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Weather
Daily or hourly changes that describe the
atmosphere
Climate
Weather over a long period of time
Forecast
Predictions about the weather
Air mass
Large bodies of air that have the SAME
temperature and moisture and pressure
Low Pressure
Usually causes rainy and cloudy weather
High Pressure
Usually causes clearer and dryer weather
Cold Front
Leading edge of a cold air mass that is replacing a
warmer air mass (Brings cold and dry air)
Warm Front
Leading edge of a warm air mass that is replacing a
cold air mass (Brings warm and wet air)
Stationary Front
Air masses are not moving the space between
them becomes stationary and creates a front
Occluded Front
Two cold air masses move towards each other and
the warm air is pushed up
Cumulus
Form when moist air collects quickly
over a small area (Pile up and are
fluffy)
Stratus
Form as air rises slowly over a large
area and cools slowly (spread out)
Cirrus
-Highest in the atmosphere
-Form when water vapor condenses
into ice crystals
-Wispy
Nimbus
Thunderstorm
Barometer
Measures air pressure
Greenhouse Effect
-Sunlight reaches the earth and most is
absorbed
-Some is reflected back
-Gets trapped by the water and
carbon dioxide
-Warms the atmosphere
Global Warming
Increases the temperature
Maritime Polar
Cold and wet
Continental Tropical
Warm and dry
Maritime Tropical
Warm and wet
Continental Polar
Cold and dry
Meteorologists
-Use trends to help predict the weather
-Climate can help them predict the
average temperatures for an area
Humidity
-Amount of water vapor in the air
(increases with rainy and hot weather)
Wind
-Hot air rises and cool air sinks forming
a convection cell
-Created because of uneven heating
of the Earth
-Wind doesn’t always blow in one
direction because Earth is spinning
-US wind blows from west to east
Jet stream
Fast moving narrow zones of air in the
atmosphere that blow west to east in
the US
Prevailing Westerlies
-Middle latitudes where the US is (wind
moves west to east)
Trade winds
Between the equator and 30 degrees
the winds blow east to west
Polar Easterlies
Between 60 degrees and 90 degrees
they blow east to west
Sea Breeze
Air moves from high to low pressure so
air flows from the sea to the land
(beaches are windy)
Land Breeze
Warmer air over the water causes air
to rise and forms lower pressure so then
wind moves from the land to the sea
Coriolis Effect
Affects moving objects and the
direction of wind; makes objects
moving in straight lines appear to turn;
caused by the spinning of the Earth
Gulf Stream
The Atlantic Ocean circulates warm
water up the east coast of the US;
brings warm moist air to the northern
areas; keeps the coast mild
Hurricane
Begins as a tropical storm and gets
powered by warm waters;
characterized by the wind speed and
rain; loses power when it hits land
El Nino and La Nina
-Cycle every 3-7 years of cooling and
warming water that impacts weather
around the world
El Nino- extremely warm water
because the trade winds are weaker;
causes US to be wetter and other
places are drier
La Nina- Water is cooler than usual;
trade winds are stronger