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Externship – Lesson Plan Notes
Drawings –
Emphasis – be able to clearly describe the feature (what is being drawn)
Importance – scales are most importance for accuracy in design look, material purchase,
structural integrity (will it work and withstand the loads required)
Symbols – representative of what is being drawn
Pencil – a pencil with a sharp point to get a thin line. Makes for cleaner drawings
Orthographic Views – (an example – a box)
Takes box apart
In making a new one (or I’m making a new one?)
Atl. Back (?)
Alt. Rear (?)
Topographic Maps – are used quite extensively in construction
Reading Measuring Tools:
Benefit of metric – can be added or subtracted easier than English units
Mathematics: concepts to know
Concrete – Good quality concrete is at least 4 inches thick to prevent moisture build up.
Deflections - building movements, concrete is built with a bow to compensate for movement.
Shear Strain – strain induced by forces that twist the material
CREEP – time dependant deformation that begins immediately, but continues at a decreasing
rate for as long as the concrete is loaded.
Sulfate Attack –
Will cause concrete to expand
Causing cracks or disinigration in the cement
Areas for Consideration when Constructing a Building - California
1.) Earthquake – Seismic Zones – Varies throughout the state
a. i.e. – San Francisco vs. Palm Desert
b. Relationships between foundations and shear walls – (look up underline words)
2.) Snow Loads – will affect the design and structure of the roof
a. Dead Load – constant weight/load that is always there on the building
b. Live Load – changing weight/load is a weight/load that varies on the building
c. Snow Load is an example of a Live Load
3.) Wind Load
a. Changes due to Atmospheric Conditions
b. Changes due to height
c. Changes due to topography of the region/area
4.) Fire Concerns
5.) Material Considerations
a. Structure - Solid vs. Hallow
i. Solid is stronger, but less flexible
ii. Hallow is not as strong, but more flexible
b. Costs – Solid vs. Hallow
i. Solid tends to be more expensive
ii. Hallow tends to be less expensive
6.) Strength and Stiffness
a. Strength keeps building in place during seismic activities, but could snap due to
its lack of flexibility during seismic movement
b. Stiffness refers to a buildings ability to sway with seismic activity
(Info. gathered from speaking with a Structural Engineer)
Considerations specific to California taken into account to building a structure/building
California – Low lands
California – Mountains
1.) Earthquakes
2.) Wind
3.) Snow Loads
1.) Snow loads
2.) Winds
3.) Earthquakes
People Involved in a Construction Project
Owner – wants to develop the land
Surveyor – determines the topography of the land, the real location of the boundaries, the
actual location of the building site, angles involved in the building project
Architect – focuses on the design of the building (how it looks)
Civil Engineer – focuses on the project that involves the Earth. (i.e. - like were the underground
pipes/wires will go, how drains are constructed, roads to new building, etc.)
Architect and Civil Engineer tend to work closely together
Geo-tech Engineer – specializes in the soil. Deals with such things as the seismic considerations
of the ground, the soils compactness, what type of soil is beneath the construction site?
“Attenuation” – the way surface waves move/travel through the soil/Earth
Test Boring – gathering samples of the soil layers beneath the construction site.
(think about doing a Jell-O demonstration to show the different types of waves that are
produced during an earthquake and how they travel)
Structural Engineer – focuses on how to make the building stand up.
City Planner/Permit People – make sure plans are up to code and are within the current
building laws and zoning
Construction – the people that actually do the building
Please note a few groups have been left out for simplicity (i.e. – electrical engineers,
landscape architect, plumbing engineers)
Possible Projects for Class:
1.) States of Matter
a. Steel – welding – deal with why we have to angle to pieces of steel being welded,
so when the weld cools the two pieces welded are in the correct position.
Remember when liquids solidify they contract and shrink.
b. Molten Steel – fire – deal with why it is a bad idea to use water to put out a
molten steel fire. When molten steel is on fire and you use water to put out the
fire you produce chemicals that are toxic to humans. See USDS sheets.
2.) Map Reading – Site plans
a. Legends and Symbols
b. Cleanliness vs. Clutter
c. Topographic Map Reading
 Use project maps provided by LB construction
3.) Seismic Construction
a. Seismic Zones
b. Lithification – (brick demonstration)
c. Build a Structure – shake table test
4.) Snow Loads
a. Weather/Climate studies for Sierras
b. Architecture Designs for Mountains
c. Build a Structure – snow load test
5.) Cost/Budget Plan for Structures for Above Two Activities
a. Develop a List of Materials
b. Get a Price List for Materials
c. Put Together a Budget Plan for Structures/Projects
6.) LEED – How can LEED programs be Incorporated into our Projects
a. What is LEED?
b. What can we use in our Projects that Relate to LEED?
c. What are the Pro/Cons of Using LEED programs?