religious
literature
Sanskrit- Indo-Aryan language
Vedic Age- 1500 B.C. to 1000 B.C
Indo- Aryan Religion

Earliest Gods drawn from Nature




Vedic Gods



Earth, Fire, light, Rain, Sky, Storms, Sun, and Water
Sky became the Father
Earth became the mother
Particular characteristics
Example…”Varuna” was guardian of cosmic order
Brahmins

Special priest that knew the proper forms and rules for
religious ceremonies
Indo Aryan Society





Settlements joined to form small independent states
 Governed by Raja
 Raja acted as military leader, judge, and
lawmaker
Complex Social Orders
Warriors and Priest were top of the social structure
High value on marriage
 Rules limited marriage among social orders
 Arranged marriages
Emphasized the value of sacrifices
Indo-Aryan Society


Religious values changed as social classes became
rigid and identified with ritual purity
Migrates impacted Northern India the most


Economy


Brought new social order and language (Sanskrit)
Raised wheat and barley on the plains of the Indus and
Ganges Rivers
Southern India


Protected from invasion by mountains
Terrain prevented unification
Hinduism and Buddhism

Objectives:



Describe the importance
of religion in ancient
Indian society
Identify the principle
elements of Hinduism
Identify the basic beliefs
of Buddhism
Upanishads and the Epics


Upanishads are written
explanations of the Vedic
religion
Epics- long poems based
on historical or religious
themes


Mahabharata and the
Ramayana
Explained the idea of
Vedanta
Changing
Society


Caste System- complex form of social organization
Varnas – Indian society social classes






1st- Rulers and Warriors
2nd- Brahmins
3rd- Merchants, traders, and farmers
4th- Peasants who worked in fields
5th- Pariahs or untouchables
Pariahs ,”untouchables”, were viewed as being
outside of the Varnas

Divided into 4 smaller groups called Jati
Hinduism

Developed through priests explanations of Vedas



Devine essence of Brahman fills everything in
the world
Monism is the belief that God and creation
are the same
Hinduism Beliefs

Maya- world was an illusion


If they accept maya, they cannot be saved
Reincarnation- rebirth of the souls
Hinduism
Beliefs

Two Principles

Dharma- do one’s moral duty where soul can advance to
next life


Nirvana- perfect peace


Karma- good or bad force created by actions
reincarnation is complete and the individual soul units with
Brahman
Hindu God Brahma is represented as a number
of Gods
Buddhism

Siddhartha Gautama

Founder of Buddhism

Known as Buddha or “The
Enlightened One”

Vowed to discover the reason
for human suffering

Became known as Buddha at
the age of 35
Buddha’s
Teachings

Stressed the importance of selflessness

Any person can reach nirvana

All people practice honest conduct, non violence, and
poverty

Two Branches of Buddhism

Theravada- believed Buddha was a great teacher and
spiritual leader

Mahayana- regarded Buddha as a god and savior
Buddha’s
Teachings

The Four Noble Truths

All human life involves suffering and sorrow

The desire for a life of pleasure and material gain causes
suffering and sorrow

Renouncing desire frees people from suffering and helps
their souls attain nirvana

The Eightfold Path leads to renunciation, or denial of
desire and attainment of nirvana
Buddha’s
Teachings

The Eightfold Path

Right Views- seeing life as it really is

Right Intentions- living a life of good will

Right Speech- avoid lies and gossip

Right Action- trying to be law abiding and honest

Right Living- avoid work that harms others

Right Effort- Seeking to prevent evil

Right Mindfulness- constant awareness of one’s self

Right Concentration- Directing the mind in meditation
Ancient Indian
Dynasties and Empires

Chandragupta Maurya
 Established the Mauryan Empire
 Established a rigid bureaucracy
to carry out demands
 United Northern India from Ganges
River to west of the Indus
 Standardized weights and
measurements
 Established standards for physicians
Ancient Indian
Dynasties and Empires

Asoka


Enlarged the Mauryan Empire until it
included all of India, expect the
southern tip
Became sick of the killings and
became a Buddhist


Many Indian people became
Buddhist during this time
Worked to improve the living
conditions in India
Ancient Indian
Dynasties and Empires

Gupta Rulers
 Empire reached from Bay of Bengal to
Arabian Sea
 Hinduism was the dominant religion but
also supported Buddhism
 Early years referred as “the golden
years”
 Later years, empire weakened
because of to much power to local
leaders
Ancient Indian Life
and Culture

Objectives
 Describe how women's rights were
limited in ancient Indian society

Identify the most important
achievements of the Gupta Period
Economy and Society





Peasants gave portions of their crops for taxes
Relied on international trade
Hindu Laws of Manu
 Girls required to obey their Fathers or
Husbands
 Prohibited from owning property and studying
Vedas
Men allowed to practice polygyny
Women practiced Suttee
 Required in upper castes
Cultural
Achievements


Drama
 The Panchatantra – fables that taught adaptability,
shrewdness, and determination
 Jataka Tales – Indian dramas during the Gupta Period
Art and Architecture
 Cave Paintings, Sculpture, and temples
 Temples grew with Hinduism
 Stupa was a dome-shaped shrine
 Held artifacts associated with Buddha
Cultural
Achievements


Children of higher caste received formal education
 Lower caste learned crafts or trades
Mathematics and Astronomy
 Understood concept of zero and infinity, abstract numbers,
and negative numbers

Identified 7 planets, rotation of earth, and predicted eclipse
Medicine
 Procedures included bone setting, plastic surgery, and
inoculation


Arybhata- 1st known to use algebra and solve
quadratic formulas