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Calorie Crunching 2011 Bottom Line Challenge Education Directions: Read through the packet and complete the activity on the last page. Keep your completed quiz until the weigh-out where you will turn it in. At that time, you will receive 25 bonus points toward your score. Most people know by now, calories are the biggest focus when it comes to losing weight and weight management. We need to be conscious of how many calories we consume, burn, and need. When we consume too many calories, we gain weight. When we burn more calories than we consume we lose weight. That’s it. That’s the magic secret. In this education, we’ll take a little deeper look into the calorie basics in weight management. How many calories do you need? To find out the total amount of calories you actually need on a day-to-day basis, you can start by finding you basal metabolic rate (BMR), thermic effect of food, and keeping track of your physical activity level. Step 1: Calculate Your BMR Your BMR is vital to your survival; it keeps your heart beating, lungs breathing, kidneys and all other organs functioning. It represents about 60-70% of the calories burned in a day. To calculate your BMR, use the Harris-Benedict formula: (Please note- the numbers have been reviewed and are correct) Adult male BMR= 66 + (6.3 x body weight in lbs.) + (12.9 x height in inches) – (6.8 x age in years) Adult female BMR: 655 + (4.3 x weight in lbs.) + (4.7 x height in inches) – (4.7 x age in years) Step 2: Calculate the Thermic Effect of Food The thermic effect of food is the amount of calories you burn off during digestion. Thermic effect of food= Multiply your daily caloric intake by 10% For example- a person eating a 2000 calorie diet will burn off approximately 200 calories while they eat the food. Some food, especially fiber rich food, may make the body work harder at digestion so this percentage may vary based on your diet, however, generally speaking the formula above will give you a general idea of what you’ve burned off. Step 3: Physical Activity Physical activity includes everything from house work and gardening to running and weight lifting. The American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association recommend: moderate intensity cardio 30 minutes a day, five days a week or vigorous intensity cardio 20 minutes a day 3 days a week plus 8-10 strength training exercises, 8-12 repetitions each, twice a week. There are a few factors that will determine how many calories you burn through physical activity. One factor is your current weight (the more you weigh the more calories you will burn). For example during one hour of low impact aerobics, a 130- lb person will burn approximately 295 calories, where as a 170-lb person will burn approximately 431 calories. Another factor is the intensity. For example running will burn more calories as jogging during the same time frame. Step 4: Add Those Number Together The total number of calories a body needs is the sum of BMR, calories burned through the thermic effect of food, and calories burned through exercise. Note: this is the total number of calories needed if you want to maintain your weight. If you are looking to lose weight, you want to consume less calories than you calculated. Consuming Calories Calories are always on our mind. Whether we are counting them, cutting them, or burning them, we just can’t get away from them. We put so much emphasis on them, but what are they really? A calorie is the amount of energy, or heat, it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit). So how does it affect us and the food we eat? The number of calories in a food is a measure of how much potential energy that food has. For example: One gram of protein has 4 calories, one gram of carbohydrate has 4 calories, one gram of fat has 9 calories, and one gram of alcohol has 7 calories. Therefore if you know how many of these building blocks are in a food, you know how many calories that food possesses. For example: Using this partial food label we know there are: 0 g of fat x 9 calories per gram= 0 calories from fat 11 g of carbs x 4 calories per gram= 44 cal from carbs 9 g of protein x 4 calories per gram= 36 cal from protein Add 0 + 44 + 36= 80 total calories. You can do this with any food label! On some food labels (including the one above), there is a “% of Daily Value” listed. This is based on an average 2,000 calorie diet. The number “2,000” is used because that is a rough average of what a person needs to eat in a day, however that number will vary person to person. Height, weight, gender, and activity level all affect your caloric needs. One thing to know is that from a weight management stand point- a calorie is a calorie; it doesn’t matter if you have 2,000 calories of desert or vegetables. However from a nutritional standpoint, it is important to remember to eat a well balanced diet. You need to eat a variety of food to get all the essential nutrients throughout the day. How to Reduce Your Caloric Intake Here’s 10 easy ways to reduce the calories you consume. Remember- those who are most successful usually make small changes over time instead going on a restricted diet. Try to focus on one or two of these tips until they become a habit, then add in some extra ones. 1. Portion Control- When cooking and eating, use measuring cups and spoons as well as a food scale to measure how much you are eating. Another way to control portions is by using the plate method. For each meal, fill half your plate with vegetables and fruits. Fill one quarter of your plate with lean protein such as chicken, tofu, beans, lean meat, or fish. Fill the remaining quarter of your plate with whole grains such as whole-wheat pasta or brown rice. With this method, half of your food comes from low calorie, high fiber fruits and vegetables. One quarter comes from lean protein and the other quarter comes from starches. 