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Transcript
Nordvästra Skånes Senioruniversitet
2015 – 05 – 12
Ett Christer Hjortsberg-arrangemang
Varför välja vara sjuk när
Du har rätt att vara frisk!
”Hedra Dina tarmbakterier på det att det må gå Dig
väl och Du må länge leva på jorden!”
Stig Bengmark MD PhD UCL - London University, UK
www.bengmark.com
[email protected]
www.foodpharmacy.se
HUR BEHANDLAR VI MÄNNISKOSLÄKTET?
Tilltagande svåra förlossningsskador, för tidig
pubertet – bröst & menses!
INDUSTRIAL & AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
100 % increase in per person intake of saturated fats
5000 % increase in consumption of dairy-derived foods
10000 % increase in refined sugar intake (1 lb => 100 lb)
Baguette (95, pumpernickel 40)), White suger (68), Candy bar (55), Yellow Banana (54),
FRUCTOSE IN FRUITS Dr Mercola 2010
FRUCTOSE & MEMORY LOSS
Agrawal R, Gomez-Pinilla F J Physiol 2012;590:2485–2499
INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY: 47  78 YEARS
but an TZUNAMI OF CHRONIC DISEASES
Fontana L Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 2009;1790:1133–1138
• Cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, stroke and
diabetes account for about 70% of deaths in the US
and Europe.
• About 80% of adults > 65 yrs have at least one
chronic disease, & 50% have two or more of these
chronic diseases.
• > 40% of cancer & > 80% of all heart disease,
stroke and type 2 diabetes are preventable with
elimination of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity,
and tobacco consumption)
DIFFERENT LIFESTYLE – DIFFERENT DISEASE PATTERN
Clayton P, Rowbotham J Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2009;6:1235-1253
OBESITY - THE GLOBAL TZUNAMI
- strongly associated to modern
agriculture & mass-produced cheap
processed foods
Metabolic Syndrome
dangerous manifestations:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Abdominal obesity
High blood pressure
Elevated blood sugar
Elevated blood triglycerides
Low HDL cholesterols
Fatty liver (& tty skeletal muscles)
High Uric acid
THE QUARTET OF DEATH
www.bengmark.com
• Excessive body weight
• Hypertension
• Impaired glucose homeostasis/insulin
resistance – glucose intolerance
• Atherogenic dyslipidemia: changes in serum
cholesterol, increased triglycerides, decreased
high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and an
increase of “small dense” low-density lipoprotein
(LDL) particles
Waist circumference men:≥ 102 cm
women: ≥ 88 cm
Fasting glucose Europe: 3,9 - 5,9 mmol/l
USA: ≥ 110 mg/dL
Triglycerides: ≥ 150 mg/dL
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),
men: > 40 women >50
Systolic blood pressure: (SBP) ≥ 130
Diastolic blood pressure: (DBP) ≥ 85
GLOBAL STROKE
STATISTICS
Thrift AG et al
Int J Stroke
2014;9:6-18
CANCER & GENES
Anand P et al Pharm Res 2008;25:2097-2116
HARMONY
“
LIFESTYLE
&
HEALTH
EXERCISE
FOOD
REGULAR EXERCISE & MORTALITY
Gebel K et al JAMA Intern Med 2015
WHO’s guidelines suggest that “significant
health benefits can accrue through accumulation of
at least 150 minutes of moderate activity per week”
661 000 persons followed during 14 years:
• No exercise – the highest mortality
• 150 min/w moderate exercise, low speed - 20 %
• 150 min/w moderate exercise, more speed - 31 %
• 450 min/w moderate exercise, more speed - 39 %
• 1500 min/w moderate exercise, high speed - 20 %
CONTENT
“
FOOD
&
HEALTH
AMOUNT
TIME
GOOD FOR MICROBIOTA – GOOD FOR HEALTH
Avoid toxic “substances:
Alcohol, tobacco, pesticides, drugs, AGE & ALEs,
casein, gluten, zein, refined sugars, flour etc
Avoid processed foods
Eat fresh greens
GUIDE TO PESTICIDES
THE MICR0BIOTA-OBESITY CONNECTION
Moran CP, Shanahan F Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2014;28:585–597
METABOLIC SYNDROME – DYSBIOSIS
Tremellen K, Pearce K Med Hypotheses 2012;79:104-112
JOHANNA´S (28 år) ERFARENHET
”Jag har sett många av dina föreläsningar och läst
dina texter många gånger om.”
Fick våren 2013 Ulcerös proktit & gjorde då helomvändning
gällande kosten.
Jag äter numera varken spannmål, mjölkprotein eller
socker.
”Denna kostomläggningen är det bästa
som har hänt mig då alla mina problem
(förstoppning, depression, ångest, PMS
(mensbesvär), urinvägsinfektioner,
näsblod, migrän etc har försvunnit helt. ”
LIFE STYLE CAUSES OF DEATH – USA
Danaei G Plos Med 2009,6(4),e
THE BATTLE
FIELD
- GUT INFLAMMATION
- CHRONIC INFLAMMATION
- CHRONIC DISEASES
Myles IA
Nutrition Journal 2014,13,61
LIFESTYLE, THE DEADLY QUARTET & LIVER DISEASE
Dyson JK et al Postgrad Med J 2015;91:92-101
MICROBIOTA – FAVORITE FOODS – UNCOOKED! www.bengmark.com
ANTI-INFLAMMATION FOODS
• Artichokes
• Avocado
• Berries:
blackberries,
blueberries,
raspberries,
strawberries
• Fermented, microbenriched vegetables
• Garlic
• Green tea
•
•
•
•
•
Kale
Maitake mushroom
Nutmeg
Parsley
PRE-, PRO- &
SYNBIOTICS
• Red grapes
• Tomato,
• Turmeric
INFLAMMATION REDUCTION – ECOBIOLOGICALS
raw & fresh plants, pro- and synbiotics
isothiocyanates in cruciferous vegetables,
anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids in
cherries, blueberries, epigallocatechin-3-gallate
(EGCG) in green tee, chlorogenic acid and
caffeic acid in fresh coffee beans & fresh
tobacco leaves,capsaicin in hot chili peppers,
chalcones in apples, euginol in cloves, gallic
acid in rhubarb, hisperitin in citrus fruits,
naringenin in citrus fruits, kaempferol in white
cabbage, blueberries myricetin in berries,rutin
and quercetin in apples and onions, resveratrol
and other procyanidin dimers in red wine. virgin
peanuts, blueberries various curcumenoids, the
main yellow pigments in turmeric curry foods,
and daidzein and genistein from soybean
1 Cloves, ground
314,446 11
Cumin seed
76,80
2
312,400
Maqui berry, powder
75,000
Parsley, dried
74,34
14
Sorghum, bran, red
71,000
15
Basil, dried
67,55
16
Baking chocolate,
unsweetened
49,92
17
Curry powder
48,50
18
Sorghum, grain
45,40
19
Chocolate,powder
40,20
20
Maqui berry, juice
40,000
Sumac bran
3 Cinnamon, ground
267,536 13
4 Sorghum, bran, raw
240,000
5 Oregano, dried
200,129
6
Turmeric, ground
159,277
7
Acai berry, freeze-dried
102,700
8 Sorghum, bran, black
100,800
9
86,800
10
Sumac, grain, raw
Cocoa powder,
12
80,933
TWO VERY DIFFERENT CINNAMONS
Ceylon (true) cinnamon 267536 μmol
TE/100g compare turmeric – 159277 TE
Saigon (cassia) cinnamon 15170 µmol
TE/100g
Eat with care – contains a substance,
coumarin, which may harm the liver,
also in a small dosis - should not exceed
0,1 mg/kg body weight & day
ADVANTAGES OF RAW FOOD VEGAN DIET 1
Fontana L et al . Rejuvenation Res. 2007;10:225–234
Consuming a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet, composed of unprocessed
and uncooked plant derived foods
Recruited from The St. Louis Vegetarian Society and a Raw Food online magazine (Raw
Food News, www.rawfoods.newsmagazine.com).
SBP=Systolic blood pressure, DBP=Diastolic blood pressure, HOMO-IR=homeostatic
model assessment - a method used to quantify insulin resistance and betacell function, hsCRP=high sensitive c-reactive protein – indicator of inflammation
ADVANTAGES OF RAW FOOD VEGAN DIET 2
Consuming a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet, composed
of unprocessed and uncooked plant derived food.
Recruited from The St. Louis Vegetarian Society and a Raw Food online
magazine (Raw Food News, ww.rawfoods.newsmagazine.com)
SBP=Systolic blood pressure, DBP=Diastolic blood pressure, HOMO-IR=homeostatic
model assessment - a method used to quantify insulin resistance and betacell function, hsCRP=high sensitive c-reactive protein – indicator of inflammation ,
HDL-C “good cholesterol”, LDL-C “bad cholesterol ”
ADVANTAGES OF RAW FOOD VEGAN DIET 3
Fontana L ET AL. Rejuvenation Res. 2007;10:225–234.
PROSTATIC CANCER – PSA & PLANT DIET
Nguyen JY Integr Cancer Therapies 2006;5:214-223
6 Months 1600 calorie Green Diet with or without meat consumption – 14 patients
BRISK WALKING & PROGRESS OF PROSTATIC CANCER
Richman AL et al. 2011;71:3889-3895
TELOMERE/TELOMERASE ACTIVITY & LIFESTYLE IN
LOW-RISK PROSTATIC CANCER
Ornish D et al Lancet Oncol 2013;14:1112-1120
VEGAN DIET & HEALTH
Katcher HI et al Ann Nutr Metab 2010;56:245–252
Employees ( insurance company) with overweight
and/or diabetes received either a low-fat vegan diet
or regular food for 22 weeks.
The vegan group reported improvements in:
● general health (p = 0.002)
● physical functioning (p = 0.001)
● mental health (p = 0.03)
● general vitality (p = 0.004)
● overall diet satisfaction (p = 0.001)
● reduced food costs (p = 0.003), but
● increased difficulty finding foods when eating out
FOOD INTAKE & INFLAMMATION www.bengmark.com
• 1. Low intake of fresh plant foods;
GREENS, vegetables, fruits, SPICES
• 2. Higher intake of proteotoxins in
certain foods: casein, gluten, zein (corn)
etc.
