Download C a l o

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Acquired characteristic wikipedia, lookup

Calorie Crunching
2011 Bottom Line Challenge Education
Directions: Read through the packet and complete the activity on the last page. Keep your
completed quiz until the weigh-out where you will turn it in. At that time, you will receive 25
bonus points toward your score.
Most people know by now, calories are the biggest focus when it comes to losing weight and weight
management. We need to be conscious of how many calories we consume, burn, and need. When we
consume too many calories, we gain weight. When we burn more calories than we consume we lose weight.
That’s it. That’s the magic secret. In this education, we’ll take a little deeper look into the calorie basics in
weight management.
How many calories do you need?
To find out the total amount of calories you actually need on a day-to-day basis, you can start by finding you
basal metabolic rate (BMR), thermic effect of food, and keeping track of your physical activity level.
Step 1: Calculate Your BMR
Your BMR is vital to your survival; it keeps your heart beating, lungs breathing, kidneys and all other organs
functioning. It represents about 60-70% of the calories burned in a day.
To calculate your BMR, use the Harris-Benedict formula: (Please note- the numbers have
been reviewed and are correct)
Adult male BMR= 66 + (6.3 x body weight in lbs.) + (12.9 x height in inches) – (6.8 x
age in years)
Adult female BMR: 655 + (4.3 x weight in lbs.) + (4.7 x height in inches) – (4.7 x age in
Step 2: Calculate the Thermic Effect of Food
The thermic effect of food is the amount of calories you burn off during digestion.
Thermic effect of food= Multiply your daily caloric intake by 10%
For example- a person eating a 2000 calorie diet will burn off approximately 200 calories while they eat the
food. Some food, especially fiber rich food, may make the body work harder at digestion so this percentage
may vary based on your diet, however, generally speaking the formula above will give you a general idea of
what you’ve burned off.
Step 3: Physical Activity
Physical activity includes everything from house work and gardening to running and weight lifting. The
American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association recommend: moderate intensity
cardio 30 minutes a day, five days a week or vigorous intensity cardio 20 minutes a day 3 days a week plus
8-10 strength training exercises, 8-12 repetitions each, twice a week.
There are a few factors that will determine how many calories you burn through physical activity. One factor
is your current weight (the more you weigh the more calories you will burn). For example during one hour
of low impact aerobics, a 130- lb person will burn approximately 295 calories, where as a 170-lb person will
burn approximately 431 calories. Another factor is the intensity. For example running will burn more
calories as jogging during the same time frame.
Step 4: Add Those Number Together
The total number of calories a body needs is the sum of BMR, calories burned through the thermic effect of
food, and calories burned through exercise. Note: this is the total number of calories needed if you want to
maintain your weight. If you are looking to lose weight, you want to consume less calories than you
Consuming Calories
Calories are always on our mind. Whether we are counting them, cutting them, or burning them, we just
can’t get away from them. We put so much emphasis on them, but what are they really?
A calorie is the amount of energy, or heat, it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram of
water 1 degree Celsius (1.8 degrees Fahrenheit).
So how does it affect us and the food we eat? The number of calories in a food is a measure of how much
potential energy that food has. For example: One gram of protein has 4 calories, one gram of carbohydrate
has 4 calories, one gram of fat has 9 calories, and one gram of alcohol has 7 calories. Therefore if you know
how many of these building blocks are in a food, you know how many calories that food possesses.
For example:
Using this partial food label we know there are:
0 g of fat x 9 calories per gram= 0 calories from fat
11 g of carbs x 4 calories per gram= 44 cal from carbs
9 g of protein x 4 calories per gram= 36 cal from protein
Add 0 + 44 + 36= 80 total calories.
You can do this with any food label!
On some food labels (including the one above), there is a “% of Daily Value” listed. This is based on an
average 2,000 calorie diet. The number “2,000” is used because that is a rough average of what a person
needs to eat in a day, however that number will vary person to person. Height, weight, gender, and activity
level all affect your caloric needs.
One thing to know is that from a weight management stand point- a calorie is a calorie; it doesn’t matter if
you have 2,000 calories of desert or vegetables. However from a nutritional standpoint, it is important to
remember to eat a well balanced diet. You need to eat a variety of food to get all the essential nutrients
throughout the day.
How to Reduce Your Caloric Intake
Here’s 10 easy ways to reduce the calories you consume. Remember- those who are most successful usually
make small changes over time instead going on a restricted diet. Try to focus on one or two of these tips
until they become a habit, then add in some extra ones.