2. Plan ahead- Pack healthy snacks to keep on hand throughout the day so you are less tempted to grab an unhealthy quick fix. Healthy eating does not have to take a lot of time. You can prepare a healthy meal just as quickly as an unhealthy one. With a little planning, having the right foods on hand, and learning how to cook quick, nutritious meals, your family can be eating healthy in no time. 3. Fill up, not out- Did you know that both protein and fiber keep you feeling full longer? This is a great tip when it comes to losing weight. Make sure that you consume protein at every meal to keep you full until the next time you eat. 4. Shop with a full belly- By shopping with a full belly, you’ll be less likely to grab unhealthy foods that sound good at the time. In addition, use a prepared list. By keeping unhealthy foods out of the house, you’ll set your self up for success. 5. Eat at a table and from a plate- When you eat food while standing and out of packages, you tend to forget about it, which can lead to eating a lot of extra (unwanted) calories. 6. Eat slow and enjoy your food- By eating slowly, your body has more time to digest and trigger the responses to tell your brain that you are full. Remember, it takes about 20 minutes for your mind to get the signal from your belly that you are full. 7. Start your Day with Breakfast- Breakfast is the most important meal of the day. It literally means “break” a “fast”, the fast occurring overnight. You body needs the fuel to get your metabolism going to give you energy throughout the day. 8. Serve food from the stove instead of the table- If you are sitting at a table with helpings of food in front of you, it is very difficult not to dig in for seconds. If you keep the food on a table away from where you are eating, you will need to make a conscious decision to keep eating. 9. Eat every 3-4 hours- You metabolism works most efficiently when you fuel your body every few hours. If you eat less frequently, you are depriving your body of much needed nutrition. If you eat more frequently than that, you may consume more calories than necessary throughout the day. 10. Avoid drinking your calories- Many beverages are high in calories. These calories typically come in the form of fats and carbohydrates. Having a special treat once in a while is ok, however if your daily regimen consists of having a high calorie drink, that is one area you can trim back excess calories. Remember the amount of calories you eat affects your weight and health. In addition to selecting a healthy variety of foods, look at the size of the portions you eat. Choosing nutritious foods and keeping portion sizes sensible may help you reach and stay at a healthy weight. Burning Calories through Physical Activity and Exercise First things first. Always check with your doctor before beginning any exercise program, especially if you’re a man over 45, a woman over 55, or have cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or a family history of heart disease. When you do check in with your doctor ask if there are any risks involved in participating in an exercise program. If they say yes, then ask what kind of modifications can be made to keep you safe. In addition, ask if they would like to see you again after you’ve started exercising. They may want to monitor you and check your progress. If you are on medications, they may be able to slowly decrease your dose and eventually you may be able to go off medications. Next, find out your baselines. Think about how you are going to set your goals. If you are setting a goal on your cardiovascular fitness, then maybe you want to time yourself in the mile and see if you can improve that time. Or maybe your goal is to make it up to 1-mile. Give yourself a fitness test and see how far you can go without stopping then keep working to increase that until you get to a mile. If your goal is to improve your muscular endurance then you may test how many push-ups or crunches you can do in one minute. Again, this helps you remember where you started and helps you set goals to improve your fitness levels. Don’t forget to retest every so often to help set new goals and see how much you’ve progressed! Components of a Fitness Program Warm Up A warm-up is essential to a good exercise program because this is when the body gets prepared for higherintensity movements. During a warm up, muscles contract which makes your heart rate, blood flow, cardiac output, and breathing rates increase. Blood then moves faster through your arteries and veins and eventually goes to working muscles. Your warm-up