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The English
The Coming of the Renaissance
 The Renaissance was a flowering of
literary, artistic and intellectual
development that began in Italy in the
fourteenth century.
 It was inspired by the arts and scholarship
of ancient Greece and Rome, which were
rediscovered during the Crusades
Key Characteristics of the
 Religious devotion of the Middle Ages gave way
to interest in the human being’s place on this
 Universities introduced a new curriculum, the
humanities, including history, geography, poetry,
and languages
 Invention of printing made books more available
 More writers began using the vernacular
Figures of the Renaissance
 Mostly Italians
 Dante, author of The Divine Comedy
 Petrarch, wrote lyric poetry in the form of
 Leonardo Da Vinci, a painter, sculptor, architect,
and scientist
 Da Vinci typifies a Renaissance man—a person
of broad education and interests whose curiosity
knew no bounds.
The Age of Exploration
 Renaissance thirst for knowledge lead to a great
burst of exploration.
 Crusades opened routes to Asia soon
monopolized by Italian merchants.
 Explorers from other nations searched for all-sea
routes aided by compass and advances in
 Culminated in Columbus’s discovery of the New
World in 1492--colonization
England in the Age of
 1497—Italian-born John Cabot reached
Newfoundland (an island off the coast of
Canada) and perhaps the mainland
 Cabot laid the basis for future English
claims in North America.
The Protestant Reformation:
Questioning the Catholic Church
 A growing sense of nationalism led many to
question the authority of the church.
 Complaints:
 the sale of indulgences
 payment to the church (like taxes)
 church leaders favored Mediterranean powers
over northerly countries
 the educated questioned the Church teachings
and hierarchy
 Dutch thinker whose edition of the New
Testament raised questions about standard
interpretations of the Bible.
 Focused attention on issues of morality and
 Morality and religion became the central
concerns of the English Renaissance
Martin Luther
 Erasmus paved the way for the split in the
Roman Catholic Church in 1517.
 German monk Martin Luther nailed a list
of dissenting beliefs (“ninety-five theses)
to the door of a German church.
 The intent was to reform the Catholic
Church, but actually divided the church
and introducing Protestantism.
Results of the Protestant
 Swept through Europe
 Frequent wars between rulers with
different beliefs
 Persecution of Catholics and Protestants
 Division of Protestants—Lutherans and
Calvinists (Puritans and Presbyterian sects)
Tudor England
 Tudor dynasty ruled from 1485-1603.
 Time of stability and economic expansion
 London a metropolis of 180,000 people
 Many saw the changes as a threat to the old
familiar ways
 Feared new outbreaks of civil strife (War
of the Roses)
Henry VII
 First Tudor monarch
 Inherited an England depleted by civil war
 Before his death in 1509, he rebuilt the
treasury and established law and order.
 Henry VII restored the prestige of the
monarchy and set the stage for his
Signature of Henry VII
Henry VII Gallery
Henry VIII
 Catholic (even wrote a book against
 Relationship with the Pope did not last
 Marriage to Catherine of Aragon produced
no male heir
 Henry tried to obtain an annulment to
marry Anne Boleyn
 The Pope refused, but Henry married
Henry VIII Gallery
Henry’s Break with the Church
 Henry’s defiance led to an open break with the
Roman Catholic Church.
 The Act of Supremacy (1534) gave Henry full
control of the Church in England and severed all
ties with Rome.
 Henry became the head of the Anglican Church
(the new Church of England).
 He seized Church property and dissolved the
The Aftermath
 Henry used ruthless measures to suppress
 He even had his former friend and advisor,
Thomas More, executed, because More refused
to renounce his faith.
 Henry married six times.
 His first two marriages (Catherine and Anne)
produced two daughters, Mary and Elizabeth.
 His third wife, Jane Seymour, bore him a son,
Edward, who was still a frail child when Henry
died in 1547.
The Six Wives of Henry VIII
Edward VI
 Became King at 9; died a 15 (1553)
 Parliamentary acts during his reign changed
England’s religious practices and sent
England on its way to becoming a Protestant
 English replaced Latin in church.
 The Anglican prayer book, Book of Common
Prayer, became required in public worship.
Edward VI gallery
Bloody Mary
 Mary I, Edward’s half sister; a Catholic
 Mary restored Catholic practices and papal
authority to the Church of England.
 Mary married her Spanish cousin, Phillip II,
making England a part of the powerful Spanish
state. (During this period of nationalism, many
found her acts unpatriotic)
 Mary also persecuted Protestants: she ordered the
execution of some 200 Protestants during her
reign, strengthening anti-Catholic sentiment in
Signature of Mary I
Mary I Gallery
Elizabeth I
 After Mary’s five year reign, her halfsister, Elizabeth came to the throne.
 Elizabeth was the last of the Tudors, dying
unmarried and childless.