• 3. Higher intake of heat- and storageinduced proteotoxins: glycated (AGEs),
lipoxidated molecules (ALEs),processed
carbohydrates induces:
- Dysbiosis: reduced numbers & diversity
- Various body membranes leak like a sieve;
leaky gut, leaky airways, leaky skin, leaky
vagina, leaky eye cavity , leaky nose, leaky
placenta, leaky blood-brain barrier etc.
Homo erectus
2 milj – 100 000 years BC
”diet consisted in
GREEN LEAVES, WILD
GRASSES, flowers,
berries, nuts, honey,
& less tubers, roots,
occasional in red meat,
shellfish and bird's
eggs.”
PALEOLITHIC DIET
“Much support that our genes, adapted during million of
years to the lifestyle of our prehistoric ancestors badly
tolerate the dramatic changes, especially in food habits,
which have occurred”.
Contained more of:
Contained less of:
(X = times more)
(X = times less)
Minerals
2 X
Fibers
4 to 10 X
Protein
2 X
Antioxidants
10 X
Saturated FA 4 X
Omega-3 FA
50 X
Sodium
10 X
Lactic acid bacteria >1010 X
Eaton BS, Konner M. Paleotlithic nutrition: a consideration of its nature and
current implications. N Engl J Med 1985;312:283-289
80/10/10 DIET
80 % raw greens
10 % vegetable fats
10 % vegetable proteins
FUTURE NUTRITION OF CRITICALLY ILL !
Hospital-made nutrition solutions !
Fresh fruit and vegetable juices !
Green Smoothies! Gaspacho etc !
DIET & LONGEVITY
Robbins J: Healthy at 100: The Scientifically Proven Secrets of the
World's Healthiest and Longest-Lived Peoples
Read: http://thepdi.com/hunza_health_secrets.htm
STORAGE & UTILIZATION OF ENERGY
EASY ACCESS 1 – GLYCOGEN
Skeletal muscles 500 gr (2500 cal)
Liver 100 gr (500 cal)
EASY ACCESS 2 – TRIGLYCERIDES
Visceral fats up to 6 kg = app 55000 cal
DEPOT FAT – TRIGLYCERIDES
Subcutaneous, slow release, examples:
App 30 % fat (app 70 kg) = 190 000 cal
App 50 % fat (90-100 kg) = 315 000 cal
App 90 % fat (635 kg) = 540 000 cal
PRESENT
POOR EATING – POOR IMMUNITY
THE FRONT DOOR – SHORTCUT 1
app 60 % are Sugar and Suger-like substances
which enters the body in upper jejunum via mainly
the arterial system
< 15 %
THE BACK DOOR – THE DANGEROUS ROUTE
app 30 % animal fats & vegetable oil enters via the
the body via the lymphatic system and remains in
circulation for hours
> 10 %
THE MAIN DOOR
< 20 % raw greens, vegetables, fruits are Foods for
Microbiota and reaches the large intestine
after 2-3 hours, enhancing immune system &
preventing inflammation
app 80 %
PALEO
PREVENTING DYSBIOSIS IS KEY TO
DISEASE & INFECTION CONTROL
•
•
•
•
•
1936- Brandtzaeg P et al Gastroenterology 1989;97:1562-84
A striking local preponderence (7090 %) of IgA immunocytes (plasma
cells, plasma blasts) in the gut
The gut content is constantly tested
by recognition cells such as
dentritic cells (DC), which
Programmes/”Tunes” the immune
system
Each DC commands about 1200 Tcells
If deranged microbiota - DYSBIOSIS
& LEAKY GUT will induce
INFLAMMATION & facilitate
INFECTION
DENDRITIC CELL & IMMUNE REGULATION
Van Baarlen P et al PNAS 2009;106:2371–2376
THE DENDRITIC CELL IN ACTION
Kraehenbuhl JP, Corbett M. Science 2004;303:1624-1625
DISCRETE PERSISTANT INFLAMMATION
- A MOTHER OF DISEASE
Bengmark S. J Clin Nutr 2004;23:1256-1266
SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION
Finch CE, Crimmins EM Science 2004; 305:1736–1739
Individuals with higher levels of
inflammatory markers/s:
C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, factor VIII
activity, interleukin-6 and TNF-α etc.
but yet no obvious signs of disease,
are candidates to develop
CHRONIC DISEASES and
COMPLICATIONS TO DISEASE &
TREATMENTS
SIGNS OF CHRONIC INFLAMMATION
Unexplained fatigue, sleep problems,
frequent headache, hair loss, gray hair,
dandruff, acne, skin rashes, dry eyes, frail
nails, dry mouth or increased salivation,
reduced sex functions, irregular
menstruations, obstipation or diarrhea,
osteoporosis, overweight, frequent
infections, mental depression, easy
breathless, sweaty feet, sweaty hand
palms etc.
www.bengmark.com
CLUSTERING & RISK PROFILE
Qvarnstrom M et al J Clin Periodontol 2010; 37: 805–811
BREAKING THE VICIOUS CIRCLE
INFLAMMATION
INFECTION
Treatment alternatives:
Antibiotics Reduces infections but Deranges Microbiota - Creates Dysbiosis
Intestinal Reconditioning - Pro/Synbiotics - Restores Microbiota
PHARMA & MICROBIOTA – INCOMPATIBLE!
Antibiotics destroys about 90 % of microbiota functions:
bile acid metabolism, eicosanoid and steroid hormone
synthesis etc
Caetano L et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:1494-1503
Chemotherapeutics reduces microbiota 100-fold;
decrease anaerobic bacteria up to 10,000-fold &
increase in PPMs 100-fold
Van Vliet MJ et al. Clin Infect Dis 2009;49:262-270
Pharma as proton pump inhibitors (peptic ulcer) during
pregnancy increase the risk of offspring getting asthma
Andersen AB et al. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012;35:1190-1198
Anti-hypertensives induce gastrointestinal dysbiosis &
reduce mucosa protection, espec mucus production
Nonzee V et al J Med Assoc Thai 2012;95:96-104.
HYPNOTICS & RISK OF DEATH
Kripke DF et al BMJ Open 2012:2
Hazard Ratio
Any Hypnotic (95% Confidence P Value
Interval)
< 18 pills/year 3.60 (2.92 - 4.44) <.001
18 - 132
pills/year
4.43 (3.67 - 5.36) <.001
> 132 pills/year 5.32 (4.50 - 6.30) <.001
MICROBIOTA, IMMUNITY, DISEASE
Maynard CL et al Nature 2012;489, Sept 13:431-441
EUBIOSIS
DYSBIOSIS
DYSBIOSIS
facilitates
OBESITY
& DISEASE
DIFFERENT MICROBIOTA IN OBESE vs LEAN
Angelakis E et al Future Microbiol. 2012;7: 91–109
GUT MICROBIOTA & DERANGED METABOLISM
Vrieze A et al Diabetologia 2010;53:606-613
•
•
•
•
•
↓ FFA oxidation
↑ endotoxin/s
↑SCFA production
↓incretin secretion
↓ butyrate production
•
•
•
•
•
↑FFA oxidation
↓ endotoxin/s
↓ SCFA production
↑Incretin secretion
↑butyrate production
PROCESSED FOODS INDUCE DYSBIOSIS
• Certain foods induce systemic inflammation:
- animal products, espec diary, rich in IGF-1
- refined carbohydrates promotes IGF-1 synthesis (liver)
Increase expression of inflammatory messengers
• Induce dysbiosis
• Increase membrane leakages &
• Destabilize the immune system
Contributory are: Mental & physical stress, lack of
physical activity,, vitamin D deficiency, lack of antiinflammatory minerals; Mg, Zn, Se, lack of omega-3
FAs etc.
www.bengmark.com
•
PROCESSED FOODS – DELETARIOUS
FOR MICROFLORA
• About 80 % of our food is processed: rich in
sugars, leavening agents & or completely
synthetic ingredients – absorbed in small
intestine and will not reach colonic & feed
microbiota.
• Meats and oils are not good foods for
microbiota - high levels of antibiotic-resistant
bacteria 81 % of ground turkey, 69 of pork chops,
55 % of ground beef, 39 percent of chicken
breasts, wings and thighs (USA). www.bengmark.com
HIGH FAT DIET & MICROBIAL TRANSLOCATION
Amar J et al EMBO Mol Med 2011;13:559-572
Live intestinal bacteria found present in large numbers in
adipose tissue (MAT), mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and
blood AFTER ONLY ONE WEEK ON HIGH FAT DIET (HFD)
ANTI - OBESITY FOODS
Trigueros L et al Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 013;53:929–942
• Omega-3: inhibiting lipid synthesis &
•
•
•
•
•
increasing thermogenesis (krill oil, flax seed)
Monounsaturated fatty acids:lowering leptin
& enhancing lipolysis (olive oil, canola oil, avocado).
Conjugated Linoleic Acid: increasing oxidation (mushrooms)
Phenolic compounds & Antioxidants; Catechin (blackberries,
dark chocolat), Saponins (beans & legumes), Anthocyanins
(eggplant/brainfood, black current, green bananas, cranberries,
blueberries, asparagus) Isoflavones (soy beans)
Dietary calcium: Increasing adipocyte metabolism,
reducing storage of fat & fecal fat excretion. (Soy/tofu, spring
greens, spinach, watercress, broccoli, kale, chickpeas, almonds,
sesame seeds, dried figs, currents).
Dietary fibres; promoting secretion of anorexigenic/appetite
reducing peptides (husk, po-fiber)
FOOD INTAKE & INFLAMMATION
• 1. Low intake of fresh plant foods;
GREENS, vegetables, fruits, SPICES
• 2. High intake of proteotoxins in certain
foods: casein, gluten, zein (corn) etc.
• 3. High intake of heat- and storageinduced proteotoxins: glycated (AGEs),
lipoxidated molecules (ALEs),processed
carbohydrates induces:
- Dysbiosis: reduced numbers & diversity
- Various body membranes leak like a sieve;
leaky gut, leaky airways, leaky skin, leaky
vagina, leaky eye cavity , leaky nose, leaky
placenta, leaky blood-brain barrier etc.
