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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 15 Number 3 – Sep 2014
Robust Navigation Scheme Using Radio Frequency
Technology and Mobile Robot
K.Yaswanth Mahesh.
M.Sravanthi
Asst Prof in QIS Institute of technology,
Vengamukkalapalem,Ongole
QIS Institute of technology,
Vengamukkalapalem,Ongole
Abstract
Indian railways are one of the largest railway networks of
the world. Despite the huge size, the rampant negligence
and lack of maintenance have created a number of
problems. The main problem being that, frequent cracks
are found in the rail lines which cause derailments leading
to huge loss of life and property. In fact, the year 2010
alone, reports around 21 train crashes leading to around
450 deaths. Having researched about the conventional
methods of railway crack detection includes ultrasonic and
eddy current based approaches, we find that their expensive
nature does not warrant their use in the current scenario.
Hence, we aim to create a new LED-LDR based
simple technique to detect cracks in rails that will be cheap
enough, so that it can be put to mass usage. Our scheme
consists of a robot which will traverse the railway line
looking for cracks during night time when local railways
don't operate. This mobile robot will be powered by a DC to
motor traverse the railway line. It will be equipped with a
LED(Light Dependent Resistor) and LDR arrangement.
When a crack is present in the railway line the light falls on
the LDR and its resistance decreases. This is detected by a
microcontroller which then stops the motor.
Navigation in robotics usually requires
solving two major problems, one is position of the
robot and the other is motion control mechanism. In
case, no prior information in the motion environment
can be obtained, the challenge becomes worst. This
problem happens due to the lack of mobility
information in its surroundings. In this particular
method controlling is finished dependent upon the
feedback offered by the sensor. In this present work,
different modules like controlling module and
Wireless unit module Sensing are introduced. In the
sensing module, whenever the micro controller is
powered along the high speed DC motors. Sensor is
connected to the robot. Encoder connected to the
robot, which transmit the comprehensive data
continuously. Here the robot is comprised of
transmitter and receiver. Here the repetitiveness used
is 433 kHz.
promising choice instead of many kinds of navigation
methods inside of the cutting edge[1-3]. The most ideal
idea is to make use of the pliability associated with a
mobile robot to navigate a priori unknown environments
when lacking vision system and without building an
approximate map along the robot workspace, as it's in
many other navigation algorithms. The suggested
algorithm can manage reaching a target point within its a
priori unknown workspace, along with tracking a desired
trajectory along with a high precision. The proposed
solution supplies a modular, computationally efficient,
and cost-effective choice instead of other navigation
techniques for several mobile robot applications,
particularly for service robots, an example would be, by
way of example, in large offices and assembly lines. The
overall impact of the proposed approach is illustrated
against a array of computer simulations considering test beds of many different Complexities. Mobile robot
navigation has stood one of the open and challenging
problem over the past a long time. Despite the significant
previous advances in this field, scientists have still to
reach a comfortable measure of satisfaction. The
proposed algorithm takes advantage of the emerging Rf
(RFID) technology[2]. This project uses regulated 5v,
500mA power supply. 7805, a 3 terminal voltage
regulator is made use of for voltage regulation. Bridge
type full wave rectifier is made use of to rectify the ac
output of secondary of 230/12v step down transformer.
The RFID module requirements separate 5v power
supply. Resistors "resist" the flow of power. The greater
the value of resistance the lower the present will certainly
be. Resistance is truly the property associated with a
component which restricts the flow of electric current.
Keywords – Controller, Robot navigation control, RFID,
sensing system.
I.INTRODUCTION
With this method the mobile robot navigation is
using Rf technology. Navigation based upon processing
some analog aspects of an RF signal is typically a
ISSN: 2231-5381
Fig 1. Standard EIA color code
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 15 Number 3 – Sep 2014
CAPACITOR:
A digital component that stores a utility charge and
releases it as necessary. It definitely comes inside a
assortment of sizes and sorts for utilization in regulating
power and also for conditioning, smoothing and isolating
signals[4-5].
