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MEDITERRANEAN FOOD SUSTAINABILITY IS SERVED ANCIENT ROMAN EMPIRE DIET From the greek word δίαιτα Diet means LIFESTYLE Lifestyle includes the food you eat and the sports you play FEATURES OF Mediterranean Diet • Discovered in 1951 by Ancel Keys, interested in the healthy way of eating in Italy. • He discovered the TRIAD (for which this diet is particularly healthy). Based on wheat olive oil wine • It contrast with another way of eating, the “germanic” diet, typical of Northern Europe. This diet had its own triad: meat, butter and milk. Dutch Diet • It is simple and straightforward, with many vegetables and little meat; breakfast and lunch are typically bread with toppings while dinner is meat and potatoes, supplemented with seasonal vegetables. A BIT OF HISTORY… ITALIAN DUTCH •Mediterranean diet comes from ancient times; the Italian peninsula was divided into Roman and Greek territories. •Greek people built colonies in South Italy and brought here their traditions and foods (like oil) and mixed these with the other population that was in Italy Romans • Using laws, Romans improved the agriculture (in particular cereal production) and shared to the neighboring tribes the way to grow up vineyards. •They extended commercial trades and they brought their products to other people living in the northern Europe, in the northern part of Africa and in some west parts of Asia. •In the 12th and 13th century the Low Countries (consists of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg) diet consisted of milk, beer, water, root vegetable, peas or grain and sometimes a piece of meat. The content changed throughout the seasons. This is still the main diet in The Netherlands. •In the 17th century, the golden age, other dishes became available to the wealthy middle class as the Netherlands became richer. Those dishes often consisted of a rich variety of fruits, cheeses, meat, wine and nuts. •The Dutch East Indian Company was the first one to import coffee on a large scale to Europe. The availability of relative cheaper spices resulted in a tradition of spiced cookies called ‘speculaas’. MEDITERRANEAN DIET • it promotes social interaction • it is based on respect for the territory and on biodiversity • it guarantees the conservation and the development of traditional trades and professions associated with fishing and agriculture in Mediterranean communities According to the definition by FAO: • food models that have a low environmental impact • contribute to the security of food • promote a healthy lifestyle for the current and future generations • respect biodiversity and ecosystems are sustainable Mediterranean diet has been recognized as one of the most sustainable food models in numerous occasions; in fact it uses a lots of vegetables and cereals and prefers fresh, local and seasonal products. This products are cooked according to traditional recipes. For this reasons the Mediterranean diet reduces the environmental impact and the production in conservatories. CEREAL PRODUCTION • Ancient people in the Mediterranean area took the 80% of calories from the use of cereals. • The most cultivated was the barley, that doesn’t require heavy rains and a long time of germination. It’s the most fast in ripening, less exposed to diseases, it can thrive up to 1500 m above sea level and it can tolerate cold and warm weather. • Then, they cultivated wheat, that requires more rich soil. It can grow up with the rainfall or the irrigation, but it’s more exposed to diseases. Its cultivation couldn’t be done in all the places, but only in specific areas (Campania and Po valley). • Spelt was also cultivated and it became very important in the Republican Age in Rome. • Mile was used in extreme cases, when there had been a bad harvest, because it could be seed in spring or summer and it was very drought resistant. Ancient Roman and Greek thought it was a gift of the goddess of the harvests Demeter THE BREAD After the harvesting of cereals, the Romans prepared bread with them. We make the same thing nowadays, both in Italy and in the Netherlands, baking brown bread Panis Candidus, for rich people, made of sifted flour Panis Sordidus, for poor people and made of not sifted floor Panis Furfureus, made only of bran and used by the most poor people in the society. VITICULTURE It comes from the Roman and Greek worship of the god of wine Dionysus WINE IN ROMAN SOCIETY Only the upper classes could drink wine Romans find out lots of useful techniques They harvested grapes with their hands and they separated the ripe grapes from the unripe one They pressed the grapes with their feet The must (unfermented pressed grapes) was put into terracotta vases for the fermentation WINE WE MAKE TODAY Everyone can drink wine because it’s not very expensive We use some ancient techniques still today The machines harvest only the ripe grapes The machines press the grapes The must is put in containers for the fermentation and then in barrels or casks. TRIP TO THE WINERY OTHER CHARACTERISTICS CONVIVIALITY •the pleasure of spending time with others •one of the fundamental elements of the Mediterranean diet •meals have become a significant ritual and taken on a symbolic value amongst people of the Mediterranean. •thanks to the concept of eating together the cultural foundations of interpersonal relationships are reinforced ξενία Respect for all the other population FOOD PYRAMIDS ITALIAN DUTCH FOOD IN ITALY •Pizza Made of different type of flour, tomato sauce and mozzarellla cheese. •Focaccia bread Made of different type of flour, water, yeast. It is baked in the oven or on embers. FOOD IN THE NETHERLANDS •Boerenkoolstamppot Made with patatoes, small pieces of bacon and the vegetable Boerenkool. •Hagelslag Eat it on the sandwich at breakfast and sometimes at lunch. Invented by: B.E. Dieperink (Owner of a ‘drop’ company) Made of chocolate. THE END From this experiences we discovered that the historical, weather and social differences between the mediterranean and the north european coutries caused the different diet and the use of food in the populations living today in the two areas of Europe.