DYSBIOSIS,
ENDOT0XIN,
INFLAMMATION
& DISEASE
Daulatzai MA
CNS & Neurol Disorders
2015,14,110-131
CASEIN & GLUTEN IMPAIRS
LACTOBACILLUS GROWTH
Without casein and gluten
With casein and gluten
Dubos RJ, Schaedler RW J Exp Med 1962;115:1161-1172
GLUTEN & SURFACE MOLECULE EXPRESSIONS
Class II, CD86, CD40, CD54 Nikulina M et al J Immunol 2004;173:1925-1933
100 µg/ml gluten matches the effects of 10 ng/ml LPS (ENDOTOXIN)
GLUTEN SENSITIVITY & CHRONIC DISEASES
Ruuskanen A et al. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2010;45:1197-1202
Glutenoids affects genetic markers: HLA-B8, HLA DQ2, HLA DQ8,
• Lupus erythematosus
increase systemic inflammation &
are associated with diseases such as: • Mental depression
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
ADHD
arthritis
Addison´s disease allergy
Autoimmune disorders
Autism
Bipolar disease
Dermatitis herpetiformis
Diabetes mellitus
• Epilepsia
• Graves´disease, infections
• Inflammatory bowel diseases – IBD
• Irritable bowel syndrome – IBS
• Myasthenia gravis
• Obesity
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Osteoporosis
Pernicious anemia
Polymyalgia rheumatica
Psoriasis
Schizophrenia
Scleroderma
Sepsis
Sjögren’s syndrome
Thyreotoxicosis
Vitiligo
A NEW ENTITY - GLUTEN SENSITIVITY (GS)
Sapone A et al. BMC Medicine 2011, 9:23
Often seen in diffuse often ignored distresses: lack of
energy, mental depression, encephalopathy/‘foggy mind’,
diffuse abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, eczema and/or
rash, various headaches, numbness in the legs, arms or
fingers, joint pain, fatigue etc.
Gluten-free diet
- increases energy, enthusiasm, well-being &
- improve clinical signs.
- Prevent & improve chronic diseases.
Freedom of symptoms reported in several chronic diseases
& also a few cases of therapy-resistant EPILEPSY & NONALZHEIMER DEMENTIA
NON-CELIACS & DYSFUNCTIONAL FLORA
Tiellström B et al Scand J Gastroenterol. 2007;42:1204-1208
• Children with celiac
disease (CD) known to
have an aberrant gut
microflora.
• Non-CD relatives have
impaired intestinal microbial
metabolism:
• - significantly lower level of
acetic acid and total SCFAs
– significantly increased
level of i-butyric acid and
free tryptic activity (FTA)
than healthy controls.
GLUTEN-FREE DIET & TYPE 1 DIABETES
Matteo-Rocco P et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88: 162–165
Gluten-free diet tried in 15 patients with
diabetes but no gluten intolerance
Insulin sensitivity increased
significantly in 12/14 subjects after
six months on gluten-free diet (P
0.04) & decreased again in 10/13
subjects after 6 months on “normal”
diet (P=0.07)
GLUTEN-FREE DIET in IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME
Biesiekierski Jr et al. Am J Gastroenterol 2011;106: 508-514
GLUTEN-RESTRICTED DIET IN ADHD
Pelsser LMJ et al Lancet 2011;377:494-503
Crossover study 100 children, aged 4-8 yrs, 9 weeks + 4weeks
A. Total, B. Inattention, C. Hyperactivity D. Abbreviated Connor Scale scores (ACS)
Erika Isolauri & Seppo Salminen
ALLERGY, ADHD & PROBIOTICS
2001 – Mothers from families with high burden of allergies recieved
last 2-4 weeks of pregnancy and their newborns during 6 mo LB GG–
rate of atopic eczema in the probiotic group (15/64 [23%] was half
that of the placebo 31/68 [46%]
Kalliomäki M et al. Lancet 2001;357(9262):1076-1079.
2003 – Four years follow up: 14/53(26 %) in the probiotic group and
25/54 (46 %) in the placebo group had developed atopic eczema
Kalliomäki M et al Lancet 2003;361(9372):1869-1871
2015 – 13 year follow up: Probiotic-treated group contained no
individual with hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) eller Asperger
syndrome (AS) (0/40 = 0 %) compared to the placebo group (6/35
17.1%) e.g. almost every 6th child
Pärtty A et al Pediatr Res. 2015 E-pub Mar 11
PROLAMINS & TRYPTOPHAN/CORTEX
Choi S et al Physiol Behov 2009;98:156-162
An up to 8-fold decrease in cortex tryptophan & similar
decrease in serotonin observed after feeding:
•
•
•
•
Marked reductions; Zein (corn)
Significant reductions: Casein (dairy) & Gluten (wheat, rye, barley)
Small reductions: Lactalbumin (dairy)
Small increases: Vegetable protein (soy)
ANCIENT GRAINS
• Amaranth – Aztec culture, high protein & mineral content
• Quinoa – Inca culture, high protein & mineral content
• Sorghum (durra, jowari, milo) 5th in world, versatile, low energy, most cost-effective
• Millet – 6th highest in world, versatile, mild flavor
• Teff – staple in Ethiopia, tiny seed, high mineral content
•
SORGHUM (durra, jowari, milo) – A SUPER GRAIN!
Dykes L, Rooney LW Cereal Foods World 2007;52:105-111
Many thousend top athletes
agree, among them the two best
tennis players of the world –
Novak Djokovic & Andy Murray,
who abstain from gluten, lactose
and processed carbohydrates,
insisting that this gives them
much greater energy.
DYSBIOSIS-INDUCED METABOLIC DISORDERS
Cani PD et al Diabetes 2008;57:1470-1481
Bifidobacterim
spp.
LPS concentration 10 to 50 X
higher than those obtained
during septic shock
Mitaka C. Clin Chim Acta 2005; 351:17-29
ENDOTOXIN - THE VILLAIN & ASSOCIATED DISEASES:
Alzheimer Jaeger LB et al. Brain
Behav Immun. 2009; 23: 507–17
Cognitive impairment Lee JW et
al. J Neuroinflammation 2008; 5: 37
Arterio-/Coronary Diseases
Heo SK et al Immunol Lett
2008;120:57-64
Diabetes type 1 Nymark M et al
Diabetes Care 2009 32(9): 1689–
1693
Diabetes type 2 Andreasen AS
Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:15481555
Cancer Hsu RY et al Cancer Res.
2011;71(5):1989-1998
Chronic Liver diesases Nolan JP
Hepatology 2010;52:1829-1835.
•ADHD, allergy, ALS, autism,
autoimmune diseases, bipolar
disease, cataracts, chronic
fatigue syndrome, COPD,
fibromyalgia, glaucoma, gulf war
syndrome, HIV, iritis,
macular degeneration, minimal
encephalopathy, multiple
sclerosis, nephropathies,
obesity, osteoporosis,
paradontosis, Parkinson,
polycystic ovary syndrome,
rheumatoid disease, stress,
schizophrenia, stroke, uveitis
MICROBIOTA OF HUNTERER-GATHERERS – HADZAs
Schnorr SL et al Nat Commun. 2014,5,3654
Paleolithic lifestyle (Hadza, Tanzania)
leads to compared to European (Italians):
• Much greater Microbial Richness
• Much Richer Biodiversity
• Absence of Bifidobacterium (no dairy?)
• Enrichment: in Prevotella, Treponema &
unclassified Bacteroidetes
• Peculiar arrangement
of Clostridiales taxa most likely reflecting
an enhanced ability the Hadzas to
digest and extract valuable nutrition
from fibrous plant foods.
MICROBIOTA - AFRICAN & EUROPEAN
De Filippo C et al Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107:14691–14696
LEAKY BARRIERS
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Gastrointestinal tract
Airways
Skin
Oral cavity
Vagina
Nose
Eye cavity
Placenta
Blood brain barriers
Maccaferri S et al Dig Dis 2011;29:525–530
INFLAMMATION IN OBESE PREGNANT WOMEN
Basu S et al Obesity 2011;19:476-482
MCP1 IL-8 IL-6 TNFα Leptin
CD14
TLR4
TRAM2
LEAKY PLACENTA
A shocking 9/20 (43 %) of
umbilical cord blood, cultivated
from healthy neonates, born by
cesarean section,
demonstrate positive growth:
Enterococcus faecium,
Propionibacterium acnes,
Staphylococcus epidermidis &
Streptococcus sanguinis
Jiménez E et al. Curr Microbiol 2005;51:270–274.
ATHEROSCLEROSIS & BACTERIAL DEBRIS
Nicolaou G et al J Atheroscler Thromb 2012;19:137-1498
Bacteria & bacterial debris
in human atheroma, in the
past considered harmless,
seems to contribute to
disease progression via
TLR- dependent lipid
body formation in
macrophages
THE MARCH from AGRICULTURE
AQVA- & HORTICULTURE-based diet
Friday Aug 18.2011
President Bill Clinton – now a vegan
radically changed diet, lost 20 lbs. in weight
& improved his health, Clinton tells CNN.
After experiencing periodic heart problems leading up to
the 2004 surgery, the former junk food lover now calls
himself a vegan,
shunning meat, eggs, dairy and almost all oil
saying: "I like the vegetables, the fruits, the beans,
the stuff I eat now“
"I feel good, and I also have … more energy."
PLANT-BASED DIET & CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
Esselstyn CB Prev Cardiol. 2001;4:171–177
• Safe: grains?, legumes, lentils, vegetables, fruits, nuts and seeds
• Unsafe: oils, dairy foods, meat, poultry, & fish (frequently
containing unacceptable levels of PCBs, dioxin, and mercury)
PALEOLITHIC
DIET
“Much support that our genes, adapted during
million of years to the lifestyle of our prehistoric
ancestors badly tolerate the dramatic changes,
especially in food habits, which have occurred”.