LED:
Light emitting diodes are electronic components that
allow electricity pass in particularly one direction that
emit visible light when electricity is matched, very like a
simple bulb. When many LEDs are side-by-side, they
might create pictures, like scrolling red LED signs found
everywhere.
250V AC, 50
Hz
DC Output
Step down
transformer
Regulator
Bridge
Rectifier
Filter
Fig 3: Power Supply
II.LITERATURE SURVEY
Fig 2: LED
PRESET:
These are generally miniature examples of the typical
variable resistor. They will be devised to be mounted
directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only when the
circuit is designed. For instance to set the regularity of
some alarm tone and the sensitivity of causing lightsensitive circuit. . A limited screwdriver or similar tool is
crucial to modify presets. Presets are more cost-effective
than standard variable resistors in order that they are
sometimes utilized in projects in which a standard
variable resistor would basically be applied.
POWER SUPPLY DESIGN
The input onto the circuit is matched that are caused by
the regulated power supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V
beginning with the mains cold water is step down via the
transformer to 12V and it is fed to a rectifier. The output
extracted from the rectifier is naturally a pulsating d.c
voltage. So so that you can get those pure d.c voltage, the
output voltage that are caused by the rectifier is fed to a
filter to eliminate any a.c components present even
though rectification. Now, this voltage obtains to your
voltage regulator to take out a pure constant dc
voltage[6].
ISSN: 2231-5381
Other techniques dependent on ultrasonic [5]
additionally considered to be the detection scheme and
they can easily investigate the crux of this very track
rather than just evaluating for surface cracks and of
course the surfaces where faults really are located. Many
other methodologies in addition to techniques like
observation and examination of the wave. Propagation
involving model impacts and piezo actuation came into
light yet the approaches are expensive. The trouble built
into each one of these approaches would certainly cost
incurred is high. This system proposes an affordable,
novel yet simple scheme by using sufficient ruggedness
suitable to the Indian state of affairs that utilizes an IRPhoto diode arrangement to detect the crack in railway
lines, which turns out to be economical in comparison to
the present methods.
The railway is manipulating new systems to
reinforce its working .Active and Passive RFID has
performed a good advancement concerning applications.
RFID has been applied in innumerable applications thus
far. Active RFID needs continuous power whereas
Passive RFID is powered by the audience when RF
energy is then placed in from it onto the tag[5]. Therefore
here the author has used them for your implantation of
latest technology where RFID is implemented upon the
railway engine plus the RFID tags are attached among
the tracks between some specific distances. The best coil
is contained in RFID reader with the use of a power
supply and RFID tag also possesses a coil plus a small
chip mainly RAM which includes the 12 bit unique code.
RFID is amongst the technology that is utilized for
Automatic Identification like voice recognitions and
smart card as shown in Fig 4[7].
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 15 Number 3 – Sep 2014
is used. Effective communication the acquired
information, desktop is utilized. The function of one's
PC use will be to upload the present latitude as well as
longitude data towards the relevant authority. Proposed
functionality has been attained basically interfacing
laptop, GPS module and IR-Photo diode arrangement
with a microcontroller. DC motors force the robot and
relays were put to use to cope with the motors[7,8].
Microcontroller Unit
Fig 4: Railway Tracking Scheme
In the advance of powerful digital signal
reception processors, Image Processing techniques [2]
could have been explored to formulate products to the
trouble of train track crack detection. Although it
provides good accuracy, this method uses techniques like
image segmentation, morphology and edge detection
everyone of these use a large amount of processing
power and an extreme length of time allowing the robot
slow and thereby unsuitable. Recent research possesses
investigated using microwave horn antennas for get to the
bottom of detection [3]. This method was found to
generate incredibly accurate outcomes in lab based
testing. But, unfortunately it really requires spectrum
analyzers which you ll find are both costly and likewise
cannot be placed onboard a moving robot owing to their
delicacy. Eddy current based methods ([4], [5] and [6])
really are utilized tide over limitations linked to
ultrasonic and certainly microwave techniques.