1. Portion Control- When cooking and eating, use measuring cups and spoons as well as
a food scale to measure how much you are eating. Another way to control portions is
by using the plate method. For each meal, fill half your plate with vegetables and
fruits. Fill one quarter of your plate with lean protein such as chicken, tofu, beans,
lean meat, or fish. Fill the remaining quarter of your plate with whole grains such as
whole-wheat pasta or brown rice. With this method, half of your food comes from low
calorie, high fiber fruits and vegetables. One quarter comes from lean protein and the
other quarter comes from starches.
2. Plan ahead- Pack healthy snacks to keep on hand throughout the day so you are less tempted to grab
an unhealthy quick fix. Healthy eating does not have to take a lot of time. You can prepare a
healthy meal just as quickly as an unhealthy one. With a little planning, having the right foods on
hand, and learning how to cook quick, nutritious meals, your family can be eating healthy in no time.
3. Fill up, not out- Did you know that both protein and fiber keep you feeling full longer? This is a great
tip when it comes to losing weight. Make sure that you consume protein at every meal to keep you
full until the next time you eat.
4. Shop with a full belly- By shopping with a full belly, you’ll be less likely to grab unhealthy foods that
sound good at the time. In addition, use a prepared list. By keeping unhealthy foods out of the
house, you’ll set your self up for success.
5. Eat at a table and from a plate- When you eat food while standing and out of packages, you tend to
forget about it, which can lead to eating a lot of extra (unwanted) calories.
6. Eat slow and enjoy your food- By eating slowly, your body has more time to digest and trigger the
responses to tell your brain that you are full. Remember, it takes about 20 minutes for your mind to
get the signal from your belly that you are full.
7. Start your Day with Breakfast- Breakfast is the most important meal of the day.
It literally means “break” a “fast”, the fast occurring overnight. You body needs
the fuel to get your metabolism going to give you energy throughout the day.
8. Serve food from the stove instead of the table- If you are sitting at a table with
helpings of food in front of you, it is very difficult not to dig in for seconds. If you
keep the food on a table away from where you are eating, you will need to make
a conscious decision to keep eating.
9. Eat every 3-4 hours- You metabolism works most efficiently when you fuel your body every few
hours. If you eat less frequently, you are depriving your body of much needed nutrition. If you eat
more frequently than that, you may consume more calories than necessary throughout the day.
10. Avoid drinking your calories- Many beverages are high in calories. These calories typically come in
the form of fats and carbohydrates. Having a special treat once in a while is ok, however if your daily
regimen consists of having a high calorie drink, that is one area you can trim back excess calories.
Remember the amount of calories you eat affects your weight and health. In addition to selecting a healthy
variety of foods, look at the size of the portions you eat. Choosing nutritious foods and keeping portion sizes
sensible may help you reach and stay at a healthy weight.
Burning Calories through Physical Activity and Exercise
First things first. Always check with your doctor before beginning any exercise
program, especially if you’re a man over 45, a woman over 55, or have cardiovascular
risk factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or a
family history of heart disease. When you do check in with your doctor ask if there
are any risks involved in participating in an exercise program. If they say yes, then
ask what kind of modifications can be made to keep you safe. In addition, ask if they
would like to see you again after you’ve started exercising. They may want to monitor
you and check your progress. If you are on medications, they may be able to slowly
decrease your dose and eventually you may be able to go off medications.
Next, find out your baselines. Think about how you are going to set your goals. If
you are setting a goal on your cardiovascular fitness, then maybe you want to time yourself in the mile and
see if you can improve that time. Or maybe your goal is to make it up to 1-mile. Give yourself a fitness test
and see how far you can go without stopping then keep working to increase that until you get to a mile. If
your goal is to improve your muscular endurance then you may test how many push-ups or crunches you
can do in one minute. Again, this helps you remember where you started and helps you set goals to
improve your fitness levels. Don’t forget to retest every so often to help set new goals and see how much
you’ve progressed!
Components of a Fitness Program
Warm Up
A warm-up is essential to a good exercise program because this is when the body gets prepared for higherintensity movements. During a warm up, muscles contract which makes your heart rate, blood flow, cardiac
output, and breathing rates increase. Blood then moves faster through your arteries and veins and
eventually goes to working muscles.