Contained more of:
Contained less of:
(X = times more)
Minerals
2 X
Fibers/greens
4 to 10 X
Antioxidants
10 X
Omega-3 FA
50 X
Lactic acid bacteria >1010 X
(X = times less)
Protein
Saturated FA
Sodium
Processed carbohydrates
2
4
10
> 1000
X
X
X
X
Eaton BS, Konner M. Paleotlithic nutrition: a consideration of its
nature and current implications. N Engl J Med 1985;312:283-289
IGF-1, INFLAMMATION CHRONIC DISEASE
Carrera-Bastos P et al. Res Rep Clin Cardiol 2011;2:15-35
• The Neolithic Revolution, provided
increasing access food to insulinotropic &
IGF-1-raising foods;
- dairy products are rich in IGF1
- grains & sugars induce synthesis of IGF-1.
• The human genome has not, and will not,
adapt to the high levels of insulin/IGF-1
signaling (I1S)
• Modern man should attempt to develop a
more Paleolithic-type diet.
IGF & TOLL-STIMULATORY FOODS
Excess in refined, processed foods e.g.
- Foods rich in IGF-1, and/or IGF-1 promoting &
- Toll-stimulatory (inflammation-inducing) foods:
• increase expression of inflammatory messengers
• reduce microbiota
• increase membrane leakages
• destabilize the immune system
Contributory are: Lack of physical activity, mental
and physical stress, Vitamin D deficiency, lack of
anti-inflammatory minerals; Mg, Zn, Se, lack of
omega-3 fatty acids etc. www.bengmark.com
DAIRY CONSUMPTION & IGF-1
The Endogenous Hormones and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group
Lancet Oncol 2010; 11: 530–42
• a positive association between intake of
dairy products or milk and IGF-I conc.
reported in several cross-sectional studies
• increase in IGF-I in response to a higher
intake of milk and dairy products observed
in both younger and older participants
• IGF-I conc. found significantly lower in
vegans compared with lactoovovegetarians and omnivores in the EPICOxford cohort
Dennis Burkitt 1911 - 1993
Suggested that many
Western diseases, rare in
Africa are primarily the
result of diet and lifestyle.
Reported an association
between low fibre in diet
higher risk of colorectal
cancer as well as other
diseases such as CHD and
diabetes
GI PERISTALSIS – UK vs UGANDA
Appr GI transit time:
UK: 100 hrs vs Uganda: 20 hours
Appr stool weight:
UK 60 g/day vs Uganda 600 g/day
Burkitt DP et al Lancet 1972;300 (7792):1408-11
British geriatric patients:
GI transit time: >14 days
in > half of the patients
Brocklehurst JC, Khan MY. Gerontol Clin 1969;11:293-300
DAVID JP BARKER 1838 –
The thrifty epigenotype hypothesis Barker, D.J.P. Maternal Nutrition, Fetal Nutrition, and
Disease in Later Life". Nutrition, 1992;13: 807-813
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 1997; 6:106-110
We know that “disorders of adult life, including coronary
heart disease, stroke and diabetes, arise through
interaction between influences in our adult lifestyle and
genetically determined susceptibility.”
“Recent research, however, suggest that growth in utero
may also play an important role” “Even brief periods of …
may permanently change/`reprogramming´ the body…and
lead to persistent changes in blood pressure, cholesterol
metabolism, insulin response to glucose, and in a range of
other metabolic, endocrine and immune parameters.”
FOOD INTAKE & INFLAMMATION
• 1. Low intake of fresh plant foods;
GREENS, vegetables, fruits, SPICES
• 2. High intake of proteotoxins in certain
foods: casein, gluten, zein (corn) etc.
• 3. High intake of heat- and storageinduced proteotoxins: glycated (AGEs),
lipoxidated molecules (ALEs),processed
carbohydrates induces:
- Dysbiosis: reduced numbers & diversity
- Various body membranes leak like a sieve;
leaky gut, leaky airways, leaky skin, leaky
vagina, leaky eye cavity , leaky nose, leaky
placenta, leaky blood-brain barrier etc.
Louis Camille Maillard 1878 – 1936
Undertook studies of the
reaction between amino acids
and sugars, and suggested
association to development of
chronic disease, especially renal
disease.
This work was considered a major
contribution, and the reaction was
named after him – Maillard reaction
& he was awarded several prices,
including the French Academy of
Medicine award in 1914.
AGES/ALES IN TISSUES
Dys-functioning, glycated proteins induce
about 50 times more FREE RADICALS than
non-glycated proteins (AGEs and ALEs),
• accumulate in tissues (amyloid) &
• make the body auto-fluorescing,
• impair DNA repair mechanisms, induce tissue
accumulation of toxins
reduce antioxidant defense
* induce inflammation & infection
* weaken immune system &
* accelerate development of various diseases
Thorpe SR, Baynes JW Amino Acids 2003;25:275-281
AGEs & INFLAMMATION-INDUCTION
Bohlender JM Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2005;289:F645-659
ACRYLAMIDE IN FOODS & HEALTH
Das AB, Srivastav BB Toxicol Mech Methods 2012;22:163-169
Acrylamide has been studied
extensively for more than 40
years, but the first detection of
acrylamide in carbohydrate-rich
foods was made as late as 2002
Acrylamide has a number
of adverse effects on the
human body two major effects being
NEUROTOXICITY &
CARCINOGENICITY
Toasted bread contains several-fold more of
acrylamide than untoasted
Wheat: 11–161 vs < 5 mg/kg . Rye: 27–205 vs 7–23 mg/kg
Granby K et al Food Additiv Contamin 2008; 25:921–929
HEAT & ACRYLAMIDE PRODUCTION
Tareke C et al J. Agric. Food Chem. 2002;50:4998-5006
AGEs/ALEs IN FOODS
HEATED MEAT (espec. bacon, sausages), POULTRY,
FISH: AGE content increases with exposure to temperature:
boiling (1000 kU/serving), frying (9000 kU/serving)
Goldberg T et al. J Am Diet Assoc 2004;104:1287-1291
HEATED DAIRY: powdered milk (rich in ice cream,
baby & clinical nutrition formulas) & cheese, espec.
hard cheeses
HEATED GRAIN PRODUCTS: Toasted bread, bread
crusts & crisp breads
HEATED VEGETABLE OILS: heated olive oil ca 8000 kU
OTHERS: Egg yolk powder, lecithin powder, coffee, espec
dark roasted, hard-cured teas, roasted and salted
peanuts, dark and sugar-rich alcoholic beverages,
broth, Chinese soy, balsamic vinegar, Cola drinks etc
DISEASES WITH ELEVATED AGEs/ALEs
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ADHD
Aging
Allergy
Autoimmune diseases
Alzheimer´s disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Atherosclerosis
Cardiovacular diseases
Cataract
Chronic liver diseases
Chronic pulmonary disorders
Creutsfeldt-Jakob disease
Diabetes
Epilepsia
• Familial amyloidotic
polyneuropathy
• Fibromyalgia
• Glaucoma
• Hormone deficiencies
• Macula degeneration
• Nephropathies
• Obesity
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Osteoporosis
Paradontosis
Parkinson´s disease
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Rheumatoid diseases
Ruptured Achilles tendon
Sepsis
Stroke
AGEs IN VARIOUS MILK PRODUCTS
Baptista J, Carvalho R Food Res Int 2004;37:739-747
SPICES – EFFECTS ON HB-GLYCATION
wild caraway = vild kummin Naderi Gh et al Indian J Pharm Sci. 2014; 76: 553–557.
LINKING DIETARY
CHOLINE
(MEAT, FISH, MILK,
EGG,) & PRODUCTION
OF TRIMETHYLAMINE
(TMAO) –
a risk factor for
atherosclerosis
Wilson Tang WH et al
N Engl J Med 2013;368;1575-1584
PROCESSED MEAT & RISK OF CANCER
• Oesophageal cancer
Salehi M et al Nutr Rev 2013;71:257-267, Huang W et al Cancer
Causes Control 2013;24:193-201
• Stomach cancer
Larsson SC J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:1078-1087
• Pancreatic cancer
Larsson SC, Wolk A Br J Cancer 2012;31;106:603-607
• Colorectal cancer
Chan DS et al Plos One 2011;6:e20456
• Bladder cancer Wang C, Jiang H Med Oncol 2012;29:848-855
• Lung cancer Yang WS et al Ann Oncol 2012;23:3163-3170
• Ovarian cancer Kolahdooz F et al Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:17521763, Wallin A et al Br J Cancer 2011;104:1196-1201
PROCESSED MEAT AND UNHEALTH
Micha R et al. Circulation 2010;121(21):2271-2283
Metaanalysis of 20/1598 totally including 1218380
individuals with 23889 cases of CHD, 10797 cases of
diabetes mellitus and 2280 cases of stroke.
Conclusion: Processed, but not unprocessed, meat
is associated with 42% higher risk of CHD and 19%
higher risk of diabetes mellitus (P<0.001).
No association with stroke observed.
Nitrates? AGEs? ALEs?
Nitrates & byproducts promote vascular dysfunction and
atherosclerosis, reduce insulin secretion, impair glucose
tolerance, & streptozotocin, a nitrosamine-related
compound containd diabetogenic compound.
37 698 men and 83 644 women (2.96 million person- years) followed for > 28 years.
-
Premature deaths increased with 13 % by eating red meat &
-
20 % by eating processed meat: cured, bacon, sausages, paté
meatballs, hamburgers etc
Pan A et al Arch Intern Med 2012;172:555-563
448,568 men and women, age 35-69 studied during 13 years:
-
-
A daily piece of steak is associated with a 13 % greater chance of
dying during the study (13 years)
An extra daily serving of processed red meat linked to a 20 %
higher risk of death during the study.
72 % increased risk of dying in heart disease &
11 % increased risk of dying in cancer
Rohrmann S et al BMC Medicine 2013;11:63
FISH INTAKE & HEALTH
Vegetarians have a 22 % lower risk to get
colorectal cancers; in the colon 19 %, in the
rectum 29 % comp to non-vegetarians
Orlich MJ et al JAMA Intern Med. 2015 E-pub
A meta-analysis shows that fish consumption
is associated with a 63 % reduction in
prostate cancer-specific mortality.
Szymanski KM et al Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:1223-1233.