Nonetheless they possess the brain teaser of very slow
overall speed which reduces the usability of one’s same.
III. PROPOSED SYSTEM
The main idea in this proposed crack innovation
scheme comprises a IR-Photo diode assembly that often
functions clearly as the rail crack detector. The strategy
included in crack detection would be the thought of
photograph diode. Inside the proposed design, the IR will
certainly be fastened to at least one side of the rails plus
the photo diode towards the opposite side. During normal
operation, when there really are no cracks, the IR light
doesn't fall upon the photo diode and for this reason the
photo diode resistance is high. Subsequently, as soon as
the IR light falls according to the photograph diode, the
resistance of this very photo diode gets lowered and the
quantity of reduction will certainly be about proportional
into the intensity of a given incident light. Therefore,
when light beginning with the IR deviates from its path
because of the presence associated with a crack or
perhaps a break, a rash reduction in the resistance value
of the photo diode ensues. This variation in resistance
indicates the population of causing crack or another
similar structural defect inside the rails.
In an effort to detect the existing location of
one’s device in situations when of detection of causing
crack, a GPS beneficiary whose function is to take
advantage of the current latitude as well as longitude data
ISSN: 2231-5381
The LPC2119/2129/2194/2292/2294 really are dependent
on a 16 or 32 bit ARM7TDMI-STM CPU with the use of
real-time emulation and embedded trace support, paired
with 128/256 kilobytes (kB) of embedded extremely high
speed flash memory.
RF TX
HT 12E
Encoder
LCD
display
Micro
Controller
Max232
KeyApd
PC
Fig 5. Block Diagram of proposed work Transmitter
A 128-bit wide internal memory interface as well as a
unique accelerator architecture allow 32-bit code
execution at maximum clock rate. With regards to critical
code size applications, pre-owned 16-bit Thumb Mode
reduces code by in excess of 30% along with minimal
performance penalty. Components of the microcontroller
as shown in Fig 5.:
1. 56K Bytes of In-System Programmable (ISP)
Flash Memory.
2. 4Kx 32-bit Internal RAM.
3. Remember this is a 32-bit microcontroller.
4. Two 32-bit Timer/Counters.
5. 46 Programmable I/O Lines.
6. 2 UART Serial Tv stations
7. On chip ADC and DAC.
Proposed Power Supply Process:
Step Down
T/F
Rectifier
Filter
Regulator
Fig 6. Proposed Power Supply Process
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 15 Number 3 – Sep 2014
In this process Fig 6, initially connection
oriented step down T/F is established in order to
overcome the problems in the power supply. In the next
step, rectifier follows filter and regulator will be applied
to deploy the successful power supply.
Proposed Receiver Diagram:
RF RX
Accuracy Comparison:
Robot
Platform
Fig 7. Proposed Receiver Block Diagram
Proposed Algorithm :
1) The following steps are done to calibrate the Light
Dependent Resistor. This step is necessary to compensate
for the variation of ambient light.
a) Set LOWleftview=0, LOWrtview=0, HIGHlft=0,
HIGHrt=0
b) Switch off the left LED.
c) Average the signal from the left LDR and store it in
LOWleftview. To do this read the signal from the left
LDR and accumulate it in LOWleftview, i.e. keep adding
the signal from the left LDR to LOWleftview. Then
divide LOWleftview by total number of times the signal
from left LDR is read(in our case 10).
d) Switch off the rt-LED.
e) Average the signal from the right LDR and store it in
LOWrtview.
f) Switch on the left LED.
g) Average the signal from the left LDR and store it in
HIGHlft.
h) Switch on the rt-LED.
i) Average the signal from the right LDR and store it in
HIGHrt.