 Elizabeth received a Renaissance
education, became a patron of the arts, and
Elizabethan came to describe the English
Renaissance at its height.
Elizabeth and the Church
 Ended religious turmoil
 Reestablished the monarch’s supremacy in
the Church of England
 Restored the Book of Common Prayer
 Instituted a policy of religious moderation
Foreign Affairs
 France and Spain, England’s two greatest
rivals, often worked with Catholic factions in
 Both nations fought to dominate England.
 Elizabeth and her counselors played one side
against the other, using offers of marriage as
 This cleverness allowed England a period of
peace and allowed commercial and maritime
interests to prosper.
Mary, Queen of Scots
 Elizabeth’s Catholic cousin, Mary Stuart; queen of
Scotland by birth and next in line to the British
throne (granddaughter of Henry VII)
 Catholics did not recognize Henry VIII’s marriage to
Anne Boleyn, Elizabeth’s mother, and considered
Mary Stuart the queen.
 Mary was a prisoner of England for 19 years and the
center of numerous plots on Elizabeth’s life.
 Eventually Mary was convicted of plotting to murder
Elizabeth and went to the block in 1587, a Catholic
 “In my end is my beginning”—Mary’s death led
Catholic Spain to declare war on England.
Elizabeth’s Signature
Elizabeth I Gallery
England vs. Spain
 Spain rejected English claims in America
and resented the fact that English
privateers had been attacking and
plundering Spanish ships.
 Privateers like John Hawkins and Francis
Drake operated “on their own,” but were
really under the authority of Queen
The Spanish Armada
 After Mary’s execution, King Phillip II
prepared a Spanish armada of 130 warships
to attack England.
 In 1588, English sailors defeated the
Armada in the English Channel.
 This event marked the decline of Spain and
the rise of England as a great sea power
From Tudors to Stuarts
 Elizabeth’s death marked the end of the
Tudor dynasty.
 To avoid civil strife, Elizabeth named King
James VI of Scotland her successor (son of
Mary Stuart).
 James was a Protestant.
 The reign of James I (1603-1625) is now
known as the Jacobean Era
King James I
 Strong supporter of the arts
 Furthered England’s position as a world
 Sponsored the establishment of the first
English colony in America—Jamestown
 Believed in “divine right” monarchy and had
contempt for Parliament (power struggle)
 Persecuted Puritans (House of Commons)—
James’s persecution prompted a group of
Puritans to establish Plymouth colony in
The English Renaissance
 Architects designed beautiful mansions
 Composers wrote new hymns for Anglican
service and popularized the English
 Renaissance painters and sculptors moved
to England (Hans Holbein the Younger was
court painter to Henry VIII)
 Opened public schools (like private
secondary schools today)
 Improvements at Oxford and Cambridge
Elizabethan Poetry
 Perfected the sonnet and experimented
with other poetic forms
 Philip Sidney wrote the first Elizabethan
sonnet cycle (a series of sonnets that fit
together as a story)—Astrophel and Stella
 Edmund Spenser wrote a long epic, The
Faerie Queen, in complex nine-line units
now called Spenserian stanzas
 Christopher Marlowe popularized pastoral
verse (idealizes the rural life)
The Poetry of William
 Shakespeare changed the pattern and
rhyme scheme of the Petrarchan sonnet,
creating the English, or Shakespearean,
Elizabethan Drama
 Reintroduced tragedies—plays in which disaster
befalls a hero or heroine
 Reintroduced comedies—plays in which a
humorous situation leads to a happy resolution.
 Began using blank verse
 Christopher Marlowe was the first major
Elizabethan dramatist.
 Marlowe may have rivaled Shakespeare as
England’s greatest playwright had he lived past
Christopher Marlowe
Sir Walter Raleigh (ca. 1552-1618) The Nymph's
“He was not of an age but for all time.”
 Shakespeare began his involvement with
the theater as an actor.
 By 1592, he was a popular playwright
whose works had been performed at
Elizabeth’s court.
 After the Globe Theater was built in 1599,
many of his plays were performed there.
 Shakespeare wrote thirty-seven plays: nine
tragedies, several comedies, ten histories,
and a number of play classified as tragic
Shakespeare Festival - Clemson University
Elizabethan and Jacobean Prose
 Philip Sidney’s Defense of Poesie is one of
the earliest works of English literary criticism.
 Thomas Nashe’s Unfortunate Traveler, a
fictional adventure, was a forerunner of the
 Walter Raleigh wrote his History of the World
during his confinement in the Tower of
London (was beheaded for allegedly plotting
against James I)
 The leading prose writer of the time was
Francis Bacon.
The King James Bible
 The most monumental prose achievement
of the English Renaissance
 Commissioned by King James on the
advice of Protestant clergymen
 Took fifty-four scholars three years to
 Is now among the most widely quoted an
influential works in the English language