THE JAPANESE EXPERIENCE
The age-adjusted death rate in ChDs
such as prostatic cancer rose in Japan
during the period 1948 - 98
25-fold
Parallel to increases in intake of :
egg 7 X
meat 9 X
dairy 20 X
Ganmaa D et al Medical Hypotheses 2003;60:724-730
DAIRY-INDUCED INFLAMMATION
Dietary proteins of cow´s milk
induce inflammation:
• release inflammatory mediators
• increase intestinal permeability
• induce leakage of large molecules;
albumin, hyaluronan etc
Jalonen T J Allerg Clin Immunol 1991;88:737, Isolauri E
Gastroenterology 1993;105:1643, Bengtsson U et al. J Clin Exp
Allerg 1996;26:197, Allerg Clin Immunol 1997;100:216
DIET AND BREAST CANCER
Carroll KK Cancer Res 1975;35:3374-3383
PROSTATIC CANCER
&
MILK
CONSUMPTION
Ganmaa D et al Int. J.
Cancer 2002,98,262–267
BOVINE MILK
&
CORONARY
HEART DISEASE
Artaud-Wild SM et al.
Circulation 1993;88:27712779
PROSTATIC CANCER DEVELOPMENT IN
EASTASIA
Zho Y et al Asian J Androl 2015;17:48–57
BREAST CANCER: INCIDENCE &
MORTALITY - 2030
Chajès V, Romieu I Maturitas 2014;77:7– 11
EARLY MILK CONSUMPTION & RISK OF
PROSTATIC CANCER
Torfadottir JE et al Am J Epidemiol 2012; 175:144-53
8,894 men born 1907 to1935 followed a mean 24.3 years & 1123
diagnosed with prostatic cancer
2,268 participants reported their milk intake in early, mid-,
and current life.
Daily milk intake in adolescence associated
with a 3.2-fold risk of advanced prostate
cancer (95% CI: 1.25, 8.28)
suggesting that frequent milk intake in
adolescence increases risk of advanced
prostate cancer later in life.
DAIRY RISK FACTORS IN PROSTATIC CANCER
Aune D et al Am J Clin Nutr 2015;101:87-117
In a Physicians Health Study, 21,660 men were
followed for 28 years. 2806 men developed
prostatic cancer & 305 died.
Total intake of dairy products was associated with
increased incidence of prostatic cancer (HR = 1.12)
- Larger intake of skim/low-fat milk was
associated with greater risk of nonaggressive
prostatic cancer &
- Larger intake of whole milk only with fatal
prostatic cancer & progression to fatal disease
after diagnosis (HR = 2.17)
BOVINE MILK & CHRONIC DISEASES
• Allergy Rautava S, Isolauri EJ
Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004
Nov;39:529-535
• Breast cancer Outwater JL
et al Med Hypotheses
1997;48:453-461, Hjartåker A
et al Int J Cancer 2001;93:888893
• Colorectal cancer
Manousos O et al Int J Cancer
1999;83:15-17, Ma et al J Nat Cancer
Inst;2001:93:1330-1336
• Chronic constipation
Iacono G et al N Engl J Med
1998;339:1100-1104
• Coronary heart disease
Briggs RD et al. Circulation
1960;21:538-542, Marshall T BMJ
2000;320:301-305
• Diabetes type 1 Gimeno SGA,
De Souza JMP Diabetes Care
1997;20:1256-1260, Virtanen SM et al
Diabet Med 1998;15:730-738
• Malabsorption O´Keefe SJD et
al Am J Clin Nutr 1991;54:130-135
• Ovarian cancer Larsson SC et al
Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;80:1353-1357,
Ganmaa D, Sato A Med Hypotheses.
2005;65:1028-1837
• Parkinson disease Park M et
al. Neurology 2005;64:1047-1051
• Testicular and prostate
cancer Ganmaa D et al. Med
Hypotheses 2003;60:724-730, Qin LQ
et al Nutrition and Cancer 2004;48:2227
CALCIUM I FOOD mg/100 g food
Daily need: 1000-1300 mg
•
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•
•
•
Baking powder
Herb salt
Parmesan cheese
Sesami seeds
CHEESE 28 %
Agar
Nettles
Persil
Dill
Peas
Beans
Almonds
Sunflower seeds
Flax seeds
11300
3180
1380
980
750
600
490
340
343
300
300
265
265
198
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Sardines
Brazil nuts
CREAM
MILK
Digestive biscuits
Fish
Spinach
Black current
BREAD, wheat whole
BUTTER
HAMBURGERS
FRENCH FRIES
KETCHUP
190
180
135
120
110
100
90
90
48
18
10
9
7
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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MAGNESIUM IN FOODS mg/100 gr
Pumpkin &Squash seeds 540
Cacao 20-22 %
520
WHEAT bran
355
Sesami seeds
350
WHEAT germs
290
Almonds
280
Soya beans
265
Cashew nuts
260
Rosehip, dry
240
Oat bran
235
Peanuts
190
Beans
190
Peanuts
188
Peas
150
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•
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Lentils
Spinach
Prunes
Avocado
Banana
CHEESE
Broccoli
FRENCH FRIES
BREAD, whole wheat
HAMBURGERS
KETCHUP
MILK
CREAM
BUTTER
80
79
52
41
35
35
23
35
24
20
18
15
14
3
MAGNESIUM DEFICIENCY - MANIFESTATIONS
Mg involved in > 300 biochemical processes
•
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Bone demineralization - osteoporosis
Obesity
Body aches, muscle twitches
Leg cramps, headaches and migraines
Fatigue or low energy
Restless sleep
Premenstrual syndrome
Chronic bowel problems
Insulin resistance
Left untreated Mg deficiency will lead to more
life-threatening conditions: hypertension, heart
disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis ….
HORMONAL ENVIRONMENTAL
”DISRUPTORS”
Up to 80 % of milk come from pregnant
cows & contains significant amounts of:
- Pituitary hormones: PRL, GH, TSH, FSH, LH, ACTH
- Steroid hormones: estrogen, progesterone,
testosterone etc
- Hypothalamic hormones: TRH, LHRH, GnRH, GRH
- Gastrointestinal peptides
- Halogenated aromatic hydrocarbones
- Advanced glycation & lipoxidation end products
(AGEs/ALEs)
ESTROGENS IN MILK
Malekinejad H et al J Agric Food Chem 2006;54: 9785-9791
Background: The dramatic increase in testicular,
breast, prostate, ovarian, and corpus uteri, and
large bowel cancers.
60-80% of the intake of estrogens originates in the
Western world from milk and other dairy foods.
The daily intake of total estrogens through milk
is 372 ng/L
“which is dramatically more than currently
recognized.”
The content is twice as high in 3.5 % fat milk than
in non-fat milk & extremely high in butter!
FREE ESTROGENS IN DAIRY
pg/g Wolford ST, Argoudelis CJ J Dairy Science 1979;62:1458-1463
E1
E2 - 17β
E3
Whole milk
3.7 6.4
Skimmed milk 20.2 3.4
Whey
3.6 1.5
Cottage cheese 34.9 10.8
Butter
539.4 82.3
Compare
1266 322
9.0
8.2
3.0
6.1
86.8
51
Malekinejad H et al J Agric Food Chem 2006;54: 9785-9791
MEJERIFRIA – MJÖLKALTERNATIV
www.bengmark.com
METABOLIC SYNDROME IN COWS
Hostettler-Allen RL et al J Anim Sci 1994;72:160-173
Modern feeds of dairy cows, less
forage-based and rich in starch &
carbohydrates (corn, maize grains,
barley, molasses and dextrose) are
likely to induce, also in cows:
Insulin resistance,
observed in calves fed on intensive
milk- and lactose diet
ENTERAL NUTRITION INDUCES DYSBIOSIS
Haskel Y et al. Crit Care Med 1994;22:108-113
Synthetic clinical nutrition solutions
induce:
• loss of mucosal protein content
• intestinal microbial overgrowth
• leaky gut
-
Vivonex (Nestle)
53%
Criticare (Mead-Johnson) 67%
Ensure (Ross Lab)
60%
• "Cow's milk in the past has been oversold as the
perfect food, but we are now seeing that it isn't
the perfect food at all and the government really
shouldn't be behind any efforts to promote it as
such.“ Benjamin Spock, M.D., Los Angeles Times,
November 18, 1992
• “I would call milk perhaps the most unhealthful
vehicle for calcium that one could possibly
imagine, which is the only thing people really
drink it for, but whenever you challenge existing
dogma...people are resistant.“ Neal Barnard, M.D.,
Director of the Physician's Committee for
Responsible Medicine www.pcrm.org
BENSTRÄCKARE – 5 MIN
www.bengmark.com
FLORA IN WESTERNERS
• Lb plantarum, a dominating LAB, observed
in only 25 % of omnivorous Americans &
in 65 % of vegetarian Americans
Finegold SM et al. Human intestinal microflora in health
and disease Academic Press, London, UK, 1983. pp 3-31
• Benefial & common colonic LACROBACILLI
present only in about 50 %
or less of healthy Scandinavians:
Lb plantarum 52 %,
Lb rhamnosus 26 %,
Lb paracasei ssp paracasei 17 %
Ahrné S et al. J Appl Microbiol 1998;85:88-94
MICROBIOTA & OBESITY
Million M et al. Int J Obesity 2012;36:817-825
Obese (n=68) Controls (n=44) P-value
L. plantarum
L. paracasei
L. reuteri
L. rhamnosus
L. ruminis
L. salivarius
0 (0%)
8 (18.2%) 0.0004
10 (14.7%) 17 (38.6%) 0.004
6 (8.8%) 1 (2.3%)
0.16
3 (4.4%) 4 (9.1%)
0.27
3 (4.4%) 4 (9.1%)
0.27
5 (7.4%) 2 (4.5%)
0.43
ENDOTOXIN & OBESITY
Fei N, Zhao L. ISME J. 2012 E-pub
A person weighing 175 kg lost 51.4 kg after
23 weeks on VEGAN TYPE FOOD recovered
from hyperglycemia and hypertension.
The endotoxin-producing Enterobacter
cloacae B29 - found to constitute 35% of the
gut bacteria - decreased to non-detectable.
The Enterobacter cloacae inoculated in
germfree mice induced obesity & insulin
resistance.
THE GREAT P
www.bengmark.com
•Plantarum
•Paracasei
•Pediococcus pentosaceus
Lb paracasei – the master?