should consist of two phases: progressive aerobic activity and flexibility exercises. Choosing which warm-up activity to use is as easy as slowing down what you will be doing during your workout. For example, if you will be running, warm up with a slow jog, or if you will be cycling outdoors, begin in lower gears. Aerobic (Cardiovascular) Exercise Aerobic exercise is beneficial for your body in so many ways. Specifically, it improves your cardiovascular system and is an important part of weight management. The most basic form of aerobic exercise is walking. However any activity that is continuous and sustained for longer periods of time is considered aerobic exercise. Walking, running, jump roping, dancing, swimming, bicycling, and rowing are all examples. Recommendations include working up to 30 (or more) minutes of continuous exercise, 3-5 days per week for general health (You can break up the 30 minutes into smaller segments if necessary. For example- 3x10 minute sessions). If you’re trying to lose weight, aim for 5-6 days per week, for 45 minutes or longer. A very important aspect of your exercise program is the intensity. You should exercise at a comfortable pace. There are two fairly easy ways to check if you are working hard enough. The first is to measure your heart rate. To measure your heart rate, take your pulse as soon as you stop exercising. Count your heartbeat for 10 seconds, then multiply by six to convert it to a one-minute heart rate. If you keep your exercise heart rate within a range of 55 to 90% of an estimated maximum heart rate (220 minus your age), you’re doing well. Trainers tip: monitoring heart rate to manage exercise exertion is inappropriate for individuals taking certain medications that affect exercise heart rate, such as beta blockers for high blood pressure, and those with health conditions that affect heart rate, such as pregnancy. Strength Conditioning Muscular conditioning can improve strength and posture, reduce the risk of low-back injury and is an important component of a weight-management program. Like aerobic exercise, you do have several choices when it comes to varying your activity. You can pick machine weights, free weights, tubing, bands, balls, or using your body weight. The important thing is to make sure you exercise every major muscle group, including your arms, chest, back, stomach, hips and legs. If you neglect muscle groups, you may develop an imbalance in your body, which may increase your risk of injury, lead to strength imbalances, and postural difficulties. To get started, perform one set of 8-12 repetitions, working the muscles to the point of fatigue. When you are able to perform 12 repetitions of an exercise correctly (without cheating), increase While you strength the amount of resistance by 5-10% to continue making safe progress. Aim to exercise train, you want to each muscle group at least two times per week with at least one day of rest in between remember to training sessions. If you are just starting, you may want to consult a fitness breathe normally. professional to learn to safely perform weight training exercises. Stretching for Flexibility Flexibility exercise is needed to maintain joint range of motion and reduce the risk of injury and muscle soreness. Proper stretching involves holding a mild stretch for 15 to 30 seconds while you breathe normally. Always warm up before you stretch. Like strength conditioning, flexibility exercises should include stretching for all of the major muscle groups. Stretching may be incorporated into your workout. Dancing, yoga, and Pilates are ways to get your aerobic or strength training in while lengthening your muscles and increasing your flexibility. 10 Fitness Facts 1. Boosts Brainpower- Exercise increases energy levels and levels of serotonin in the brain which leads to improved mental clarity. It’s proven that those who are active and exercise are much more productive throughout the day. 2. Improves Your Mood & Decreases Stress- Physical activity releases endorphins which makes the body feel good naturally. A Harvard study found that 10 weeks of strength training reduced clinical depression symptoms more successfully than standard counseling did. 3. Gives You Energy- When endorphins are released into your bloodstream, it gives you much more energy the rest of the day. This will make daily tasks easier. A lot of people say they don’t have the energy to workout or it makes them tired. This only lasts for a short period of time. The physical tiredness you feel after exercising isn’t the same as everyday fatigue. Once your body adjusts to exercise, you’ll have more energy than ever. 4. You Can Exercise Anywhere- Some people feel they don’t have the time or resources to exercise. As for time- try to use your time more wisely. Try killing two birds with one stone. Take your kids to the park or ride bikes together. Go on a walk with a friend you normally talk to on the phone. You can also break your workout up into smaller segments. Exercise 10 minutes in the morning, 10 at lunch, and 10 after work to make up a 30 minute workout. In addition, you can sneak exercise in during some non-traditional times. For example, when you’re sitting and watching TV, stretch. In addition, you can do body weight exercises such as sit-ups, push-ups and squats without any equipment. It’s a great way to keep your body moving throughout the day. Remember that you don’t need to run marathons to gain the benefits of physical activity. You just need to get moving and keep moving. 