Your warm-up should consist of two phases: progressive aerobic activity and flexibility exercises. Choosing
which warm-up activity to use is as easy as slowing down what you will be doing during your workout. For
example, if you will be running, warm up with a slow jog, or if you will be cycling outdoors, begin in lower
Aerobic (Cardiovascular) Exercise
Aerobic exercise is beneficial for your body in so many ways. Specifically, it improves your
cardiovascular system and is an important part of weight management.
The most basic form of aerobic exercise is walking. However any activity that is continuous
and sustained for longer periods of time is considered aerobic exercise. Walking, running,
jump roping, dancing, swimming, bicycling, and rowing are all examples.
Recommendations include working up to 30 (or more) minutes of continuous exercise, 3-5 days per week for
general health (You can break up the 30 minutes into smaller segments if necessary. For example- 3x10
minute sessions). If you’re trying to lose weight, aim for 5-6 days per week, for 45 minutes or longer.
A very important aspect of your exercise program is the intensity. You
should exercise at a comfortable pace. There are two fairly easy ways to
check if you are working hard enough. The first is to measure your heart
rate. To measure your heart rate, take your pulse as soon as you stop
exercising. Count your heartbeat for 10 seconds, then multiply by six to
convert it to a one-minute heart rate. If you keep your exercise heart rate
within a range of 55 to 90% of an estimated maximum heart rate (220 minus
your age), you’re doing well.
Trainers tip: monitoring heart
rate to manage exercise exertion
is inappropriate for individuals
taking certain medications that
affect exercise heart rate, such
as beta blockers for high blood
pressure, and those with health
conditions that affect heart rate,
such as pregnancy.
Strength Conditioning
Muscular conditioning can improve strength and posture, reduce the risk of low-back injury
and is an important component of a weight-management program. Like aerobic exercise,
you do have several choices when it comes to varying your activity. You can pick machine
weights, free weights, tubing, bands, balls, or using your body weight. The important
thing is to make sure you exercise every major muscle group, including your arms, chest,
back, stomach, hips and legs. If you neglect muscle groups, you may develop an
imbalance in your body, which may increase your risk of injury, lead to strength
imbalances, and postural difficulties.
To get started, perform one set of 8-12 repetitions, working the muscles to the point of fatigue. When you
are able to perform 12 repetitions of an exercise correctly (without cheating), increase
While you strength
the amount of resistance by 5-10% to continue making safe progress. Aim to exercise
train, you want to
each muscle group at least two times per week with at least one day of rest in between
remember to
training sessions. If you are just starting, you may want to consult a fitness
breathe normally.
professional to learn to safely perform weight training exercises.
Stretching for Flexibility
Flexibility exercise is needed to maintain joint range of motion and reduce the risk of injury and
muscle soreness. Proper stretching involves holding a mild stretch for 15 to 30 seconds while
you breathe normally. Always warm up before you stretch. Like strength conditioning, flexibility
exercises should include stretching for all of the major muscle groups.
Stretching may be incorporated into your workout. Dancing, yoga, and Pilates are ways to get
your aerobic or strength training in while lengthening your muscles and increasing your
10 Fitness Facts
1. Boosts Brainpower- Exercise increases energy levels and levels of serotonin in the brain which leads
to improved mental clarity. It’s proven that those who are active and exercise are much more
productive throughout the day.
2. Improves Your Mood & Decreases Stress- Physical activity releases endorphins which makes the body
feel good naturally. A Harvard study found that 10 weeks of strength training reduced clinical
depression symptoms more successfully than standard counseling did.
3. Gives You Energy- When endorphins are released into your bloodstream, it gives you much more
energy the rest of the day. This will make daily tasks easier. A lot of people say they don’t have the
energy to workout or it makes them tired. This only lasts for a short period of time. The physical
tiredness you feel after exercising isn’t the same as everyday fatigue. Once your body adjusts to
exercise, you’ll have more energy than ever.
4. You Can Exercise Anywhere- Some people feel they don’t have the time
or resources to exercise. As for time- try to use your time more wisely.
Try killing two birds with one stone. Take your kids to the park or ride
bikes together. Go on a walk with a friend you normally talk to on the
phone. You can also break your workout up into smaller segments.
Exercise 10 minutes in the morning, 10 at lunch, and 10 after work to
make up a 30 minute workout. In addition, you can sneak exercise in
during some non-traditional times. For example, when you’re sitting
and watching TV, stretch. In addition, you can do body weight exercises such as sit-ups, push-ups
and squats without any equipment. It’s a great way to keep your body moving throughout the day.