• the strongest
inducer of Th1 &
repressor of Th2
cytokines
when more than 100 strains
are compared
Fujiwara D et al. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2004;135:205–215
CONTROL OF PATHOGENS
The ability of 50 different LAB to control 23
different pathogenic Clostridium difficile
tested:
27 were totally ineffective
18 antagonistic to some
5 effective against all:
2 strains - Lb paracasei s. paracasei
3 strains - Lb plantarum
Naaber P et al. Med Microbiol 2004;53:551-554
FERMENTATION ABILITY
• The ability of 712 different LAB to ferment
oligofructans (inulin, phleins) studied:
• 16/712 able to ferment the phleins &
• 8/712 able to ferment the inulin type fibre.
• Only four species had the ability:
Lactobacillus plantarum (several)
Lactobacillus paracasei subsp.
paracasei, Pediococcus pentosaceus &
Lactobacillus brevis
Müller M, Lier D. J Appl Bact 1994;76:406-411
CHOICE OF LACTIC ACID
BACTERIA (LAB) AS
PROBIOTICS
We harvested and studied the
abilities of various LAB to control
inflammation and infection of
355 strains from humans
180 strains from plants
www.bengmark.com
UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF LAB IN
SYNBIOTIC 2000
• All induce several Bioactive Proteins
– five cross-react with stress proteins
• All transcribe NF-B – to the largest extent L
plantarum and L paracasei
• All produce pro-inflammatory (IL-1, IL-8) and
anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, to a large
extent L plantarum, and to less extent
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
Ljungh Å, Microb Ecol Health Dis 2002;3, Suppl 4:4
Kruszewska D et al Microecol. Ther. 2002;29:37
UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF LAB IN
SYNBIOTIC 2000
• All induce several Bioactive Proteins
– five cross-react with stress proteins
• All transcribe NF-B – to the largest extent L
plantarum and L paracasei
• All produce pro-inflammatory (IL-1, IL-8) and
anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines, to a large
extent L plantarum, and to less extent
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
Ljungh Å, Microb Ecol Health Dis 2002;3, Suppl 4:4
Kruszewska D et al Microecol. Ther. 2002;29:37
SYNBIOTIC 2000 & BETA-DEFENSINS
Wehkamp J et al Infect Immun. 2004;72:5750-5758
SYNBIOTIC 2000
Synbiotics AB, Sweden: www.synbiotics.se, [email protected]





400 billion Lactic acid bacteria:
1010 of Pediococcus pentosaceus 5-33:3
1010 of Leuconostoc mesenteroides 32-77:1
1010 of Lactobacillus paracasei sbsp. paracasei
1010 of Lactobacillus plantarum 2362





10 gram bioactive fibers:
2.5 g of betaglucan
2.5 g of inulin
2.5 g of pectin
2.5 g of resistant starch www.bengmark.com
SYNBIOTIC 2000 INHIBITS GROWTH OF MULTIRESISTANT BACTERIA
Professor Val Edwards-Jones, Manchester, UK
Multi-resistant Acinetobacter
baumanii
Multi-resistant Klebsiella
ORAL OR SUBCUTANEOUS SUPPLY
OF SYNBIOTIC 2000 REDUCE
DYSBIOSIS-INDUCED TISSUE (LUNG) INJURY
Tissue (Lung) injury induced by ceacal
ligation and puncture (CLP), in two
studies:
1. Oral supply of Synbiotic 2000 during
3 days before CLP
Tok D et al J Trauma 2007;62:880-885
2. Subcutaneous injection of live Lactic
acid bacteria from Synbiotic 2000
Ilkgul O Br J Int Care 2005;15:52-57
NEUTROPHILS IN LUNG TISSUE
Tok D et al J Trauma 2007;62:880-885
• Synbiotic 2000 9.00±0.44
• Only LAB
8.40±0.42
• Only the fibres 31.20±0.98
• Placebo
51.10±0.70
• p< 0.05
MYEOLOPEROXIDASE – MPO
Tok D et al J Trauma 2007;62:880-885
U/g
• Synbiotic 2000 25.62±2,19
• Only LAB
26.75±2,61
• Only the fibres 56.59±1,73
• Placebo
145.53±7,53
p< 0.05
MALONALDEHYDE – MDA
Tok D et al J Trauma 2007;62:880-885
nmol/mg
• Synbiotic 2000 0.22±1,31
• Only LAB
0.28±3,55
• Only the fibres 0.48±5,32
• Placebo
0.67±2,94
p< 0.05
NITRIC OXIDE
micromol/g
• Synbiotic 2000 17.16±2,03
• Only LAB
8.91±2,24
• Only the fibres 47.71±3,20
• Placebo
66.22±5,92
p< 0.05
SYNBIOTIC 2000 IN LUNG INJURY
Ilkgul O et al Br J Int Care. 2005;15:52-57
• Placebo
Only fibres
Synbiotic 2000
SYNBIOTIC 2000 IN LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
Rayes N et al. Am J Transplant 2005;5:125-131
50 to 85 % of transplant patients
develop nosocomial infections within 30
days.
Synbiotic 2000 or Only fibres daily
from the day before surgery +
during 14 postop days
30 day-infection rate:
Synbiotic 2000
1/33 - 3 %
Only fibres
17/33 - 51 %
SYNBIOTIC 2000 IN LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
Isolated bacteria:
Synbiotic 2000 Fibres only
Enterococcus faecalis
Escherichia coli
Enterobacter cloacae
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Staphylococcus aureus
Total
1
0
0
0
0
1
11
3
2
2
1
18
Rayes N et al. Am J Transplant 2005;5:125-131
SYNBIOTIC 2000 IN PANCREATECTOMY
INFECTIONS:
Control (Only fibers) 16/40 - 40 %
Synbiotics 2000
5/40 - 13 %
p< 0.05
Synbiotic 2000 Control
Wound infections
Peritonitis
Pneumonia
Urinary
Sepsis
Cholangitis
Empyema
4
0
0
1
0
0
0
6
5
4
1
2
1
1
Total
5
20
Rayes N et al. Ann Surg 2007;246:36-41
SYNBIOTIC 2000 IN PANCREATECTOMY
ISOLATED BACTERIA:
Synbiotic 2000 Fibres
Enterobacter cloacae
2
8
Enterococcus faecalis/faecium 1
7
Escherichia coli
0
7
Klebsiella pneumoniae
2
2
Proteus mirabilis
1
1
Staphylococcus aureus
0
2
Total
6
27
Rayes N et al. Ann Surg 2007;246:36-41
SYNBIOTICS IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS
Oláh A et al Hepato-gastroenterology 2007;54:36-41
Synbiotic 2000 Fibres Only
Total number of infections 9/33 ( 27 %)
Pancreatic abscesses
2
Infected necrosis
2
Chest infections
2
Urinary infections
3
SIRS
3
MOF
5
SIRS + MOF
8
Late (>48h) MOF
1
Complications
9/33
Surgical drainage
4/33 ( 12 %)
Mean hospital stay
14.9 ±6.5
Dead
2/33 ( 6 %)
15/29 ( 52 %)
2
6
4
3
5
9
14
p<0.05
5
15/29
p<0.05
7/29
( 24 %)
19.7±9.3
6/29
( 18 %)
SYNBIOTICS IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS
Oláh A et al Hepato-gastroenterology 2007;54:36-41
Isolated Microorganisms: SYNBIOTIC 2000 Fibres Only
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
1
Enterococcus faecalis
1
Enterobacter spp
1
Streptococcus spp
2
Staphylococcus aureus
1
Enterococcus faecium
1
Candida spp
Staphylococcus haemolyticus Serratia spp
Klebsiella spp
Escherichia coli
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Citrobacter freundii
Total
7
4
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
1
17
SYNBIOTIC 2000 IN MULTIPLE TRAUMA
102 patients supplied 15 days with either Synbiotic
2000 Forte or placebo
The treated patients demonstrated
reduced:
- Mortality
- Rate of infection (P = 0.01)
- Rate of SIRS & severe sepsis (P = 0.02)
- Numbers of days on mechanical
ventilation (P= 0.001)
- ICU stay (P = 0.01)
Kotzampassi K et al. World J Surgery 2006;30:1848-1855
SYNBIOTIC 2000 IN TRAUMA PATIENTS
Spindler-Vesel A et al. JPEN 2007;31:119-126
TOTAL NUMBER OF INFECTIONS:
Alitraq Abbott-Ross (glut+arg)
16/32
50 %
Nova Source Novartis (+guargum)
17/29
58 %
Nutricomp peptide Braun (+peptide)
13/26
50 %
Nutricomp standard (+Synbiotic 2000) 4/26
15 %
NUMBER OF CHEST INFECTIONS:
Alitraq Abbott-Ross (glut +arg)
Nova Source Novartis (+guargum)
Nutricomp Braun (peptide)
Nutricomp standard (+Synbiotic 2000)
11/32
12/29
11/26
5/26
34 %
41 %
42 %
19 %
REDUCTIONS IN INFECTIONS/POSITIVE BLOOD CULTURES
Liver transplantation, 66 patients1
Patients with postop. infections
16 => 1 = 94 per cent
Patients with pos. blood cultures
11 => 1 = 91 per cent
Pancreatdoudenectomy for cancer, 80 patients2
Patients with postop. infections
16 => 5 = 69 per cent
Patients with pos. blood cultures
27=> 5 = 82 per cent
Severe pancreatitis – 62 patient3
Patients with infections
15 => 9 = 40 per cent
Patients with pos. blood cultures
17 => 7 = 59 per cent
Severe trauma, treated with Synbiotic 2000 Standard – 52 patients4
Patients with infections
23/30 (77 %) => 17/35 (49 %)
Severe trauma, treated with Synbiotic 2000 Forte – 72 patients5
Patients with post-trauma infections 13 => 5 = 62 per cent
Patients with pos. blood cultures
13 => 5 = 62 per cent
REDUCTIONS IN USE OF ANTIBIOTICS, ARTIFICAL
RESPIRATION, TIME IN ICUs & IN HOSPITAL
Liver transplantation – 66 patients1
Days on Antibiotics
3.8 => 0.1 = 3.7 (97 %)
Days in ICUs
10.2 => 8.8 = 1.4 (14 %)
Days in Hospital
27.9 => 27.8 = 0.1(3 %)
Pancreatdoudenectomy for cancer - 80 patients2
Days on Antibiotics
10 => 2 = 8 (80 %)
Days in ICUs
6 => 2 = 4 (67 %)
Days in Hospital
22 => 17 = 5 (23 %)
Severe acute pancreatitis – 62 patients3
Days in Hospital
19.7 => 14.9 = 4.8 (24 %)
Severe trama treated with Synbiotic 2000 Forte – 65 patients5
Days on Artificial Respiration 24 => 19 = 5 (21 %)
Days in ICUs
41.3 => 27.7 = 13.6 (33 %)
MULTI-STRAIN SYNBIOTICS IN
DISTAL COLITIS
Rectal application, 10 patients, studied before (D0),
and after 7 (D7), 14 (D14) and 21 (D21)
days of treatment:
Urgency
Episodes of diarrhoea
Nightly diarrhoea
Visible blood
Consistency of stool
D0
D7 D14 D21
1.9  1.2  1.0  1.0
2.4  1.3  0.9  0.8
0.5  0.1  0  0
2.2  1.2  0.8  0.8
1.1  0.9  0.7  0.8
Pathmakanthan S, et al, Gut 2002; 51(Supp lIII) A307
COMMUNICATION
BETWEEN THE GUT,
GUT MICROBIOTA &
THE BRAIN –
endocrine,
neurocrine and
inflammation-related
communications
Mayer et al J Neurosci
2014;34:15490-15496
DIET,
MICROBIOTA
DIET,
MICROBIOTA
ANXIETY &
ANXIETY
DEPRESSION
&
DEPRESSION
Luna RA, Foster JA
Current Opinion in Biotechnology
2015, 32:35–41
Luna RA, Foster JA
Current Opinion in Biotechnology
2015, 32:35–41
FMT IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS – 3 PATIENTS
Borody Th et al Am J Gastroenterol 2011;52, Suppl 2; abstract 952
Patient 1. Male 30 yr, wheel-chaired, constipation.