5. Can Build Relationships- Think of what exercising with a partner can do. It will make you more accountable, push you, and be a great time to catch up. Think about going for a walk, playing tennis, or taking an aerobics class together. 6. Wards Off Disease- Research has shown that exercise can slow or help prevent heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, and loss of muscle mass. It can also help ease some aspects of aging. 7. Pumps Up Your Heart- Exercise not only wards off heart disease, it makes the heart stronger. This makes daily life easier. Within only a few days after you start exercising, you will feel less fatigue and it will not take as much effort when it comes to breathing. 8. Allows You to Eat More- Pound for pound, muscle burns more calories at rest than body fat. So the more muscle you have, the higher your resting metabolic rate is. In general, for each pound of muscle you gain, you will burn 35-50 extra calories each day! 9. Boosts Performance- Exercise can help in all areas of life. If you play recreational softball or basketball, you may find that exercising consistently will help your game. If you like to play a round of golf, you may find you have more stamina. Consistent exercise can improve your muscular strength, endurance, and improve your flexibility, reaction time, and balance. 10. Focus on Health- Not Weight- Studies by Wayne Wescott, PhD, found that the average woman who strength trains two to three times a week for two months will gain nearly 2 pounds of muscle and lose 3.5 pounds of fat. Think about this. That’s actually only a net loss of 1.5 pounds. Do you ever step on the scale and think, “wow- all that hard work and I only lost 1.5 pounds”. Sure, we all have, however this proves that even though the scale may not move much, your body is responding to exercise. Physical activity does even so much more. Not only does it helps you burn calories to lose weight, it reduces the risk of conditions like heart disease, stroke, blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes. It improves your strength, muscles, bones, and coordination. Physical activity improves your quality of life, helps you feel better about yourself, improves your mood, and allows you to cope better with stress. Calorie Crunching When 1. 2. 3. 4. it is all said and done, the 4 keys to calorie crunching include: Knowing if you want to gain weight, maintain your weight, or lose weight. Know how many calories you need to achieve your goal. Remembering to exercise even if you want to maintain or gain weight. Exercise is good for everyone! Focus on your overall health. Remember to make small changes as these small changes will show big improvements overtime. Stay focused, and stay healthy! Resources and for more information, visit: Ace Fitness: www.acefitness.org, 1/14/11 Healthwise Knowledgebase: www.http://www.healthwise.net, 1/14/11 WebMD: www.webmd.com, 1/14/11 The American Cancer Society, www.cancer.org 1/14/11 Kemper, Donald. Healthwise Handbook, 17th edition. Healthwise, 2006. Kirby, Janis,R.D. Dieting for Dummies, 2nd Edition. Wiley Publishing, 2004. Weight-control Information Network. US Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health. win.niddk.nih.gov 1/14/11 Name: ____________________________ Calorie Crunching Ministry:__________________________ 2011 Bottom Line Challenge Education Directions: Keep your completed quiz/activity until the BLC weigh-out where you will turn it in. At that time, you will receive 25 bonus points toward your score. Note: Each individual must complete their own quiz/activity to receive the bonus points. Copying and/or duplicating may result in lost points and/or disqualification from the contest. 1. Calculate the total number of calories you need. Calculate your BMR= Calculate the thermic effect of food (you can assume 2000 calories if you do not know how many calories you eat daily). Calculate your daily average calories burned through exercise. (General guidelines can be as follows= If you do not consistently exercise, add “0”. If you exercise low-moderate, 30 minutes a day, add “200”. If you exercise moderate-vigorous, 30 minutes a day, add “450” calories. Please note: these are just estimates as calories burned through exercise depend on your weight, intensity, and activity being performed). Add the 3 previous numbers together to get your total. 2. If a food has 6 grams of protein, 20 grams of carbohydrates, and 4 grams of fat, how many calories would it have in it? 3. What is the plate method? Give an example using foods you like to eat. 4. True or false- Your metabolism works most efficiently when you eat all day long. 5. What are the four components of a Fitness Program? 6. What is your maximum heart rate? Using that information, what is the range you should keep your heart rate in when you exercise? 7. Each pound of muscle you gain will burn an extra ________________ calories each day. 8. List one nutrition and one fitness goal you have for the challenge.