Remember that you don’t
need to run marathons to
gain the benefits of physical
You just need to get moving
and keep moving.
5. Can Build Relationships- Think of what exercising with a partner can do. It will
make you more accountable, push you, and be a great time to catch up. Think
about going for a walk, playing tennis, or taking an aerobics class together.
6. Wards Off Disease- Research has shown that exercise can slow or help prevent
heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis,
and loss of muscle mass. It can also help ease some aspects of aging.
7. Pumps Up Your Heart- Exercise not only wards off heart disease, it makes the heart stronger. This
makes daily life easier. Within only a few days after you start exercising, you will feel less fatigue
and it will not take as much effort when it comes to breathing.
8. Allows You to Eat More- Pound for pound, muscle burns more calories at rest than body fat. So the
more muscle you have, the higher your resting metabolic rate is. In general, for each pound of
muscle you gain, you will burn 35-50 extra calories each day!
9. Boosts Performance- Exercise can help in all areas of life. If you play
recreational softball or basketball, you may find that exercising
consistently will help your game. If you like to play a round of golf, you
may find you have more stamina. Consistent exercise can improve your
muscular strength, endurance, and improve your flexibility, reaction
time, and balance.
10. Focus on Health- Not Weight- Studies by Wayne Wescott, PhD, found that the average woman who
strength trains two to three times a week for two months will gain nearly 2 pounds of muscle and
lose 3.5 pounds of fat. Think about this. That’s actually only a net loss of 1.5 pounds. Do you ever
step on the scale and think, “wow- all that hard work and I only lost 1.5 pounds”. Sure, we all have,
however this proves that even though the scale may not move much, your body is responding to
Physical activity does even so much more. Not only does it helps you burn calories to lose weight, it reduces
the risk of conditions like heart disease, stroke, blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes. It improves your
strength, muscles, bones, and coordination. Physical activity improves your quality of life, helps you feel
better about yourself, improves your mood, and allows you to cope better with stress.
Calorie Crunching
it is all said and done, the 4 keys to calorie crunching include:
Knowing if you want to gain weight, maintain your weight, or lose weight.
Know how many calories you need to achieve your goal.
Remembering to exercise even if you want to maintain or gain weight. Exercise is good for everyone!
Focus on your overall health.
Remember to make small changes as these small changes will show big improvements overtime. Stay
focused, and stay healthy!
Resources and for more information, visit:
Ace Fitness:, 1/14/11
Healthwise Knowledgebase: www., 1/14/11
WebMD:, 1/14/11
The American Cancer Society, 1/14/11
Kemper, Donald. Healthwise Handbook, 17th edition. Healthwise, 2006.
Kirby, Janis,R.D. Dieting for Dummies, 2nd Edition. Wiley Publishing, 2004.
Weight-control Information Network. US Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health. 1/14/11
Name: ____________________________
Calorie Crunching
2011 Bottom Line Challenge Education
Directions: Keep your completed quiz/activity until the BLC weigh-out where you will turn it in.
At that time, you will receive 25 bonus points toward your score.
Note: Each individual must complete their own quiz/activity to receive the bonus points. Copying
and/or duplicating may result in lost points and/or disqualification from the contest.
1. Calculate the total number of calories you need.
ƒ Calculate your BMR=
Calculate the thermic effect of food (you can assume 2000 calories if you do not know how
many calories you eat daily).
Calculate your daily average calories burned through exercise. (General guidelines can be as
follows= If you do not consistently exercise, add “0”. If you exercise low-moderate, 30
minutes a day, add “200”. If you exercise moderate-vigorous, 30 minutes a day, add “450”
calories. Please note: these are just estimates as calories burned through exercise depend on
your weight, intensity, and activity being performed).
Add the 3 previous numbers together to get your total.
2. If a food has 6 grams of protein, 20 grams of carbohydrates, and 4 grams of fat, how many calories
would it have in it?
3. What is the plate method? Give an example using foods you like to eat.
4. True or false- Your metabolism works most efficiently when you eat all day long.
5. What are the four components of a Fitness Program?
6. What is your maximum heart rate? Using that information, what is the range you should keep your
heart rate in when you exercise?
7. Each pound of muscle you gain will burn an extra ________________ calories each day.
8. List one nutrition and one fitness goal you have for the challenge.