5 FMT infusions. Regained ability to walk. Remains
well & without any relapses, 15 years post-FMT.
Patient 2. Male 29 yr, wheel-chaired, severe
constipation. 10 daily FMT infusions. Regained
ability to walk. 3 years on maintains normal motor,
urinary and GI function.
Patient 3. Female 80 yr, severe chronic constipation.
now walking long distances unassisted. Two years
post-FMT, the patient is asymptomatic.
VITAMIN D – FUNCTIONS
Holick MF Mol Asp Med 2008;29:361–368
VITAMIN D – IMMUNE EFFECTS
- decrease T-cell activation & proliferation,
- inhibit dendritic cell maturation/
differentiation
- induce tolerogenic dendritic cells
Supplementing vitamin D reported to:
-
prevent acute and chronic diseases
improve allograft survival
decelerate loss of allograft function
prevent acute rejection in transplantation
VITAMIN D & TELOMERIC AGING
Vitamin D - a potent inhibitor
of inflammation
The difference in telomere
length between the highest
and lowest tertiles of vitamin
D was 107 base pairs (P =
0.0009), equivalent to 5.0
years of telomeric aging
Richards JB et al Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1420-1425
VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY & DISEASE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Aging
•
Allergy
•
Alzheimer’s disease •
Asthma
•
Athletic performance •
Autism
•
Cancer
•
Cavities
•
Colds
•
Crohn´s disease
•
Cystic fibrosis
•
Depression
Diabetes 1 and 2
Eczema
Heart disease
Hearing loss
Hypertension
Infertility
Influenza
Insomnia
Macular
degeneration
Migraines
Multiple
Sclerosis
• Muscle pain
• Myopia
• Obesity
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Periodontal disease
Pre-eclampsia
Psoriasis
Rheumatoid
diseases
Schizophrenia
Seizures
Septicemia
Tuberculosis
Vaginosis/fluor
VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY IN SURGERY
85 % of patients undergoing hip or knee replacement
Breijawi N et al Eur Surg Res 2009;42:1–10
77 % of chronic pancreatitis patients
Dujsikova H et al Pancreatology 2008;8:583–586
57 % obesity surgery patients (79 % in black and
Hispanic)
Gemmel K et al Surg Obes Rel Dis 2009,5, 54–59
67 % of renal transplantation patients
Ducloux D et al Transplantation 2008;85: 1755–1759
95% of Afro-Americans undergoing renal
transplantation
Tripathy SS et al Transplantation 2008;85: 767–770
VITAMIN D IN BABIES
Arnberg K et al Acta Paediatr 2011;100:1244-1248
A cross-sectional study in255 infants aged 9 months.
97% received vitamin D supplementation.
Mean plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D:
77.2 ± 22.7 nM.
Association between vitamin D &
low HDL (p = 0.003), low cholesterol (p = 0.002)
and low triglycerides (p = 0.010), low body
mass index (p = 0.005) and low waist
circumference (p = 0.002).
VITAMIN D & BREAST CANCER
Mohr SB et al Breast J 2008;14:255-60
AUTISM & LATITUDE
Grant WB, Soles CM (latitude)Dermatoendocrinol. 2009;1:223-228
VITAMIN D & CANCER GROWTH
Swami S et al Endocrinology 2012;153:2576-2587
.
Mouse models of breast cancer and prostate cancer,
vitamin D(3)-supplemented in large dose (5000 IU/kg)
& compared with a control diet (1000 IU/kg).
VITAMIN D & CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA PROGNOSIS
Shanafelt TD et al Blood 2011;117:1492-1498
ALLERGY AND VITAMIN D
Sharief S et al J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;127:1195-1202
VITAMIN D & ASTHMA IN CHILDREN
A significant positive correlation exists between
forced vital capacity % vitamin D/s (P = .040)
Only 9.4% of children with asthma have a
sufficient vitamin/s (> 30 ng/mL).
Children with well-controlled asthma have higher
Vitamin D/s than children with un-controlled or
partially controlled asthma (P = .023)
A positive correlation exists between vitamin D/s
and so called Childhood Asthma Control Test
(P = .011)
Chinellato I et al J Pediatr 2011;158:437-441
VITAMIN D & CYSTIC FIBROSIS
Rovner AJ et al Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1694 –1699
VITAMIN D & MATERNAL VAGINOSIS
Bodnar LM et al J Nutr. 2009;139:1157-1161
VITAMIN D IN DEPRESSION
Högberg G et al Acta Paediatrica 2012;101:779-783
54 Swedish depressed adolescents. Mean serum 25OHD was 41 at
baseline and 91 nmol/L (p<0.001) after oral supply of vitamin D
during 3 months (4000 IU/d during 1 month and 2000 IU/d 2 months)
Significant increases observed:
• Well-being (p<0.001)
• Depressed feeling
(p<0.001)
• Irritability (p<0.05)
(p<0.001)
• Tiredness (p<0.001)
• Mood swings (p<0.01)
• Sleep difficulties (p<0.01)
• Weakness (p<0.05)
• Ability to concentrate
(p<0.05)
• Pain (p<0.05) &
• Significant amelioration of
depression according to the
MFQ-S (p<0.05)
VITAMIN D & INFECTION/INFLUENZA
TRAINING, VITAMIN D & MUSCLE POWER
Carillo AE et al Clinical Nutrition 2012 E-pub
VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY – COSTS
Gant WB et al Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2009;99:104-113
36 % of direct and 28 % of indirect Health
Costs are associated with vitamin D deficience:
Cardiovascular 13.5 and 7.5 resp
Infections incl influenza 7 and 6.5
resp
Type 2 diabetes 7 and 2.4 resp
Cancer 6.4 and 9.6 resp
Osteoporosis 1.5 and 0.5 resp
Multiple sclerosis 1 and 0.2 resp
SUBSTITUTING VITAMIN D
Gant WB et al Prog Biophys Mol Biol 2009, 99:104-113
to all European to 40 ng/mL would reduce
the direct economic burden of disease by
11.4%, or EUR 105,000 000 000
the indirect economic burden of disease by
6.4 % or EUR 82,000 000 000
the total reduction in economic
burden of disease by 17.7%, or
EUR 187,000 000 000
PORTAL VEIN, THORACIC DUCT, HEPATIC ARTERY
PORTÅDERN, STORA LYMFGÅNGEN. LEVERARTÄREN
SATURATED FATTY ACID METABOLISM
MCFA: Coconut Oil 85,2, Palm kernel oil 81,5, Palm Oil 45,3, Olive Oil 14.5 (70 % monosaturated)
LCFA: Animal fats
PRESENT
THE ENTRANCE OF ENERGY
THE FRONT DOOR – SHORTCUT 1
app 60 % are Sugar and Suger-like substances
which enters the body in upper jejunum via
mainly the arterial system
< 15 %
THE BACK DOOR – THE DANGEROUS ROUTE
app 30 % animal fats & vegetable oil enters via
the the body via the lymphatic system and
remains in circulation for hours
> 10 %
THE MAIN DOOR
< 20 % Raw greens, Vegetables, Fruits are foods
for Microbiota and reaches the large intestine,
enhancing immune system, preventing
inflammationapp 80 %
PALEO
POSTPRANDIAL LIPIDEMIA & INFLAMMATION
Khor A et al Nutr Res. 2014;34:391-400.