2) GSM is turned ON. For this the baud rate is set as
9600 bps and the required parameters are set.
3) Motors are turned ON.
4) The signal from the left and the right LDR is read.
5) The values of the left and the right LDR are mapped
between 0 and 1000. To do this use the following two
formulas:
INTENSITY-left=950.0*(analogRead(LDRleft)LOWleftview)/(HIGHlft-LOWleftview)
INTENSITYright=950.0*(analogRead(LDRright)LOWrtview)/(HIGHrt-LOWrtview)
analogRead(LDRleft) and analogRead(LDRright) are the
signal from the left and the right LDR. INTENSITY-left
and INTENSITYright are the mapped values.
6) If INTENSITY-left<LowThreshold (150for our case)
and INTENSITYright<LowThreshold (150 for our case)
then
ISSN: 2231-5381
Transmitter Sample
Number
Time to Access
1
21
2
13
3
9
4
6
5
5
6
4
Table 1. Transmitter Sample Vs Access Time
Access Time Comparison
25
20
Access Time
HT 12D
DECODER
Motor
Drive
15
10
5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Fig 8. Comparison between Transmitters samples Vs
Access Time
Algorithm Comparison
5000
Navigation Time
Micro
Controller
a) Motors are powered on
7) If INTENSITY-left>HighThreshold (700 for our case)
and INTENSITYright>HighThreshold (700 for our case)
then
a) Motor is powered off.
b) The coordinate of the bot is found using the onboard
GPS receiver.
c) This coordinate is then sent to a predefined mobile
number using the
onboard GSM shield.
8) Jump to step 4.
4000
ProposedAlg
(ms)
3000
ExistingAlg(m
s)
2000
1000
0
1
2
3
Sam ples of Executions
Fig 9. Comparison between Navigation paths in existing
and proposed times.
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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) – Volume 15 Number 3 – Sep 2014
V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE
Practical RFID systems in the current tracking
and monitoring of events. The internal system performs
appropriate actions as a result of happenings in
accordance to certain conditions. It can be natural to take
a look at the usage of the function, LDR framework to
tackle event management issues.. The paper gives an
outline of the present status and trends of RFID
technology. Even if numerous limitations and unresolved
issues continue to hinder the widespread use of RFID, it
may be already seen that especially enterprises during
complex supply chains should benefit from RFID, as
soon as the application difficulties are overcome.
VI REFERENCES
[1]
Railway Track Finding System with RFID
Application, Anand Kr. Gupta, International Journal of
Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 83 – No
7, December 2013 Conf. Knowledge Discovery and Data
Mining (PAKDD ’04), pp. 441-451, 2004.
[2] Information about the working of RFID
:http://www.eecs.harvard.edu/cs199r/readings/
rfidarticle.pdf
[3] Transverse and longitudinal crack detection in the
head of rail tracksusing Rayleigh wave-like wideband
guided ultrasonic waves,Stuart B Palmer, Steve Dixon,
Rachel S Edwards and Xiaoming Jian
[4] Arunabh Chattopadhyay and Ayyangar R. Harish,
"Analysis of low range Indoor Location Tracking
techniques using Passive UHF RFID tags," Radio and
Wireless Symposium, IEEE 22-24, January, 2008,
page(s):351 - 354.
[5] ILIE –ZUDOR Elisabeth, KEMENY Zsolt, EGRI
Peter,
MONOSTORI Laszlo – “THE RFID
TECHNOLOGY
AND
ITS
CURRENT
APPLICATIONS” – Proceedings of the
Modern
Information Technology in the Innovation Processes
of Industrial Enterprises – MITIP2006, pp. 29-36
[6] TA-4998(IND) : Preparing the Railway Sector
Investment
Program Final Report – Efficiency
Improvement – Nov. 2008
[7] Mutigwe Charles, Aghdasi Farhad – “Research
Trends in RFID Technology” – IEEE 2006
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