• Postprandial inflammatory activity is a strong risk factors
for atherosclerosis Ebenbichler CF Curr Opin Lipidol 1995;6:286–
290 (& other chronic diseases)
• increases content of endotoxin in blood (eqv to smoking
3 cigarettes) Erridge C et al Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1286 –1292
• leads to cascades of inflammatory and oxidative stress
• Ceriello A et al. Diabetes 2004;53:701–710
• release of tumor necrosis factor-α, a key proinflammatory cytokine
Erridge C et al Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1286 –1292
• increases numbers of & activates leukocytes Alipour A et al
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008;28:792–797
• Inflammatory reaction potentiated by simultaneous
intake of sugar Ceriello A et al. Diabetes 2004;53:701–710
POSTPRANDIAL INFLAMMATION & ENDOTOXEMIA
Erridge C et al Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:1286 –1292
FAT UTILIZATION  72 HRS
Soeters P et al Am J Physiol Endocrinal Metab 2012;303:E1397-1407
CONTENT
“
FOOD
&
HEALTH
AMOUNT
TIME
BENEFITS OF DIURNAL FASTING
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reduces oxidative stress
Boosts mitochondrial energy efficiency
Normalizes ghrelin "the hunger hormone“
Normalizes fat, sugar and protein metabolism
Normalizes espec insulin and leptin sensitivity
Minimizes damage to cellular proteins, lipids &
nucleic acids – hereby
• Reducing disease and premature aging
• Improves various biomarkers of disease
DIURNAL
CONTROL OF
GENE ACTIVITY
Plikus MV et al
J Biol Rhythm 2015 E-pub
DIURNAL
RHYTHM
&
MICROBIOTIC
FUNCTIONS
Liang X et al
Cell. 2014;159:469-70
DIURNAL RHYTHM
MICROBIOTIC
FUNCTIONS
&
FECAL
TRANSPLANTATION
Liang X et al.
Cell. 2014;159:469-70
GUT MICROBIOTA & DERANGED METABOLISM
Vrieze A et al Diabetologia 2010;53:606-613
•
•
•
•
•
↓ FFA oxidation
↑ endotoxin/s
↑SCFA production
↓incretin secretion
↓ butyrate production
•
•
•
•
•
↑FFA oxidation
↓ endotoxin/s
↓ SCFA production
↑Incretin secretion
↑butyrate production
DAILY FASTING REDUCES OBESITY &
IMPROVES HEALTH
Hatori M et al Cell Metabolism 2012;15: 848-860
INTERMITTENT FASTING & WEIGHT
Hatori M et al Cell Metabolism 2012;15: 848-860
NA=normal diet, free access, FA= free access to fat diet, NT & FT=timerestricted normal or fat diet
DIURNAL CHRONOBIOTICS PREVENTS & DELAYS ALZHEIMERS DISEASE
Laundry G, Liu-Ambrose T Front. Aging Neurosci 2014 E-pub BLT = Bright light therapy
DAILY FASTING –
AVOIDING LATE
NIGHT EATING AND
SKIPPING
BREAKFAST
– long-term effects
Zilberter T, Zilberter EY
Front Public Health 2014;2:59
BREAKFAST – NOT YOUR MOST
IMPORTANT MEAL?
14 Forskare: ”Nu krävs kraftfulla
åtgärder mot nötkött och flygresor”
Publicerad DN 2015-02-27
Svenskarnas globala utsläpp från köttkonsumtion och
flygresor motsvarar hälften av de totala utsläppen på
hemmaplan. I vår rapport till Naturvårdsverket föreslår vi tydliga
styrmedel – som nya skatter – för att begränsa konsumtionen på
dessa områden, skriver 14 miljö- och energiforskare.
Naturvårdsverket redovisar att de totala utsläppen
orsakade av svensk konsumtion har ökat med 17 procent
den senaste 20 åren. Konsumtionsvolymerna har stigit
kraftigt och åtgärderna för att minska utsläppen har varit
otillräckliga. Rapporten ”Hållbara konsumtionsmönster”
Naturvårdsverket publicerar med bidrag från 14 forskare.
http://www.dn.se/debatt/nu-kravs-kraftfulla-atgarder-mot-notkott-och-flygresor/
A better way - less energy,
less pollution
• App 56 billion animals are
reared and slaughtered for
annual human & pet
consumption each year
• expected to double by 2050
(About 10 animals per individual! )
• most increases will occur in
the developing world
Steinfeld et al. 2006
ATT BETÄNKA:
Cirka 25 procent av svenskens
klimatavtryck kommer från maten.
Nötkött orsakar 40 ggr högre utsläpp än
t.ex. bönor - jmf kyckling ”bara” 4 ggr.
Av den energi som nötkreatur
konsumerar blir ytterst litet kvar: nöt %,
grisar 10 %, kyckling 15 %.
Resten försvinner bl. a. för djurens
tillväxt och som kroppsvärme hos djuren.
IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE 1
Tilman D, Clark M Nature 2014;515:518-522
• About half of the ice-free land on Earth is used as
cropland or pasture land.
• Global agriculture & food production release >
25% of all greenhouse gases, pollute, land,
ocenas & fresh waters
• Ruminant meats (beef & lamb) have emissions
per gram food protein that are about 250 times
those of legumes.
• Future global land clearing for agriculture could
threaten species with extinction
Agriculture, particularly
meat & dairy products,
accounts for:
• 70 % of global freshwater
consumption
• 38 % of the total land use &
• 21 % of the world's
greenhouse gas emissions
IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE 2
Tilman D, Clark M Nature 2014;515:518-522
• Diets high in processed foods:
refined sugars, refined fats, oils
and meats has contributed to 2.1
billion people becoming
overweight or obese
• Still will almost a billion people still
suffer from inadequate diets &
insecure food supplies
2050: IMPACT OF FOODS ON EMISSION
Tilman D, Clark M Nature 2014;515:518-522
The income dependent diet requires from 370 to 740 million (mean
540) hectares more cropland than the alternative diets
THE PROBLEM OF WATER SHORTAGE
More than half of the water used in the United
States goes to livestock production
L. Beckett & J. W. Oltjen J Animal Science
1992;71:818-8268
4000 lit (18000?) of water is needed to produce 1 kg
of meat compared to 14 lit to produce one kg of
grain Audubon News Jan 2000
Every kg of beef that is avoided can save up to
4000 (18000?) liters of water
Boyan S: How Our Food Choices can Help Save the
Environment.
”COSTS” OF LIFESTOCK PRODUCTION
• 70% of United States grain goes to
feeding farm animals USDA 1991
• It takes almost 7 kg of corn and soy
to produce one kg of pork.
Cattle-Fax 1989
• Nearly 800 million people could be
fed by all the grains currently fed to
US livestock
Professor David Pimental NY
REMEMBER 1
Every second of every day,
one “football field” of
tropical rainforest is
destroyed in order to
produce 257 hamburgers
Boyan S. How Our Food Choices can
Help Save the Environment
REMEMBER 2
Food production will
need to increase by
100 per cent
by the year 2050
LIFESTOCK & GREEN HOUSE EMISSION
Greenhouse-gas emissions from the
agriculture sector account for about
22% of global total emissions, similar to
that of industry and 50 % greater than
that of transport.
Livestock production accounts for
nearly 80% of the sector's emissions.
McMichael AJ et al Lancet 2007; 370: 1253–63
THE BURDEN OF METHANE
Over the last 300 years, the
atmospheric methane burden
has grown 2.5-fold
97% of livestock greenhouse
emissions arise from enteric
rumen fermentation
Hegerty, 2001
GLOBAL WARMING – CONSEQUENCES OF
AGRICULTURE Steinfeld H et al 2006
• 37 % percent of produced methane gases,
a gas that has 22 times more global
warming potential than carbon dioxide
• 65 % of produced nitrous oxide comes
from manure, a gas that has 296 times
more global warming potential of carbon
dioxide
• 64 % of produced ammonia emissions,
which contributes to acid rain and
destruction of eco-systems
FOOD & GREENHOUSE EFFECTS
Heller MC, Keolaian GA J Indust Ecol 2014 E-pub
RUMINANTS & GREENHOUSE-GAS EMISSIONS
McMichael AJ et al Lancet 2007; 370: 1253–63
REMEMBER 4
App 80% of health care
costs are due to
overconsumption of
mainly
agriculture-produced
Western-type diet.
IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE 3
Tilman D, Clark M Nature 2014;515:518-522
Increases in body mass indices
(BMI) will increase global
incidences of chronic diseases,
such as type II diabetes, coronary
heart disease and some cancers,
- these three predicted to
become two-thirds of the global
burden of disease by 2050
DIET AND
REDUCED RISK
OF DISEASE
Tilman D, Clark M
Nature 2014;515:518-522
TYPE OF FOOD &
GREENHOUSE
GAS EMISSION
(GHG)
Tilman D, Clark M
Nature 2014;515:518-522
AGRICULTURE, HEALTH, GREEN-HOUSE EFFECTS
Frid S et al Lancet 2009; 374: 2016–2025
ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINTS
B & R Vale Time to eat your dog, Guide to sustainable living 2009
Cow ,milking 30 lit/day
19.6 gha *
Sheep
1.6 gha
Human –developed world
6 gha
Large dog
1.1 gha
Human being developing world 1 gha
Pig
0.6 gha
Jeep/SUV
0.41 gha
Small dog
0.3 gha
Cat
0.15 gha
Hamster
0.014 gha
* = global hectare, one gha = 10000 sqmet,
total app 15 bill gha
REMEMBER
5
One average dog eats the same
amount of meat as
4 average Humans
The estimated 500 000 000
dogs on Earth
eat as 2 billion average Humans
WHAT CAN WE DO?
“A substantial contraction in
meat consumption in highincome countries should benefit
health, reducing the risk of
ischaemic heart disease obesity,
colorectal cancer etc”.
McMichael AJ et al Lancet 2007; 370: 1253–63
THE EASIEST WAY?
“Halting the increase of
greenhouse-gas emissions from
agriculture, especially livestock
production, should therefore be
a top priority, because it could
curb warming fairly rapidly.”
McMichael AJ et al Lancet 2007; 370: 1253–63
GOVERNMENTAL SUBSIDIES
Good Medicine 2007;16, number 4
STÖD – JORDBRUK, EU
efter Grönvall A, Johansson M, Jönrup H Statistikenheten 1990
STÖD – JORDBRUK, SVERIGE
efter Grönvall A, Johansson M, Jönrup H Statistikenheten 1990
David Perlmutter, MD,FACN, ABIHM is a Board-Certified
Neurologist and Fellow of the American College of Nutrition
• Richard J Johnson, MD
Professor and Chief of
nephrology, University of
Gut
microbiota,
immune
development
and function
Bengmark S.
Pharmacological
Research
2013 March;69:87-113
Sonnenburg
Justin & Erica
The Good Gut
- Your weight
- Your mood
- Your health
”Make friend
with your
microbiota!”
Thank you!
[email protected]
www.bengmark.com